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The development of gene-based technologies has been rapid over the past decade and has consequently resulted in a surge of interest in human gene therapy, the deliberate transfer of genes to somatic cells to cure or alleviate disease symptoms.
This book describes how epigenetic context, in a large sense, affects gene expression and the development of an organism, using the asymptotic limit theorems of information theory to construct statistical models useful in data analysis. The approach allows deep understanding of how embedding context affects development. We find that epigenetic information sources act as tunable catalysts, directing ontogeny into characteristic pathways, a perspective having important implications for epigenetic epidemiology. In sum, environmental stressors can induce a broad spectrum of developmental dysfunctions, and the book explores a number of pandemic chronic diseases, using U.S. data at different scales and levels of organization. In particular, we find the legacy of slavery has been grossly compounded by accelerating industrial decline and urban decay. Individual chapters are dedicated to obesity and its sequelae, coronary heart disease, cancer, mental disorders, autoimmune dysfunction, Alzheimer's disease, and other conditions. Developmental disorders are driven by environmental factors channeled by historical trajectory and are unlikely to respond to medical interventions at the population level in the face of persistent individual and community stress. Drugs powerful enough to affect deleterious epigenetic programming will likely have side effects leading to shortened lifespan. Addressing chronic conditions and developmental disorders requires significant large-scale changes in public policy and resource allocation.
This book presents a long-term study in genetic isolates of indigenous small ethnics of Dagestan, located in the North-East part of Caucasus in Russia. Dagestan is characterized by extreme cultural and linguistic differences in a small geographic area and contains 26 indigenous ethnic groups. According to archeological data these indigenous highland ethnics have been living in the same area for more than ten thousand years. Our long-term population-genetic study of Dagestan indigenous ethnic groups indicates their close relation to each other and suggests that they evolved from one common ancestral meta-population. Dagestan has an extremely high genetic diversity between ethnic populations and a low genetic diversity within them. Such genetic isolates are exceptional resources for the detection of susceptibility genes for complex diseases because of the reduction in genetic and clinical heterogeneity. The founder effect and gene drift in these primary isolates may have caused aggregation of specific haplotypes with limited numbers of pathogenic alleles and loci in some isolates relative to others. The book presents a study in four ethnically and demographically diverse genetic isolates with aggregation of schizophrenia that we ascertained within our Dagestan Genetic Heritage Research Project. The results obtained support the notion that mapping genes of any complex disease (e.g., schizophrenia) in demographically older genetic isolates may be more time and cost effective due to their high clinical and genetic homogeneity, in comparison with demographically younger isolates, especially with genetically heterogeneous outbred populations.
Now in its fifth edition and for the first time available as an electronic product with all entries cross-linked. This very successful long-seller has once again been thoroughly updated and greatly expanded. It now contains over 13,000 entries, and comprehensively covering genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics. Each entry contains an extensive explanation, including a comprehensive listing of synonyms and acronyms, and all formulas have been redrawn to create a uniform style, while most of the figures are custom designed for this dictionary. The ultimate reference for all terms in the -omics fields.
How has DNA come to be seen as a cosmic truth, representative of
all life, potential for all cures, repository for all identity, and
end to all stories? In "The Poetics of DNA," Judith Roof examines
the rise of this powerful symbol and the implications of its
ascendancy for the ways we think-about ourselves, about one
another, and about the universe.
How genes are not the only basis of heredity-and what this means for evolution, human life, and disease For much of the twentieth century it was assumed that genes alone mediate the transmission of biological information across generations and provide the raw material for natural selection. In Extended Heredity, leading evolutionary biologists Russell Bonduriansky and Troy Day challenge this premise. Drawing on the latest research, they demonstrate that what happens during our lifetimes--and even our grandparents' and great-grandparents' lifetimes-can influence the features of our descendants. On the basis of these discoveries, Bonduriansky and Day develop an extended concept of heredity that upends ideas about how traits can and cannot be transmitted across generations. By examining the history of the gene-centered view in modern biology and reassessing fundamental tenets of evolutionary theory, Bonduriansky and Day show that nongenetic inheritance-involving epigenetic, environmental, behavioral, and cultural factors-could play an important role in evolution. The discovery of nongenetic inheritance therefore has major implications for key questions in evolutionary biology, as well as human health. Extended Heredity reappraises long-held ideas and opens the door to a new understanding of inheritance and evolution.
