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From breakfast toast to evening wine, yeast is the microscopic thing that we cannot live without. We knew what yeast did as an invisible brewer and baker long before we had a clue about the existence of microorganisms. Ten thousand years ago, our ancestors abandoned bush meat and wild fruit in favor of farming animals and cultivating grain. Leaving the forests and grasslands, our desire for beer and wine produced by the fungus was a major stimulus for agricultural settlement. It takes a village to run a brewery or tend a vineyard. We domesticated wild yeast and yeast domesticated us. With the inevitable escape of the fungus from beer vats into bread dough, our marriage with yeast was secured by an appetite for fresh loaves of leavened bread. Over the millennia, we have adapted the technologies of brewing, winemaking, and baking and have come to rely on yeast more and more. Yeast produces corn ethanol and other biofuels and has become the genetically-modified darling of the pharmaceutical business as a source of human insulin and a range of life-saving medicines. These practical uses of yeast have been made possible by advances in our understanding of its biology, and the power of genetic engineering has been used to modify the fungus to do just about anything we wish. We know more about yeast than any other organism built from complex cells like our own. To understand yeast is to understand life. In this book Nicholas P. Money offers a celebration of our favorite microorganism.
How new biomedical technologies-from prenatal testing to gene-editing techniques-require us to imagine who counts as human and what it means to belong. From next-generation prenatal tests, to virtual children, to the genome-editing tool CRISPR-Cas9, new biotechnologies grant us unprecedented power to predict and shape future people. That power implies a question about belonging: which people, which variations, will we welcome? How will we square new biotech advances with the real but fragile gains for people with disabilities-especially when their voices are all but absent from the conversation? This book explores that conversation, the troubled territory where biotechnology and disability meet. In it, George Estreich-an award-winning poet and memoirist, and the father of a young woman with Down syndrome-delves into popular representations of cutting-edge biotech: websites advertising next-generation prenatal tests, feature articles on "three-parent IVF," a scientist's memoir of constructing a semisynthetic cell, and more. As Estreich shows, each new application of biotechnology is accompanied by a persuasive story, one that minimizes downsides and promises enormous benefits. In this story, people with disabilities are both invisible and essential: a key promise of new technologies is that disability will be repaired or prevented. In chapters that blend personal narrative and scholarship, Estreich restores disability to our narratives of technology. He also considers broader themes: the place of people with disabilities in a world built for the able; the echoes of eugenic history in the genomic present; and the equation of intellect and human value. Examining the stories we tell ourselves, the fables already creating our futures, Estreich argues that, given biotech that can select and shape who we are, we need to imagine, as broadly as possible, what it means to belong.
THE NEW YORK TIMES NUMBER ONE BESTSELLER Spanning the globe and several centuries, this is the remarkable story of the gene and an intimate history of the author's own family, from award-winning author Siddhartha Mukherjee The story begins in an Augustinian abbey in 1856, and takes the reader from Darwin's groundbreaking theory of evolution, to the horrors of Nazi eugenics, to present day and beyond - as we learn to "read" and "write" the human genome that unleashes the potential to change the fates and identities of our children. Majestic in its scope and ambition, The Gene provides us with a definitive account of the epic history of the quest to decipher the master-code that makes and defines humans - and paints a fascinating vision of both humanity's past and future. "Siddhartha Mukherjee is the perfect person to guide us through the past, present, and future of genome science' Bill Gates `A thrilling and comprehensive account of what seems certain to be the most radical, controversial and, to borrow from the subtitle, intimate science of our time...Read this book and steel yourself for what comes next' Sunday Times
This book was written for graduate and medical students, as well as
clinicians and postdoctoral researchers. It describes the theory of
alternative pre-mRNA splicing in
** THE PERFECT STOCKING FILLER FOR YOUR FAVOURITE SCIENCE NERD. ** Part of the ALL-NEW LADYBIRD EXPERT SERIES. ____________ Who discovered genetics? How does gene inheritance work? Is DNA common to all living things? We inherit CODES from our parents. And these codes are written in the molecule DNA. This DNA means that we RESEMBLE each other, namely our families. This raises so many questions such as how does DNA influence evolution? How was it discovered? And what does it mean for the future of the human race? Discover the answers and more inside Adam Rutherford's Ladybird Expert - Genetics, the thrilling and accessible account that explains race and genetics, whether it is our DNA or the environment that influences us most, what are our chances of being related to royalty, genetic engineering and much more . . .
