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In a narrative style, Emily Monosson explains how humans are driving rapid contemporary evolution through the use of toxic chemicals and what we can do about it. Gonorrhoea. Bed bugs. Weeds. Salamanders. Polar Bears. People. All are evolving, some surprisingly rapidly, in response to our chemical age. In Unnatural Selection, Emily Monosson shows how our drugs, pesticides, and In a narrative style, Emily Monosson explains how humans are driving rapid contemporary evolution through the use of toxic chemicals and what we can do about it. Gonorrhoea. Bed bugs. Weeds. Salamanders. Polar Bears. People. All are evolving, some surprisingly rapidly, in response to our chemical age. In Unnatural Selection, Emily Monosson shows how our drugs, pesticides, and pollution are exerting intense selection pressure on all manner of species. And we humans might not like the result. Monosson reveals that the very code of life is more fluid than once imagined. When our powerful chemicals put the pressure on to evolve or die, beneficial traits can sweep rapidly through a population. Species with explosive population growth, the insects, bacteria and weeds, tend to thrive, while bigger, slower-to- reproduce creatures, like ourselves, are more likely to succumb. Unnatural Selection is eye-opening and more than a little disquieting. But it also suggests how we might lesson our impact: manage pests without creating super bugs; protect individuals from disease without inviting epidemics; and benefit from technology without threatening the health of our children.
Scientists and researchers from top labs around the world share
In recent years, new paradigms have emerged to replace-or augment-the traditional, mathematically based approaches to optimization. The most powerful of these are genetic algorithms (GA), inspired by natural selection, and genetic programming, an extension of GAs based on the optimization of symbolic codes.
Deep learning has already achieved remarkable results in many fields. Now it's making waves throughout the sciences broadly and the life sciences in particular. This practical book teaches developers and scientists how to use deep learning for genomics, chemistry, biophysics, microscopy, medical analysis, and other fields. Ideal for practicing developers and scientists ready to apply their skills to scientific applications such as biology, genetics, and drug discovery, this book introduces several deep network primitives. You'll follow a case study on the problem of designing new therapeutics that ties together physics, chemistry, biology, and medicine-an example that represents one of science's greatest challenges. Learn the basics of performing machine learning on molecular data Understand why deep learning is a powerful tool for genetics and genomics Apply deep learning to understand biophysical systems Get a brief introduction to machine learning with DeepChem Use deep learning to analyze microscopic images Analyze medical scans using deep learning techniques Learn about variational autoencoders and generative adversarial networks Interpret what your model is doing and how it's working
Create improved crops with these techniques for plant cell culture This comprehensive book presents the basic concepts and applied techniques of plant cell and tissue culture. More and more, commercial plant breeding and development employs these methods to protect crops from weather, pests, and disease. Covering the history of in vitro breeding as well as emerging research trends, In Vitro Plant Breeding offers specific techniques for crop improvement and breeding. Designed as a text for undergraduate students, In Vitro Plant Breeding presents the theory of tissue culture as well as practical techniques. Its step-by-step instructions and clear illustrations facilitate learning and laboratory work. In Vitro Plant Breeding gives in-depth information and the latest research on the vital concepts and techniques of in vitro breeding, including: applications of plant tissue culture morphogenesis and organogenesis micropropagation producing haploid plants in vitro in vitro pollination and fertilization problems of embryo culture somatic hybridization protoplast technology selection of desirable traits cryopreservation and plant breeding micrograftingThis helpful book is plentifully illustrated with examples, schematic descriptions, and tables to make the concepts clear and easy to learn. In Vitro Plant Breeding is an essential resource.
Written by an international team of experts, Somatic Genome Variation presents a timely summary of the latest understanding of somatic genome development and variation in plants, animals, and microorganisms. Wide-ranging in coverage, the authors provide an updated view of somatic genomes and genetic theories while also offering interpretations of somatic genome variation. The text provides geneticists, bioinformaticians, biologist, plant scientists, crop scientists, and microbiologists with a valuable overview of this fascinating field of research.