Recent major advances in the field of comparative genomics and cytogenomics of plants, particularly associated with the completion of ambitious genome projects, have uncovered astonishing facets of the architecture and evolutionary history of plant genomes. The aim of this book was to review these recent developments as well as their implications in our understanding of the mechanisms which drive plant diversity. New insights into the evolution of gene functions, gene families and genome size are presented, with particular emphasis on the evolutionary impact of polyploidization and transposable elements. Knowledge on the structure and evolution of plant sex chromosomes, centromeres and microRNAs is reviewed and updated. Taken together, the contributions by internationally recognized experts present a panoramic overview of the structural features and evolutionary dynamics of plant genomes. This volume of Genome Dynamics will provide researchers, teachers and students in the fields of biology and agronomy with a valuable source of current knowledge on plant genomes.
Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is the fundamental building block for an individual's entire genetic make-up. DNA is a powerful tool for law enforcement investigations because each person's DNA is different from that of every other individual (except for identical twins). DNA can be extracted from a number of sources, such as hair, bone, teeth, saliva, and blood. As early as the 1980s, states began enacting laws that required collecting DNA samples from offenders convicted of certain sexual and other violent crimes. The samples were then analysed and their profiles entered into state databases. Meanwhile, the FBI laboratory convened a working group of federal, state, and local forensic scientists to establish guidelines for the use of forensic DNA analysis in laboratories. This book provides an overview of how DNA is used to investigate crimes and help protect the innocent. It reviews current statutory law on collecting DNA samples, sharing DNA profiles, and providing access to post-conviction DNA testing.
The recent literature on whole genome sequences provides abundant evidence for the action of natural genetic engineering in evolution. Discoveries about natural genetic engineering have coincided with rapid progress in our understanding of epigenetic control and RNA-directed chromatin formation. Special attention needs to be paid to the role of viruses and related so-called "parasitic" elements in the origin of genome formatting and natural genetic engineering capabilities especially the role of non-random genetic change operators in the production of complex evolutionary inventions. These Proceedings of the Symposium "Natural Genetic Engineering and Natural Genome Editing" (3-6 July 2008, Salzburg, Austria) assemble scientists working on genome organization, genome restructuring, genome formatting and virus research to discuss how to integrate these discoveries into the basic understanding of evolution, development and disease.
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Exome and genome sequencing are revolutionizing medical research and diagnostics, but the computational analysis of the data has become an extremely heterogeneous and often challenging area of bioinformatics. Computational Exome and Genome Analysis provides a practical introduction to all of the major areas in the field, enabling readers to develop a comprehensive understanding of the sequencing process and the entire computational analysis pipeline.
Race, while drawn from the visual cues of human diversity, is an idea with a measurable past, an identifiable present, and an uncertain future. The concept of race has been at the center of both triumphs and tragedies in American history and has had a profound effect on the human experience. "Race Unmasked" revisits the origins of commonly held beliefs about the scientific nature of racial differences, examines the roots of the modern idea of race, and explains why race continues to generate controversy as a tool of classification even in our genomic age.
Through rigorous historical research, "Race Unmasked" reveals how genetics and related biological disciplines formed and preserved ideas of race and, at times, racism throughout the twentieth century. Surveying the work of some of the twentieth century's most notable scientists, the book tests and then proves the limitations of a racial worldview. This new work is a gripping history of science and scientists that throws the contours of our current and evolving understanding of human diversity into sharp relief.