Would you change your genes if you could? As we confront the 'industrial revolution of the genome', the recent discoveries of Crispr-Cas9 technologies are offering, for the first time, cheap and effective methods for editing the human genome. This opens up startling new opportunities as well as significant ethical uncertainty. Tracing events across a fifty-year period, from the first gene splicing techniques to the present day, this is the story of gene editing - the science, the impact and the potential. Kozubek weaves together the fascinating stories of many of the scientists involved in the development of gene editing technology. Along the way, he demystifies how the technology really works and provides vivid and thought-provoking reflections on the continuing ethical debate. This updated paperback edition contains all the very latest on the patent battle over Crisp and the applications of Crispr technology in agriculture and medicine.
This volume summarizes recent technological advances in the design and engineering of Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae crops. It begins with contributions on the tomato and melon genome sequence, databases for Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae research, DNA markers in the breeding of the two families, and mutant resources and TILLING platforms in tomato research. Subsequent chapters address the use of molecular techniques for the modification of important breeding traits, such as tomato fruit set, growth, ripening, and sugar accumulation, as well as disease and insect resistance in melons. The volume closes with chapters on genome editing using artificial nucleases as a future breeding tool, and on the development of an in silico crop design system. It offers a valuable resource for plant breeders, molecular biologists, and agronomists.
In 2001 the Human Genome Project succeeded in mapping the DNA of humans. This landmark accomplishment launched the field of genomics, the integrated study of all the genes in the human body and the related biomedical interventions that can be tailored to benefit a person's health. Today genomics, part of a larger movement toward personalized medicine, is poised to revolutionize health care. By cross-referencing an individual's genetic sequence - their genome - against known elements of "Big Data," elements of genomics are already being incorporated on a widespread basis, including prenatal disease screening and targeted cancer treatments. With more innovations soon to arrive at the bedside, the promise of the genomics revolution is limitless. This entry in the What Everyone Needs to Know series offers an authoritative resource on the prospects and realities of genomics and personalized medicine. As this science continues to alter traditional medical paradigms, consumers are faced with additional options and more complicated decisions regarding their health care. This book provides the essential information everyone needs.
"Sandel explores a paramount question of our era: how to extend the power and promise of biomedical science to overcome debility without compromising our humanity. His arguments are acute and penetrating, melding sound logic with compassion." -Jerome Groopman, author of How Doctors Think Breakthroughs in genetics present us with a promise and a predicament. The promise is that we will soon be able to treat and prevent a host of debilitating diseases. The predicament is that our newfound genetic knowledge may enable us to manipulate our nature-to enhance our genetic traits and those of our children. Although most people find at least some forms of genetic engineering disquieting, it is not easy to articulate why. What is wrong with re-engineering our nature? The Case against Perfection explores these and other moral quandaries connected with the quest to perfect ourselves and our children. Michael Sandel argues that the pursuit of perfection is flawed for reasons that go beyond safety and fairness. The drive to enhance human nature through genetic technologies is objectionable because it represents a bid for mastery and dominion that fails to appreciate the gifted character of human powers and achievements. Carrying us beyond familiar terms of political discourse, this book contends that the genetic revolution will change the way philosophers discuss ethics and will force spiritual questions back onto the political agenda. In order to grapple with the ethics of enhancement, we need to confront questions largely lost from view in the modern world. Since these questions verge on theology, modern philosophers and political theorists tend to shrink from them. But our new powers of biotechnology make these questions unavoidable. Addressing them is the task of this book, by one of America's preeminent moral and political thinkers.
This book is a compendium of knowledge, experience and insight on agriculture, biotechnology and development. Beginning with an account of GM crop adoptions and attitudes towards them, the book assesses numerous crucial processes, concluding with detailed insights into GM products. Drawing on expert perspectives of leading authors from 48 different institutions in 18 countries, it provides a unique, global overview of ag-biotech following 20 years of adoption. Many consider GM crops the most rapid agricultural innovation adopted in the history of agriculture. This book provides insights as to why the adoption has occurred globally at such a rapid rate. This is a rich and varied collection of research, which will appeal to scholars, academics and practitioners worldwide. An invaluable resource, this book will be a first point of reference to anyone with an interest in ag-biotech and studies into agriculture, biotechnology and development.
