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Why is there such a striking difference between English spelling and English pronunciation? How did our seemingly relatively simple grammar rules develop? What are the origins of regional dialect, literary language, and everyday speech, and what do they have to do with you?
Seth Lerer's "Inventing English" is a masterful, engaging history of the English language from the age of "Beowulf" to the rap of Eminem. Many have written about the evolution of our grammar, pronunciation, and vocabulary, but only Lerer situates these developments in the larger history of English, America, and literature.
Lerer begins in the seventh century with the poet Caedmon learning to sing what would become the earliest poem in English. He then looks at the medieval scribes and poets who gave shape to Middle English. He finds the traces of the Great Vowel Shift in the spelling choices of letter writers of the fifteenth century and explores the achievements of Samuel Johnson's "Dictionary" of 1755 and "The Oxford English Dictionary" of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. He describes the differences between English and American usage and, through the example of Mark Twain, the link between regional dialect and race, class, and gender. Finally, he muses on the ways in which contact with foreign languages, popular culture, advertising, the Internet, and e-mail continue to shape English for future generations.
Each concise chapter illuminates a moment of invention-a time when people discovered a new form of expression or changed the way they spoke or wrote. In conclusion, Lerer wonders whether globalization and technology have turned English into a world language and reflects on what has been preserved and what has been lost. A unique blend of historical and personal narrative, "Inventing English" is the surprising tale of a language that is as dynamic as the people to whom it belongs.
The 27 world-famous tales in this collection have inspired countless adaptations in many languages. They have also become, for millions of people, an integral part of childhood. Included are such favorites as "Hansel and Gretel," "The Brave Little Tailor," "Cinderella," and "Little Red Riding Hood," as well as less familiar tales such as "The Danced-Out Shoes," "The Golden Bird," "The Six Swans," and "Mother Holle."
This volume features a discourse empirical orientation from diverse perspectives and various methodologies, in which narratives, interviews, surveys, and large-scale databases or self-created written and spoken corpora are employed and analyzed to gain a better understanding of new developments and changes in the Chinese language and discourse. Authors employ updated approaches from a variety of fields, including applied linguistics, functional linguistics, corpus linguistics and sociolinguistics, to describe the structure of the Chinese language and discourse and to examine its critical issues, many focusing on globalization-induced language developments and changes. With an empirically-based discourse/socio-cultural approach, this collection makes valuable contributions to research on Chinese language and discourse and serves as a sound reference for Chinese researchers and educators in diverse fields such as Chinese language and discourse, Chinese linguistics and language education, Chinese multiculturalism, and more.
A comprehensive account of the language of Ancient Greek civilization in a single volume, with contributions from leading international scholars covering the historical, geographical, sociolinguistic, and literary perspectives of the language. * A collection of 36 original essays by a team of international scholars * Treats the survival and transmission of Ancient Greek * Includes discussions on phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics
Insults are part of the fabric of daily life. But why do we insult each other? Why do insults cause us such pain? Can we do anything to prevent or lessen this pain? Most importantly, how can we overcome our inclination to insult others? In A Slap in the Face, now issued in paperback with a new preface, William Irvine undertakes a wide-ranging investigation of insults, their history, the role they play in social relationships, and the science behind them. He examines not just memorable zingers, such as Elizabeth Bowen's description of Aldous Huxley as "The stupid person's idea of a clever person," but subtle insults as well, such as when someone insults us by reporting the insulting things others have said about us: "I never read bad reviews about myself," wrote entertainer Oscar Levant, "because my best friends invariably tell me about them." Irvine also considers the role insults play in our society: they can be used to cement relations, as when a woman playfully teases her husband, or to enforce a social hierarchy, as when a boss publicly berates an employee. He goes on to investigate the many ways society has tried to deal with insults-by adopting codes of politeness, for example, and outlawing hate speech-but concludes that the best way to deal with insults is to immunize ourselves against them: we need to transform ourselves in the manner recommended by Stoic philosophers. We should, more precisely, become insult pacifists, trying hard not to insult others and laughing off their attempts to insult us. A rousing follow-up to A Guide to the Good Life, A Slap in the Face will interest anyone who's ever delivered an insult or felt the sting of one-in other words, everyone.
Wordsmiths and Warriors explores the heritage of English through the places in Britain that shaped it. It unites the warriors, whose invasions transformed the language, with the poets, scholars, reformers, and others who helped create its character. The book relates a real journey. David and Hilary Crystal drove thousands of miles to produce this fascinating combination of English-language history and travelogue, from locations in south-east Kent to the Scottish lowlands, and from south-west Wales to the East Anglian coast. David provides the descriptions and linguistic associations, Hilary the full-colour photographs. They include a guide for anyone wanting to follow in their footsteps but arrange the book to reflect the chronology of the language. This starts with the Anglo-Saxon arrivals in Kent and in the places that show the earliest evidence of English. It ends in London with the latest apps for grammar. In between are intimate encounters with the places associated with such writers as Chaucer, Shakespeare, and Wordsworth; the biblical Wycliffe and Tyndale; the dictionary compilers Cawdrey, Johnson, and Murray; dialect writers, elocutionists, and grammarians, and a host of other personalities. Among the book's many joys are the diverse places that allow warriors such as Byrhtnoth and King Alfred to share pages with wordsmiths like Robert Burns and Tim Bobbin, and the unexpected discoveries that enliven every stage of the authors' epic journey.
