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First published in Great Britain in 1935, this Routledge Revival reissues one of the most influential works ever published in the field of linguistics. Leonard Bloomfield's Language is both a masterpiece of textbook writing and a classic of academic scholarship, which examines the fundamentals of language and linguistics in a clear, precise manner. Intended as an introduction to the field of linguistics, for both the general reader and for students of linguistics, this detailed study covers a breadth of topics, ranging from: world languages, phonetic structure and syntax, through to morphology, semantics and dialectics.
Vocabulary alone isn't enough. To survive in the most sophisticated - and the most scathing - nation on Earth you will need to understand the many peculiarities of the (very peculiar) French culture. And for that you need A Certain Je Ne Sais Quoi. If you want to fit in with the French you'll have to know how to deal with sardonic waiters; why French children hate Charlemagne; the etiquette of kissing, joke-telling and drinking songs, what to do with a bidet, the correct recipe for a salade nicoise and, of course, how to convey absolute, shattering indifference with a single syllable (Bof!). Charles Timoney, the author of Pardon My French, provides a practical, pleasurable guide to the charms of the Gallic people - from their daily routines to their peerless gesticulations, from their come-ons to their put-downs. Read on and put the oh la la back into your French vacances. Your inner gaul will thank you for it.
Although the grammatical expression of reciprocal (or 'mutual') situations in the languages of the world has received a surprising amount of attention in recent years, so far no comprehensive study specifically dealing with the historical development and synchronic structure of English reciprocal constructions has been published. This book takes into consideration insights from the three major research projects on reciprocity in the languages of the world as well as the rich literature on more specific aspects of reciprocity. Assuming a usage-based model of grammar, the development of the reciprocal strategies used in present-day English is described, with special attention paid to the periods following Middle English, where today's system began to take shape. The means of expressing reciprocity in today's English (e.g. the expressions each other and one another) are then analyzed as a system of competing constructions, the make-up and distribution of which can be related both to their history and subtle distinctions in meaning and use associated with the different constructions. Quantitative data from corpora of natural language provides evidence for the analyses put forward. Wherever possible, claims on the expression of reciprocity in present-day English are checked against what is known about the grammar of reciprocity in other languages.
Questionnaires in Second Language Research: Construction,
Administration, and Processing is the first guide in the second
language field devoted to the question of how to produce and use
questionnaires as reliable and valid research instruments. It
offers a thorough overview of the theory of questionnaire design,
administration, and processing, made accessible by concrete,
real-life second language research applications. This Second
Edition features a new chapter on how an actual scientific
instrument was developed using the theoretical guidelines in the
book, and new sections on translating questionnaires and collecting
survey data on the Internet. Researchers and students in second
language studies, applied linguistics, and TESOL programs will find
this book invaluable, and it can also be used as a textbook for
courses in quantitative research methodology and survey research in
linguistics, psychology, and education departments.
A comprehensive English-Xhosa dictionary that includes everyday and technical terms and indicates the class system of Xhosa nouns. Numerous examples of usage in context make this dictionary a leader in its field, with about 15000 entries.
This book explores speakers' intentions, and the structural and pragmatic resources they employ, in spoken Arabic - which is different in many essential respects from literary Arabic. Based on new empirical findings from across the Arabic world this book elucidates the many ways in which context and the goals and intentions of the speaker inform and constrain linguistic structure in spoken Arabic.
This is the first book to provide an in-depth analysis of information structure in spoken Arabic, which is based on language as it is actually used, not on normatively-given grammar. Written by leading experts in Arabic linguistics, the studies evaluate the ways in which relevant parts of a message in spoken Arabic are encoded, highlighted or obscured. It covers a broad range of issues from across the Arabic-speaking world, including the discourse-sensitive properties of word order variation, the use of intonation for information focussing, the differential role of native Arabic and second languages to encode information in a codeswitching context, and the need for cultural contextualization to understand the role of "disinformation" structure.
The studies combine a strong empirical basis with methodological and theoretical issues drawn from a number of different perspectives including pragmatic theory, language contact, instrumental prosodic analysis and (de-)grammaticalization theory. The introductory chapter embeds the project within the deeper Arabic grammatical tradition, as elaborated by the eleventh century grammarian Abdul Qahir al-Jurjani. This book provides an invaluable comprehensive introduction to an important, yet understudied, component of spoken Arabic.
Ben-Yehuda's POCKET ENGLISH-HEBREW, HEBREW-ENGLISH DICTIONARY derives from the eight-volume DICTIONARY AND THESAURUS OF THE HEBREW LANGUAGE by Eliezer Ben-Yehuda, the father of modern Hebrew, and from the new studies by his son, Ehud Ben-Yehuda, and David Weinstein.