Rapid changes and significant progress have been made in the Agrobacterium field, such as genetically transforming plants for both basic research purposes and agricultural development. In Agrobacterium Protocols, Third Edition, Volumes 1 and 2, a team of leading experts and veteran researchers describe in detail techniques for delivering DNA to plant cells and permanently altering their genomes. This edition emphasizes agricultural crops and plant species with economic values, with updated protocols on 32 plant species and protocols involving 19 new species. Together with the 1st and 2nd editions, these two volumes offer Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation protocols for a total of 76 plant species. For a number of important plants such as rice, barley, wheat and citrus, multiple protocols using different starting plant materials for transformation are included. Volume 1 details updated techniques available for 18 plant species drawn from cereal crops, legume plants, vegetable plants, and three model plant species: Brachypodium distachyon, Medicago truncatula, and Setaria viridis. It also updates a chapter for vector construction, a step critical to a successful plant transformation process. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and cutting-edge, Agrobacterium Protocols, Third Edition facilitates the transfer of this rapidly developing technology to all researchers for use in both fundamental and applied biology.
Fueled by the expertise of a team of international specialist
authors, this first reference on the booming topic covers
everything a drug researcher needs to know about targeting
epigenetic mechanisms of disease.
Bringing together the ideas of experts from around the world, this incisive text offers cutting-edge perspectives on the risk analysis and governance of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), supporting effective and informed decision-making in developing countries. Comprised of four comprehensive sections, this book covers: integrated risk analysis and decision making, giving an overview of the science involved and examining risk analysis methods that impact decision-making on the release of GMOs, particularly in developing countries; diversification of expertise involved in risk analysis and practical ways in which the lack of expertise in developing countries can be overcome; risk analysis based regulatory systems and how they can be undermined by power relationships and socio-political interests, as well as strategies for improving GMO policy development and regulatory decision-making; and case studies from developing countries providing lessons based on real-world experience that can inform our current thinking.
Stem Cell Nanoengineering reviews the applications of nanotechnology in the fields of stem cells, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine. Topics addressed include various types of stem cells, underlying principles of nanobiotechnology, the making of nano-scaffolds, nano tissue engineering, applications of nanotechnology in stem cell tracking and molecular imaging, nano-devices, as well as stem cell nano-engineering from bench to bedside. Written by renowned experts in their respective fields, chapters describe and explore a wide variety of topics in stem cell nanoengineering, making the book a valuable resource for both researchers and clinicians in biomedical and bioengineering fields.
With contributions from nearly 130 internationally renowned experts in the field, this reference details advances in transgenic plant construction and explores the social, political, and legal aspects of genetic plant manipulation. It provides analyzes of the history, genetics, physiology, and cultivation of over 30 species of transgenic seeds, fruits, and vegetables. Stressing the impact of genetic engineering strategies on the nutritional and functional benefit of foods as well as on consumer health and the global market economy, the book covers methods of gene marking, transferring, and tagging public perceptions to the selective breeding, hybridization, and recombinant DNA manipulation of food.
Brings together in a single volume many cellular systems, allowing for better comparison of research results and helping to establish global strategies and standards. This unique reference/text presents the basic theory and practical applications of metabolic engineering (ME)-offering systematic analysis of complex metabolic pathways and ways of employing recombinant DNA techniques to alter cell behavior, metabolic patterns, and product formation. Covering ME as a distinct subfield of genetic engineering, Metabolic Engineering demonstrates new means of enabling cells to produce valuable proteins, polypeptides, and primary and secondary metabolites. Proposes a new paradigm for the directed modification of cellular metabolism and properties Written by more than 35 leading international experts in this field, Metabolic Engineering discusses metabolic engineering in plant and mammalian cells, bacteria, and yeasts illuminates the potential of the "cell factory" model for production of chemicals and therapeutics showcases methods of toxic waste management examines techniques for developing new antiviral and antibacterial molecules and effective gene and somatic-cell therapies investigates engineering strategies for increased production of bulk or specialty chemicals, including alcohols, organic and amino acids, aromatic compounds, antibiotics, novel polyketide metabolites, biopolymers, and plant secondary metabolites addresses uses of metabolic flux analysis, metabolic control analysis, and online metabolic flux analysis illustrates navigation of metabolic pathways in mammalian cell systems and new approaches to the degradation of xenobiotics assesses metabolic engineering applications in agriculture, pharmaceuticals, and environmental systems and more Containing over 1000 references, tables, equations, and drawings, Metabolic Engineering serves as an indispensable reference for bioprocess technologists, metabolic and chemical engineers, bi
This practical resource offers a concise guide to the combined use of classical and molecular methods for the genetic analysis and breeding of fungi - presenting basic concepts and experimental designs and demonstrating the power of fungal genetics for applied research in biotechnology and phytopathology. Addressing each major topic in the manipulation and analysis of fungi, Fungal Genetics explains genetic processes...examines spontaneous mutations, mutation induction, and the isolation and characterization of mutants...discusses sexual and parasexual genetic analysis...details physical karyotypes and restriction fragment analysis...describes the organization of genetic material in fungal nuclei as well as meiotic and mitotic processes...compares genetic mapping techniques and breeding strategies...and more. Written by over 25 international experts representing nine countries and containing nearly 1000 bibliographic citations, Fungal Genetics is an indispensable reference for mycologists, microbiologists, phytopathologists, biotechnologists, biochemists, molecular and cell biologists, geneticists, botanists, plant physiologists and pathologists, microbial and fungal ecologists, and upper-level undergraduate and graduate students in these disciplines.