Designed to reinforce the association of sound, syntax, and meaning, the SAM includes out-of-class practice of the material presented in the textbook. The Workbook section focuses on written vocabulary, grammar, kanji and writing practice. The Lab Manual section focuses on pronunciation and listening comprehension, including Dict-a-Conversation dictation activities.
Here is the complete learning guide that teaches American Sign
Language by "category," the most popular and preferred method of
teaching and learning. This easy-to-use guide is updated and
expanded to include new computer and technology signs and offers a
fast and simple approach to learning. Includes:
Konrad Koerner, a leading historian of linguistics, has long said that an academic field cannot be considered to have matured until it has history as one of its subfields. The history of linguistics is a growing area, having come into its own in the 1960s, especially after Noam Chomsky looked for historical roots for his work. In contrast, the history of language teaching has been neglected, reflecting the insecurity and youth of the field. Most works on the subject have been written by linguists for other linguists, and typically focus on a specific period or aspect of history. This volume concentrates on the basic issues, events, and threads of the history of the field - from Mesopotamia to the present - showing how a knowledge of this history can inform the practice of language teaching in the present.
In this book Adrian Koopman details the complex relationship between plants, the Zulu language and Zulu culture.Zulu plant names do not just identify plants, they tell us a lot more about the plant, or how it is perceived or used in Zulu culture. For example, the plant name umhlulambazo (what defeats the axe' tells us that this is a tree with hard, dense wood, and that usondelangange (come closer so I can embrace you) is a tree with large thorns that snag the passer-by. In a similar vein, both umakuphole (let it cool down) and icishamlilo (put out the fire) refer to plants that are used medicinally to treat fevers and inflammations. Plants used as the base of love-charms have names that are particularly colourful, such as unginakile (she has noticed me), uvelabahleke (appear and they smile) and the wonderfully named ungcingci-wafika-umntakwethu (how happy I am that you have arrived, my sweetheart!).And then there are those plant names that are just plain intriguing, if not mystifying: umakhandakansele (the heads of Mr Ratel), isandlasonwabu (hand of a chameleon), intombikayibhinci (the girl does not wear clothes) and ukhuningomile (piece of firewood, I am thirsty).
Cinema and Language Loss provides the first sustained exploration of the relationship between linguistic displacement and visuality in the filmic realm, examining in depth both its formal expressions and theoretical implications. Combining insights from psychoanalysis, philosophy and film theory, the author argues that the move from one linguistic environment to another profoundly destabilizes the subject's relation to both language and reality, resulting in the search for a substitute for language in vision itself - a reversal, as it were, of speaking into seeing. The dynamics of this shift are particularly evident in the works of many displaced filmmakers, which often manifest a conflicted interaction between language and vision, and through this question the signifying potential, and the perceptual ambiguities, of cinema itself. In tracing the encounter between cinema and language loss across a wide range of films - from Billy Wilder's Sunset Boulevard to Chantal Akerman's News from Home to Michael Haneke's Cache - Mamula reevaluates the role of displacement in postwar Western film and makes an original contribution to film theory and philosophy based on a reconsideration of the place of language in our experience and understanding of cinema.
This book provides a lively introduction to the study of language for students without prior experience in linguistics. It addresses the core areas of language study answering questions such as: * Where does language come from? * Why don't we all talk the same? * Who needs grammar? This is an excellent textbook for basic introductory courses and for students who are non-majors. It will be accessible and enjoyable for a variety of students.
Concise and engaging, this textbook introduces stylistics, the application of linguistics to literary analysis. Assuming no prior knowledge of linguistics, H. D. Adamson discusses linguistics before addressing its application to literature, enabling students to become knowledgeable in both fields. Targeted specifically at undergraduate literature students, the book covers a wide range of topics in linguistics and literary criticism, as well as a variety of literary genres and popular culture, from poems and contemporary literature to comic book art and advertising. Providing numerous examples throughout, linguistic concepts are clearly and accessibly presented in an easy-to-digest way, accompanied by numerous examples and a glossary of key terms. Each chapter features exercises, inviting students to apply specific linguistic knowledge to the analysis of literary texts, as well as further reading suggestions, figures and tables, and highlighted key terms. Supplementary online resources include additional exercises, further reading suggestions, useful links, discussion questions, key term flashcards, and an answer booklet for instructors.