This new work is designed expressly for the widest possible variety of interests and professions -- for students, teachers, travelers, home and office libraries. In it you will find over 30,000 vocabulary entries, alphabetically arranged. There is a comprehensive but compact explanation of grammar, including tables of irregular verbs. There are keys to proper pronunciation, abbreviations, up-to-date technical terms, examples of idiomatic usage, tables of numerals, weights, measures and currency.
Featuring a collection of newly commissioned essays, edited by two leading scholars, this Handbook surveys the key research findings in the field of English for Specific Purposes (ESP). - Provides a state-of-the-art overview of the origins and evolution, current research, and future directions in ESP - Features newly-commissioned contributions from a global team of leading scholars - Explores the history of ESP and current areas of research, including speaking, reading, writing, technology, and business, legal, and medical English - Considers perspectives on ESP research such as genre, intercultural rhetoric, multimodality, English as a lingua franca and ethnography
The Pocket Kenkyusha Japanese Dictionary is an essential reference for any English-speaker learning Japanese, whether they're studying the language at school or university, or learning it on their own. It offers detailed coverage of Japanese vocabulary, giving headwords and examples in both romanized and script form, along with thousands of examples that help you find the translation you need quickly and easily. Translations for each of the over 40,000 entries are clear and concise, and offer guidance on grammar and usage, with slang, formal, and derogatory terms clearly marked. Additional supplements include a guide to grammar; help with pronunciation, numbers, and days of the week; and cultural information, covering topics such as the government, political parties, and historical periods of Japan.
The dictionary is especially well suited for everyday use by tourists, students, and business people. Edited especially for those what want concise and easily accessible translations, it is a truly bilingual dictionary- equally useful for both English and Polish speakers.
Logic is, and has always been, an essential part of philosophy. It employs concepts which are crucial for understanding thought and language, and demands a mastery of procedures and techniques. With the same intellectual goals as the first edition, this innovative introductory logic textbook explores the relationship between natural language and logic, motivating the student to acquire skills and techniques of formal logic.
This new and revised edition includes substantial additions which make the text even more useful to students and instructors alike. Central to these changes is an Appendix, 'How to Learn Logic', which takes the student through fourteen compact and sharply directed lessons with exercises and answers. Other new material includes a discussion of the truth tree method for both Sentential and Predicate logics, an account of alternative notations, and the provision of answers to selected exercises that figure in the main body of the book.
How did the delphinium get its name? Which parts of the body lend their names to auriculas and orchids? Who are the gentian, lobelia and heuchera named after? Why are nasturtiums and antirrhinums connected? What does an everlasting pea have to do with Indian miniature paintings? These are some of the questions answered in Peter Parker's adventurous exploration of the mysteries of Botanical Latin. Evolved over many centuries and often thought to belong to the rarefied world of scholars and scientists, this invented language is in fact a very useful tool for everyday gardening. It allows us to find our way around nurseries; it sorts out confusions when two plants have the same English name; and it gives us all kinds of information about how big or small a plant will grow, what shape or colour it will develop, and what habitat it prefers. In his lively survey, Parker agues that Botanical Latin is not merely useful, but fun. The naming of plants draws upon geography, social and medical history, folklore, mythology, language, literature, the human body, the animal kingdom and all manner of ancient beliefs and superstitions. The book, beautifully illustrated with old woodcuts, explains how and why plants have been named, includes handy lists of identifying adjectives, and takes the reader down some of the stranger byways of human endeavour and eccentricity.
With the crisis of leadership in the western democracies, there has been a growth of interest in how leaders outside of the west emerge and consolidate their positions. This book analyses the communication strategies of six charismatic non-western leaders: Mahatma Gandhi, Nelson Mandela, Fidel Castro, Ayatollah Khomeini, Mohammed Mahathir and Lee Kuan Yew. The book addresses the following questions in order to arrive at a better understanding of communication and leadership: How do leaders communicate? Do leaders communicate more by words, or actions? Do leaders have unique communication strategies? Are leaders moral beings, or impostors? The book describes how each of these leaders designed a unique style that integrated verbal and non-verbal modes of communication. It argues that leadership style is performed through the cumulative interaction of non-verbal modes - dress, body language, physical possessions, symbols and symbolic actions - with verbal strategies for communicating visions, values and legitimacy. In order to understand how each of these leaders undertakes a dramatic `performance' of leadership, Jonathan Charteris-Black uses Erving Goffman's notion of `Front'. Noting the inherent similarities between the mutual dependency of actors with audiences and leaders with followers, the book suggests that leaders - like actors - use metaphors and symbols to satisfy followers' psychological and symbolic needs and that leadership is communicated through impression management, metaphor and media choices. A fascinating and well executed study, this book will interest students and academics working on leadership, applied linguistics, communication studies and politics.