In China, as elsewhere, the debate over genetically modified organisms has become polarized into anti- and pro-GMO camps. Given the size of China's population and market, much is at stake in conflicts over regulation for domestic as well as international actors. In this book, Cong Cao provides an even-handed analysis that illuminates the tensions that have shaped China's policy toward agricultural biotechnology in a global perspective. Cao presents a comprehensive and systematic analysis of how China's policy toward research and commercialization of genetically modified crops has shifted that explains how China's changing GMO stances reflect its evolving position on the world stage. While China's scientific community has set the agenda, it has encountered resistance rooted in concerns over food safety and consumers' rights as well as issues of intellectual property rights and food sovereignty. Although Chinese leaders at first sought to take advantage of the biotech revolution by promoting GMO crop consumption, Cao demonstrates that policy has since become precautionary, as seen in new laws and regulations grounded in concerns over safety and the deferral of commercialization of GM rice. He presents China's policies in light of changing global attitudes toward GM crops: As shifts in China have closely followed global trends, so has domestic activism. Drawing on government and scientific documents as well as interviews with scientists, officials, policy analysts, activists, and journalists, GMO China is an important book for China studies, science and technology studies, policy analysts, and professionals interested in the Chinese biotechnology market.
Bacterial genomics is a mature research interdisciplinary field, which is approached by ecologists, geneticists, bacteriologists, molecular biologists and evolutionary biologists working in medical, industrial and basic science. Thanks to the large diffusion of bacterial genome analysis, Bacterial Pangenomics: Methods and Protocols is able to provide the most recent methodologies about the study of bacterial pangenomes by covering the three major areas: the experimental methods for approaching bacterial pangenomics, the bio informatic pipelines for analysis and annotation of sequence data and finally the methods for inferring functional and evolutionary features from the pangenome. Written in the successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible protocols and notes on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and easily accessible, Bacterial Pangenomics: Methods and Protocols will serve as a field guide for both qualified bacterial genomics investigators who want to update their technical knowledge, for less experienced researchers who want to start working with bacterial genomics and pangenomics, as well as serving as a manual and supplemental textbook for graduate students of genomics and bioinformatics.
This volume offers an up-to-date overview of biotechnologically oriented barley research. It is structured into two major sections: the first focusing on current agricultural challenges and approaches to barley improvement, and the second providing insights into recent advances in methodology. Leading scientists highlight topics such as: the global importance of barley; genetic diversity and genebanks; domestication; shoot and inflorescence architecture; reproductive development; mineral nutrition; photosynthesis and leaf senescence; grain development; drought tolerance; viral and fungal pathogens; phytophagous arthropods; molecular farming; sequence resources; induced genetic variation and TILLING; meiotic recombination; Hordeum bulbosum; genome-wide association scans; genomic selection; haploid technology; genetic engineering; and whole plant phenomics. Providing comprehensive information on topics ranging from fundamental aspects to specific applications, this book offers a useful resource for scientists, plant breeders, teachers and advanced students in the fields of molecular and plant cell biology, plant biotechnology, and agronomy.
