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Christopher Collins introduces an exciting new field of research traversing evolutionary biology, anthropology, archaeology, cognitive psychology, linguistics, neuroscience, and literary study. Paleopoetics maps the selective processes that originally shaped the human genus millions of years ago and prepared the human brain to play, imagine, empathize, and engage in fictive thought as mediated by language. A manifestation of the "cognitive turn" in the humanities, "Paleopoetics" calls for a broader, more integrated interpretation of the reading experience, one that restores our connection to the ancient methods of thought production still resonating within us.
Speaking with authority on the scientific aspects of cognitive poetics, Collins proposes reading literature using cognitive skills that predate language and writing. These include the brain's capacity to perceive the visible world, store its images, and retrieve them later to form simulated mental events. Long before humans could share stories through speech, they perceived, remembered, and imagined their own inner narratives. Drawing on a wide range of evidence, Collins builds an evolutionary bridge between humans' development of sensorimotor skills and their achievement of linguistic cognition, bringing current scientific perspective to such issues as the structure of narrative, the distinction between metaphor and metonymy, the relation of rhetoric to poetics, the relevance of performance theory to reading, the difference between orality and writing, and the nature of play and imagination.
With a language disappearing every two weeks and neologisms springing up almost daily, an understanding of the origins and currency of language has never seemed more relevant. In this charming volume, a narrative history written explicitly for a young audience, expert linguist David Crystal proves why the story of language deserves retelling.
From the first words of an infant to the peculiar modern dialect of text messaging, " A Little Book of Language" ranges widely, revealing language's myriad intricacies and quirks. In animated fashion, Crystal sheds light on the development of unique linguistic styles, the origins of obscure accents, and the search for the first written word. He discusses the plight of endangered languages, as well as successful cases of linguistic revitalization. Much more than a history, Crystal's work looks forward to the future of language, exploring the effect of technology on our day-to-day reading, writing, and speech. Through enlightening tables, diagrams, and quizzes, as well as Crystal's avuncular and entertaining style, "A Little Book of Language" will reveal the story of language to be a captivating tale for all ages.
Do you find punctuation difficult? Are you puzzled by colons and semicolons? Unsure of where commas should go? Confused by hyphens and apostrophes? If so, then this jargon-free and succinct guide is for you.• Contains precise and up-to-date definitions of every type of punctuation mark and shows how each should be used
• Gives numerous examples of good and bad usage
• Explains the correct use of capital letters, contractions and abbreviations, italics, boldface and the special characters available on a word processor
This is the definitive survey of the English language - in all its forms. Crystal writes accessibly about the structure of the language, the uses of English throughout the world and finally he gives a brief history of English. The book has been fully revised and there is a fascinating new chapter on 'The effect of technology' on the English language.
Eye-tracking is quickly becoming a valuable tool in applied linguistics research as it provides a 'real-time', direct measure of cognitive processing effort. This book provides a straightforward introduction to the technology and how it might be used in language research. With a strong focus on the practicalities of designing eye-tracking studies that achieve the standard of other well-established experimental techniques, it provides valuable information about building and designing studies, touching on common challenges and problems, as well as solutions. Importantly, the book looks at the use of eye-tracking in a wide variety of applied contexts including reading, listening and multi-modal input, writing, testing, corpus linguistics, translation, stylistics, and computer-mediated communication. Each chapter finishes with a simple checklist to help researchers use eye-tracking in a wide variety of language studies. Discussion is grounded in concrete examples, which will allow users coming to the technology for the first time to gain the knowledge and confidence to use it to produce high quality research.
Exploring French Text Analysis introduces students of French to a
range of methods of text analysis, including stylistics and
Discover words to surprise, delight and enamor. Learn terms for the sunlight that filters through the leaves of trees, for dancing awkwardly but with relish, and for the look shared by two people who each wish the other would speak first. Other-Wordly is an irresistible gift for lovers of words and those lost for words alike.
The answer to the question "How can we understand and use a definition?" provides new constraints on natural language and on the internal language in which meaning is mentally represented. Most syntax takes the sentence as the basic unit for well-formedness, but definitions force us to focus on words and phrases, and hence to focus on compositional syntax in parallel with compositional semantics. This study examines both dictionary definitions and definitions from textbooks, from the points of view of their syntax, semantics, and use for learning word meaning. The tools used throughout are Principles and Parameters syntax, Relevance theoretic pragmatics, Model theoretic semantics, and the formal theory of definitions.
The analyses argue that because phrases can be understood in isolation, some standard syntactic analyses must be modified. 'NP movement' has to be reanalysed as transmission of theta roles. These ideas are then applied to a variety of adjectives which take propositional complements. The final chapter argues that for definitions to be understood, the syntax of the Language of Thought must be close to that of Natural Language in specifiable ways.
English Words is a comprehensive and accessible introduction to the study of English words from a theoretically informed linguistic perspective. * accessibly written to give students a command of basic theory, skills in analyzing English words, and the foundation needed for more advanced study in linguistic theory or lexicology * covers basic introductory material and investigates the structure of English vocabulary * introduces students to the technical study of words from relevant areas of linguistics: phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, historical linguistics and psycholinguistics
Jabulani Means Rejoice is a dictionary comprised of hundreds of African names in local South African languages, meticulously assembled and expounded upon for the curious reader. Names are listed in alphabetical order with gender indications, as well as information regarding their ethnographic origins and meanings. Yet, Jabulani Means Rejoice is so much more than simply a list of names and their meanings. The author skilfully interweaves cultural context and history, including issues surrounding naming rituals, domestic disputes and the curse of the evil eye. The book starts with an essay on naming practices. As a reference work, Jabulani Means Rejoice stands as an invaluable contribution to the growing interest in African cultural history. With its names ranging from the traditional to the unconventional, it will appeal to linguists, family historians and anyone with an interest in names. Useful for parents-to-be; those who are interested in language and culture in South Africa. The book makes a great gift and is a must for all school, public and university libraries. Tourists will also treasure this book.
First Published in 1997. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
Elastic language carries non-specific and stretchable meaning, as in 'He loves her, kind of'. It is used like a slingshot, targeting various strategic goals. Consolidating current research and charting new directions, this book develops a refreshing theory of elasticity, empirically attested by natural language data from tension-prone encounters between Australian Customs officers and passengers. The theory proposes three principles (fluidity, stretchability and strategy) and offers a systematic look at how elastic language, as a sliding scale, works to balance strengthening and weakening speech tones, to firm and soften a speaker's stance, and to reveal and evade the truth. The comparative analysis of forms, functions, and context confirms that elastic language is fluid, stretchable, and strategic. It serves both cooperative and competitive functions, and social and speech factors impact on its use. This book will appeal to students and researchers working in pragmatics, applied linguistics, sociolinguistics, discourse analysis, and communication.
"Language Through Literature" provides a definitive introduction to
the English language through the medium of English literature.
Through the use of illustrations from poetry, prose and drama, this
book offers a lively guide to important concepts and techniques in
English language study.
Winner - Maskew Miller Longman 2012 Literature Awards. Inkintsela yaseMontana ngumdlalo ondimanye, ongemiba ethwaxa abazali abangoomama abaphila phantsi kweemeko ngeemeko, batsho abantwana babo barhintyelwe yimigibe yobu bomi. Lo mkrwelo uyayigqabhuza intswelabulungisa kwanenkqubo yeenganga ezingatshonelwa langa. Iglosari, imisetyenzana esekwe kulo mdlalo nesishwankathelo somboniso ngamnye, yenza kube lula ukuwulandela. Zifundele lo mdlalo ohlaba ikhwelo kuluntu luphela.
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