Featuring a collection of newly commissioned essays, edited by two leading scholars, this Handbook surveys the key research findings in the field of English for Specific Purposes (ESP). - Provides a state-of-the-art overview of the origins and evolution, current research, and future directions in ESP - Features newly-commissioned contributions from a global team of leading scholars - Explores the history of ESP and current areas of research, including speaking, reading, writing, technology, and business, legal, and medical English - Considers perspectives on ESP research such as genre, intercultural rhetoric, multimodality, English as a lingua franca and ethnography
In today's diverse societies, museums are the primary institutions within the public sphere in which individuals can both engage critical thought and celebrate community. This volume uses the lens of rhetoric to explore the role these societal repositories play in establishing and altering cultural heritage and national identity. Based on fieldwork conducted in over sixty museums in twenty-two countries across six continents, Museum Rhetoric explores how heritage museum exhibits persuade visitors to unite their own sense of identity with that of the broader civic society and how the latter changes in response. Elizabeth Weiser examines what compels communities, organizations, and nations to create museum spaces, and how museums operate as sites of both civic engagement and rhetorical persuasion. Moving beyond rhetorical explorations of museums as "memory sites," she shows how they intentionally straddle the divides between style and content, intellect and affect, and unity and diversity, and why their portrayal of the past matters to civic life--and particularly studies of nationalism--in the present and future. Deeply researched and artfully argued, Museum Rhetoric sheds light on the public impact of cultural and aesthetic heritage and opens avenues of inquiry for scholars of museum studies and public history.
Analyzing Public Discourse demonstrates the use of discourse analysis to provide testimony in public policy consultations: from environmental impact statements to changes in laws and policies. Scollon asserts that it is in the best interest of democratic public discourse for all participants in the process to be working with a common discursive framework. He puts forward a strategy by which discourse analysts can become engaged in this framework as participants through the process of public consultations. Using documents which are publicly available online from specific consultative projects, Scollon provides the reader with concrete examples and introduces basic skills for discourse analysis. Accessible to readers who are new to discourse analysis, Analyzing Public Discourse will be of interest to students of linguistics and language studies as well as to those on environmental studies courses. This book can also be used as a guide for any public consultation which calls for public responses.
Do you find it hard to make friends? Do you struggle to know what to say to start a conversation? In this book, Paul Jordan, who is on the autism spectrum, explains how to make sense of everyday social situations you might encounter at school, university or in other group settings. He reveals how, with the use of just 65 simple words, it is possible to create 'scripts for thinking' that break conversations down into small chunks and help you to think of what to say, whether you are speaking to a fellow student, starting a conversation with a new friend, calling out bullies or answering a teacher's question. These small words will be a big help for all teenagers and young people with ASD.
The paradigm of Graph Rewriting is used very little in the field of Natural Language Processing. But graphs are a natural way of representing the deep syntax and the semantics of natural languages. Deep syntax is an abstraction of syntactic dependencies towards semantics in the form of graphs and there is a compact way of representing the semantics in an underspecified logical framework also with graphs. Then, Graph Rewriting reconciles efficiency with linguistic readability for producing representations at some linguistic level by transformation of a neighbor level: from raw text to surface syntax, from surface syntax to deep syntax, from deep syntax to underspecified logical semantics and conversely.
Intended primarily for newcomers to the subject, but with new material designed to help the more advanced reader, How to Study Linguistics is written in a refreshing and engaging style. It assumes no prior knowledge and contains many useful suggestions for developing a secure understanding of the subject. Chapters discuss strategies for studying phonology, syntax, and semantics, and for pursuing branches of linguistics, such as sociolinguistics, stylistics, and psycholinguistics, as well as practical advice on writing essays. The book also includes a glossary to aid learning and revision.
Featuring Latinate and Celtic words, weasel words and nonce-words, ancient words ('loaf') to cutting edge ('twittersphere') and spanning the indispensable words that shape our tongue ('and', 'what') to the more fanciful ('fopdoodle'), Crystal takes us along the winding byways of language via the rude, the obscure and the downright surprising. In this unique new history of the world's most ubiquitous language, linguistics expert David Crystal draws on words that best illustrate the huge variety of sources, influences and events that have helped to shape our vernacular since the first definitively English word was written down in the fifth century ('roe', in case you are wondering).
Hayden White probes the notion of authority in art and literature and examines the problems of meaning-its production, distribution, and consumption-in different historical epochs. In the end, he suggests, the only meaning that history can have is the kind that a narrative imagination gives to it. The secret of the process by which consciousness invests history with meaning resides in "the content of the form," in the way our narrative capacities transform the present into a fulfillment of a past from which we would wish to have descended.
First Phonics is a series of graded activity books. It helps children to learn the basic sounds and spelling patterns required for reading and writing. First Phonics Book 4 reinforces children's understanding of letter blends (such as 'tr' and 'sl') and single sounds made by more than one letter ('sh', 'ch' and 'th'). This book is suitable for children making the transition from the Early Years Foundation Stage to Key Stage 1 and those already in Key Stage 1 who need further practice.
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