Technologies of the life sciences offer tremendous possibilities but also numerous challenges. Crossing Over : Genomics in the Public Arena looks at the social and ethical issues around the new biology, particularly genomics and biotechnology. It examines the world of biotechnology from different perspectives, including economics, law, communications, the sciences, and bioethics. The contributors to this volume respond to questions such as: How will we ensure technologies adopted in genomics research are not just economically beneficial but also socially and environmentally sustainable? What is the impact of the media on the development of these technologies? What are the ethical implications? What governance arrangements are appropriate? How are citizens and consumers expected to participate? Crossing Over's interdisciplinary approach to the analysis of biotechnology in society will ultimately contribute to our overall understanding of this hot-button issue and will help us make better-informed choices for the future. With Contributions By: Wiktor Adamowicz Gardar Arnason Tania M. Bubela Michael M. Burgess Timothy Caulfield Celeste M. Condit Robin Downey Edna Einsiedel Usher Fleising Rose Geransar Beatrice Godard Linda Goldenberg Wuyang Hu Anne Hunnemeyer Lyne Letourneau Charles Mather Michael D. Mehta Peter W.B. Phillips Helge Torgersen Jon Turney Michelle Veeman
Regenerative medicine is the main field of groundbreaking medical development and therapy using knowledge from developmental and stem cell biology as well as advanced molecular and cellular techniques. This collection of volumes on Regenerative Medicine: From Protocol to Patient, aims to explain the scientific knowledge and emerging technology as well as the clinical application in different organ systems and diseases. International leading experts from all over the world describe the latest scientific and clinical knowledge of the field of regenerative medicine. The process of translating science of laboratory protocols into therapies is explained in sections on regulatory, ethical and industrial issues. This collection is organized into five volumes: (1) Biology of Tissue Regeneration, (2) Stem Cell Science and Technology, (3) Tissue Engineering, Biomaterials and Nanotechnology, (4) Regenerative Therapies I, and (5) Regenerative Therapies II. The textbook gives the student, the researcher, the health care professional, the physician and the patient a complete survey on the current scientific basis, therapeutical protocols, clinical translation and practiced therapies in regenerative medicine. Volume 5 contains clinical science and translation surveys on the circulatory system, visceral, musculoskeletal and skin. The state-of-the-art descriptions involve concepts for clinical diagnosis, stem cell and gene therapy, biomaterials for tissue replacement and pharmacological/biomolecule treatment strategies.
This book presents an overview of the state-of-the-art in barley genome analysis, covering all aspects of sequencing the genome and translating this important information into new knowledge in basic and applied crop plant biology and new tools for research and crop improvement. Unlimited access to a high-quality reference sequence is removing one of the major constraints in basic and applied research. This book summarizes the advanced knowledge of the composition of the barley genome, its genes and the much larger non-coding part of the genome, and how this information facilitates studying the specific characteristics of barley. One of the oldest domesticated crops, barley is the small grain cereal species that is best adapted to the highest altitudes and latitudes, and it exhibits the greatest tolerance to most abiotic stresses. With comprehensive access to the genome sequence, barley's importance as a genetic model in comparative studies on crop species like wheat, rye, oats and even rice is likely to increase.
How the regimes governing biological research changed during the genomics revolution, focusing on the Human Genome Project. The rise of genomics engendered intense struggle over the control of knowledge. In Reordering Life, Stephen Hilgartner examines the "genomics revolution" and develops a novel approach to studying the dynamics of change in knowledge and control. Hilgartner focuses on the Human Genome Project (HGP)-the symbolic and scientific centerpiece of the emerging field-showing how problems of governance arose in concert with new knowledge and technology. Using a theoretical framework that analyzes "knowledge control regimes," Hilgartner investigates change in how control was secured, contested, allocated, resisted, justified, and reshaped as biological knowledge was transformed. Beyond illuminating genomics, Reordering Life sheds new light on broader issues about secrecy and openness in science, data access and ownership, and the politics of research communities. Drawing on real-time interviews and observations made during the HGP, Reordering Life describes the sociotechnical challenges and contentious issues that the genomics community faced throughout the project. Hilgartner analyzes how laboratories control access to data, biomaterials, plans, preliminary results, and rumors; compares conflicting visions of how to impose coordinating mechanisms; examines the repeated destabilization and restabilization of the regimes governing genome databases; and examines the fierce competition between the publicly funded HGP and the private company Celera Genomics. The result is at once a path-breaking study of a self-consciously revolutionary science, and a provocative analysis of how knowledge and control are reconfigured during transformative scientific change.
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