In this book, the author deals mainly with two topics: (1) single-molecule visualization of switching behaviors in the DNA nanoframe system utilizing different kinds of molecular switches through the use of high-speed atomic force microscope (AFM); (2) construction of photocontrollable DNA nanostructures in programmed patterns and direct visualization of the dynamic assembling process. Here, high-speed AFM was employed to observe the dynamic movements of single molecules. Compared to a traditional single-molecule analysis method, such as fluorescence spectroscopy or electron microscopy, high-speed AFM makes possible the real-time observation of molecule behaviors. DNA nanostructures were designed and assembled as scaffolds to incorporate interested biomolecules. The observations were carried out under robust conditions without complicated pretreatment. Moreover, the photoresponsive molecules were successfully assembled into around 100 nm-sized DNA nanostructures. The assembly/disassembly of nanostructures can be regulated reversibly by photoirradiation. This book explains how DNA origami has gradually become a useful tool for the investigation of biochemical interactions in defined nanospace. It also shows the possibility of DNA nanostructures acting as nanodevices for application in biological systems, serving as a good introduction to basic DNA nanotechnology.
Although the basic statistical theory behind modern genetics is not
very difficult, most statistical genetics papers are not easy to
read for beginners in the field, and formulae quickly become very
tedious to fit a particular area of application.
By way of its clear and logical structure, as well as abundant highresolution illustrations, this is a systematic survey of the players and pathways that control genome function in the mammalian cell nucleus. As such, this handbook and reference ties together recently gained knowledge from a variety of scientific disciplines and approaches, dissecting all major genomic events: transcription, replication, repair, recombination and chromosome segregation. A special emphasis is put on transcriptional control, including genome-wide interactions and non-coding RNAs, chromatin structure, epigenetics and nuclear organization. With its focus on fundamental mechanisms and the associated biomolecules, this will remain essential reading for years to come.
The analysis of changes in gene activity in tissues and cells of plants is an important way of measuring developmental and environmental responses. This is achieved by identifying, isolating, and analyzing the genes responsible for these changes, and assessing their degree of genetic expression in relation to other cells and tissues within each plant. This book, designed as a manual, provides detailed accounts of new and established techniques used to carry out these analyses, as well as a section on trouble-shooting.
Genes have a huge impact on who we are, from defining us as humans, to governing how we behave. Whether controlling our cells or creating new forms of life, discover how DNA makes each of us unique. In The Secret Life of Genes, you'll learn all about the past, present and future of the human genome. Filled with colourful, graphic illustrations to help you to understand the world of genetics, from the basics to the most complex theories, this book brings the inner workings of the human body to life. Derek Harvey answers the biggest questions, from the nature of inheritance, evolution and reproduction, to how genes are arranged and how DNA is read. Take a trip through the history of the world's DNA and unlock the future of the field.
The past decade has brought important new advances in the fields of genetics, behavioral genetics, linguistics, language acquisition, studies of language impairment, and brain imaging. Although these advances are each highly relevant to the determination of what a child is innately prepared to bring to language acquisition, the contributing fields of endeavor have traditionally been relatively self-contained, with little cross communication. This volume was developed with the belief that there is considerable value to be gained in the creation of a shared platform for a dialogue across the disciplines. Leading experts in genetics, linguistics, language acquisition, language impairment, and brain imaging are brought together for the purpose of exploring the current evidence, theoretical issues, and research challenges in a way that bridges disciplinary boundaries and points toward future developments in the search for the genetic and environmental bases of language acquisition and impairments. This collection provides discussions and summaries of: *breakthrough findings of the genetic underpinnings of dyslexia; *theoretical and empirical developments in the specification of a phenotype of language acquisition and impairment; *evidence of familiarity and twin concordances of specific language impairment; and *new evidence from brain imaging. It concludes with a critical response from an advocate of rational empiricism.
Genotype-by-Environment Interaction (GEI) is a prevalent issue
among crop farmers, plant breeders, geneticists, and production
agronomists. This book brings together contributions from expert
plant breeders and quantitative geneticists to better understand
the relationship between crop performance and environment. This
information can reduce the cost of extensive genotype evaluation by
eliminating unnecessary testing sites and by fine-tuning breeding
'A focused snapshot of a brave new world.' - Nature
In 2018 the world woke up to gene editing with a storm of controversy over twin girls born in China with genetic changes deliberately introduced by scientists – changes they will pass on to their own offspring.