From the comfort of an armchair and with the aid of this new book, the reader can travel to the Breadalbane and Argyll of Duncan Ban Macintyre; the Skye and Raasay of Sorley Maclean; and the Caithness and Sutherland of Neil M. Gunn. Photographs, maps and place-names linked to key passages in the texts will immerse readers in the landscapes which songs, poems and tales have described and enlivened over the ages.For those who wish to brave the weather, the insects, the sheer drops, the morasses and the vast spaces, the book can be used as a field guide taking the same walks followed by the author. The touch, smell and landmarks of song, poem and tale can be experienced.The author has immersed himself further in the Gaelic literature of place so that readers, with book in hand, can make the past come alive and appreciate the extracts about a place and what has happened there. As an adult, Neil M. Gunn saw himself as a boy, sitting on a slab in the middle of the river cracking hazelnuts with a stone. Through the eyes of Duncan Ban Macintyre see Ben Dobhrain and the journey of the deer to the holy spring, from the vantage point of Patrick's stone. On Dun Cana sit at the centre of the swirl of place-names in Sorley Maclean's Hallaig. Journey around the north and east coasts of Caithness and Sutherland in the wake of the White Heather and the Seafoam, in the Silver Darlings.
**NOT FOR SALE IN THE USA, CANADA OR THE PHILIPPINES** A History of the English Language explores the linguistic and cultural development of English from the Roman conquest of England to the present day to provide a comprehensive overview of the different aspects of its history. This best-selling classic textbook has been revised and updated and encourages the reader to develop both an understanding of present-day English and an enlightened attitude toward the issues affecting the language today. New features of the sixth edition include: an additional chapter titled `English in the Twenty-first Century', which examines the future of English and other global languages and includes an assessment of Chinese as a world language an in-depth treatment of phonological changes, such as the placement of the Great Vowel Shift as a bridge between Middle English and Renaissance English further coverage of corpus linguistics, especially for Renaissance English fresh sections on accent and register a new survey of the recent debate between "creolists" and "neo-Anglicists" on the origins of African American Vernacular English. Balanced and wide-ranging, this textbook is a must-read for any student studying the history of the English language
This book draws on extensive research to provide a ground-breaking new account of the relationship between dialogue and children's learning development. It closely relates the research findings to real-life classrooms, so that it is of practical value to teachers and students concerned that their children are offered the best possible learning opportunities.
The authors provide a clear, accessible and well-illustrated case for the importance of dialogue in children's intellectual development and support this with a new and more educationally relevant version of socio-cultural theory, which explains the fascinating relationship between dialogues and learning. In educational terms, a sociocultural theory that relates social, cultural and historical processes, interpersonal communication and applied linguistics, is an ideal way of explaining how school experience helps children learn and develop.
By using evidence of how the collective construction of knowledge is achieved and how engagement in dialogues shapes children's educational progress and intellectual development, the authors provide a text which is essential for educational researchers, postgraduate students of education and teachers, and is also of interest to many psychologists and applied linguists.
Analyzing Public Discourse demonstrates the use of discourse analysis to provide testimony in public policy consultations: from environmental impact statements to changes in laws and policies.
Scollon asserts that it is in the best interest of democratic public discourse for all participants in the process to be working with a common discursive framework. He puts forward a strategy by which discourse analysts can become engaged in this framework as participants through the process of public consultations. Using documents which are publicly available online from specific consultative projects, Scollon provides the reader with concrete examples and introduces basic skills for discourse analysis.
Accessible to readers who are new to discourse analysis, Analyzing Public Discourse will be of interest to students of linguistics and language studies as well as to those on environmental studies courses. This book can also be used as a guide for any public consultation which calls for public responses.
This book combines linguistic and historical approaches with the latest techniques of DNA analysis and shows the insights these offer for every kind of genealogical research. It focuses on British names, tracing their origins to different parts of the British Isles and Europe and revealing how names often remain concentrated in the districts where they first became established centuries ago. In the process the book casts fresh light on the ancient peopling of the British Isles. The authors consider why some names die out while others spread across the globe. They use recent advances in DNA testing to investigate whether particular surnames have single, dual, or multiple origins, and to find out if the various forms of a single name have a common origin. They show how information from DNA can be combined with historical evidence and techniques to distinguish between individuals with the same name and different names with similar spellings, and to identifty the name of the same individual or family spelt in various ways in different times and places. The final chapter of this paperback edition, looking at the use of genetics in historical research, has been updated to include new work on the DNA of Richard III.
Publishing in the 21st century is a rapidly changing business, and this highly readable and comprehensive reference covers it all: editorial acquisition and process, the importance of metadata, operations procedures, financial benchmarks and methods, and personnel management as well as product development, production, and sales and marketing. Written for the practicing professional just starting out or looking to learn new tricks of the trade, as well as self-publishers who want to understand the industry, this revised and expanded fifth edition contains updated industry statistics and benchmark figures, features up-to-date strategies for creating new revenue streams, approaches to online marketing and sales, key concepts of e-book publishing, and provides new information about using financial information to make key management decisions. A new title P & L that incorporates e-books is provided. Over 30 highly practical forms and sample contracts are also included for up-to-the-minute advice.
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