Genetic modification (GM) has been with us for 45 years now, but the new system known as CRISPR or gene editing can manipulate the genes of almost any organism with a degree of precision, ease and speed that we could only dream of ten years ago.
But is it ethical to change the genetic material of organisms in a way that might be passed on to future generations? If a person is suffering from a lethal genetic disease, is it unethical to deny them this option? Who controls the application of this technology, when it makes ‘biohacking’ – perhaps of one’s own genome – a real possibility? Nessa Carey’s book is a thrilling and timely snapshot of a cutting-edge technology that will radically alter our futures and the way we prevent disease.
We are in the midst of a revolution. It is a scientific revolution built upon the tools of molecular biology, with which we probe and prod the living world in ways unimaginable a few decades ago. Need to track a bacterium at the root of a hospital outbreak? No problem: the offending germ's complete genetic profile can be obtained in 24 hours. We insert human DNA into E. coli bacteria to produce our insulin. It is natural to look at biotechnology in the 21st century with a mix of wonder and fear. But biotechnology is not as 'unnatural' as one might think. All living organisms use the same molecular processes to replicate their genetic material and the same basic code to 'read' their genes. The similarities can be seen in their DNA. Here, John Archibald shows how evolution has been 'plugging-and-playing' with the subcellular components of life from the very beginning and continues to do so today. For evidence, we need look no further than the inner workings of our own cells. Molecular biology has allowed us to gaze back more than three billion years, revealing the microbial mergers and acquisitions that underpin the development of complex life. One Plus One Equals One tells the story of how we have come to this realization and its implications.
Stephen Oppenheimer's extraordinary scientific detective story combining genetics, linguistics, archaeology and historical record shatters the myths we have come to live by. It demonstrates that the Anglo-Saxon invasions contributed just a tiny fraction (5%) to the English gene pool. Two thirds of the English people reveal an unbroken line of genetic descent from south-western Europeans arriving long before the first farmers. The bulk of the remaining third arrived between 7,000 and 3,000 years ago as part of long-term north-west European trade and immigration, especially from Scandinavia - and may have brought with them the earliest forms of English language. As for the Celts - the Irish, Scots and Welsh - history has traditionally placed their origins in Iron Age Central Europe. Oppenheimer's genetic synthesis shows them to have arrived via the Atlantic coastal route from Ice Age refuges including the Basque country; with the modern languages we call Celtic arriving later. There is indeed a deep divide between the English and the rest of the British. But as this book reveals the division is many thousands of years older than previously thought.
This book provides current research on G-quadruplex structures, their formation and role in biology. Chapter One summarizes the structural features of quadruplexes built by sequence extensions and site-specifically incorporated modified building blocks that have been established to induce the formation of stable, majority single G-quadruplex folding topologies, primarily from the human telomere repeat DNAs. Chapter Two discusses the G-quadruplexes and i-motifs as scaffolds for molecular engineering of DNA aptamers. Chapter Three examines the case of the natural alkaloids coptisine and chelerythrine. Chapter Four describes the G-quadruplex induced fluorescent signals that have been employed for the study of their folding and unfolding mechanism and thereby visualisation of their formation and structure. Chapter Five reviews the historical aspect of how major biological roles of G-quadruplexes have been uncovered by the use of specifically designed small molecule probes; and discusses the future applications of G-quadruplex interacting small molecules, including the development as potential drug candidates. Chapter Six focuses on the latest advances in the development of the telomerase assays and the authors further discuss the application potentiality of the assays for clinical samples.
Genetics is taught in all life science related disciplines at the undergraduate level. This laboratory manual meant for beginners is an outcome of the authors' attempt made in the last three years (2012-15) of designing experiments to teach the principles of transmission genetics using Drosophila as a model system. The purpose of Drosophila Resource Centre was to demonstrate the ease of learning genetics through experimentation. Wherever required the existing approaches have also complemented the new effort. The experiments are designed to teach the basic principles of genetics in a one-semester course. More than 90% of the exercises were conducted using a handful of Drosophila mutants. Most of the exercises are organized in a similar fashion covering 6-8 pages. Each exercise provides background information with supporting examples from literature; protocol; observations and calculations (if any) and finally results and discussion. Salient Features: It will bridge the existing gap generally faced in teaching genetics. It is user friendly. Students can independently initiate crosses, analyze and interpret the underlying genetic principle. The manual will serve as a starting point for those who wish to teach genetics through experimentation. Each exercise discusses actual data generated by students in the past three years.
Few people have done as much to change how we view the world as Charles Darwin. Yet On the Origin of Species is more cited than read, and parts of it are even considered outdated. In some ways, it has been consigned to the nineteenth century. In The Theory That Changed Everything, the renowned cognitive scientist Philip Lieberman demonstrates that there is no better guide to the world's living-and still evolving-things than Darwin and that the phenomena he observed are still being explored at the frontiers of science. In an exploration that ranges from Darwin's transformative trip aboard the Beagle to Lieberman's own sojourns in the remotest regions of the Himalayas, this book relates fresh, contemporary findings to the major concepts of Darwinian theory, which transcends natural selection. Drawing on his own research into the evolution of human linguistic and cognitive abilities, Lieberman explains the paths that adapted human anatomy to language. He demystifies the role of recently identified transcriptional and epigenetic factors encoded in DNA, explaining how nineteenth-century Swedish famines alternating with years of plenty caused survivors' grandchildren to die many years short of their life expectancy. Lieberman is equally at home decoding supermarket shelves and climbing with the Sherpas as he discusses how natural selection explains features from lactose tolerance to ease of breathing at Himalayan altitudes. With conversational clarity and memorable examples, Lieberman relates the insights that led to groundbreaking discoveries in both Darwin's time and our own while asking provocative questions about what Darwin would have made of controversial issues today, such as GMOs, endangered species, and the God question.
Surveying the last sixty years of research, this book describes the physical properties of DNA in the context of its biological functioning. It is designed to enable both students and researchers of molecular biology, biochemistry and physics to better understand the biophysics of DNA, addressing key questions and facilitating further research. The chapters integrate theoretical and experimental approaches, emphasising throughout the importance of a quantitative knowledge of physical properties in building and analysing models of DNA functioning. For example, the book shows how the relationship between DNA mechanical properties and the sequence specificity of DNA-protein binding can be analyzed quantitatively by using our current knowledge of the physical and structural properties of DNA. Theoretical models and experimental methods in the field are critically considered to enable the reader to engage effectively with the current scientific literature on the physical properties of DNA.
Accounts are appearing on some facet of genetics in nearly every issue of scientific magazines and often in the daily newspapers. This book sets out to cover the fundamentals of the subject without the details in a much larger genetics text in order to provide background reading for those not studying the subject. It features humans (a lot), other mammals (a good deal) and occasionally other animals to illustrate principles. Although many of the important concepts were established with prokaryotes and plants, the text is confined to animals in order to keep the book a manageable size and since now many of the concepts can be explained using the animal kingdom. Supported with numerous figures and short vignettes, often from current areas of research such as tackling cystic fibrosis with gene directed drugs, genetic analysis of Richard III remains or reconstructing woolly mammoth haemoglobin, the reader will be entertained as they gain knowledge about this important area without going too deeply into the subject. Written in an appealing style, it will be useful to a wide audience from chemists, pharmacists and healthcare professionals.
The new edition of Introducing Genetics is a clear, concise, and accessible guide to inheritance and variation in individuals and populations. It first establishes the principles of Mendelian inheritance and the nature of chromosomes, before tackling quantitative and population genetics. The final three chapters introduce the molecular mechanisms that underlie genetics, including the techniques responsible for the current genetic revolution.
As genetics affects all living organisms, examples are taken from insects, plants, animals, and humans. Each chapter ends with a set of problems to help the reader develop their understanding of genetics.
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