Advances in research and development reveal the immense diversity and potential of marine genetic resources. Under international law, no specific regime applies to these complex and paradoxical objects of use. The Law of the Sea Convention sets a framework that is partly inadequate for this new category of resources. The Biodiversity Convention and the Nagoya Protocol only address the genetic resources of national areas. Patents allow their holder to exercise a monopoly on exploiting biotechnological creations to extensive claims, questioning the common nature of biodiversity and related knowledge. They hinder research and the objectives of biodiversity law. The legal and practical rules of physical and functional access vary in geometry. They focus on the valorization of research results, crystallizing conflicts of interest between suppliers and users. Sustainable research and development is essential to the knowledge and protection of marine biodiversity. The qualification of marine genetic resources in common, standard contractual tools, distributed research and development infrastructures, negotiation of an agreement on sustainable use and conservation of biodiversity beyond the limits of national jurisdiction, would To remove these inconsistencies.
This book reviews the latest trends and future directions of DNA replication research. The contents reflect upon the principles that have been established through the genetic and enzymatic studies of bacterial, viral, and cellular replication during the past decades. The book begins with a historical overview of the studies on eukaryotic DNA replication by Professor Thomas Kelly, a pioneer of the field. The following chapters include genome-wide studies of replication origins and initiation factor binding, as well as the timing of DNA replications, mechanisms of initiation, DNA chain elongation and termination of DNA replication, the structural basis of functions of protein complexes responsible for execution of DNA replication, cell cycle-dependent regulation of DNA replication, the nature of replication stress and cells' strategy to deal with the stress, and finally how all these phenomena are interconnected to genome instability and development of various diseases. By reviewing the existing concepts ranging from the old principles to the newest ideas, the book gives readers an opportunity to learn how the classical replication principles are now being modified and new concepts are being generated to explain how genome DNA replication is achieved with such high adaptability and plasticity. With the development of new methods including cryoelectron microscopy analyses of huge protein complexes, single molecular analyses of initiation and elongation of DNA replication, and total reconstitution of eukaryotic DNA replication with purified factors, the field is enjoying one of its most exciting moments, and this highly timely book conveys that excitement to all interested readers.
The world population is estimated to reach to more than 10 billion by the year 2050. These projections pose a challenging situation for the agricultural scientists to increase crops productivity to meet the growing food demands. The unavailability and/or inaccessibility to appropriate gene pools with desired traits required to carry out genetic improvement of various crop species make this task formidable for the plant breeders. Incidentally, most of the desired genes reside in the wild genetic relatives of the crop species. Therefore, exploration and characterization of wild genetic resources of important crop species is vital for the efficient utilization of these gene pools for sustainable genetic improvements to assure food security. Further, understanding the myriad complexities of genic and genomic interactions among species, more particularly of wild relatives of crop species and/or phylogenetically distant germplasm, can provide the necessary inputs to increase the effectiveness of genetic improvement through traditional and/or genetic engineering methods. This book provides comprehensive and latest insights on the evolutionary genesis of diversity, access and its utilization in the evolution of various crop species. A comprehensive account of various crops, origin, exploitation of the primary, secondary and tertiary gene pools through breeding, biosystematical, cytogenetical and molecular phylogenetical relationships, and genetic enhancement through biotechnological interventions among others have been provided as the necessary underpinnings to consolidate information on the effective and sustainable utilization of the related genetic resources. The book stresses upon the importance of wild germplasm exploration, characterization and exploitation in the assimilation of important crop species. The book is especially intended for students and scientists working on the genetic improvement of crop species. Plant Breeders, Geneticists, Taxonomists, Molecular Biologists and Plant Biotechnologists working on crop species are going to find this book very useful.
This volume introduces a model of the expansion of cultural capacity as a systemic approach with biological, historical and individual dimensions. It is contrasted with existing approaches from primatology and behavioural ecology; influential factors like differences in life history and demography are discussed; and the different stages of the development of cultural capacity in human evolution are traced in the archaeological record. The volume provides a synthetic view on a) the different factors and mechanisms of cultural development, and b) expansions of cultural capacities in human evolution beyond the capacities observed in animal culture so far. It is an important topic because only a volume of contributions from different disciplines can yield the necessary breadth to discuss the complex subject. The model introduced and discussed originates in the naturalist context and tries to open the discussion to some culturalist aspects, thus the publication in a series with archaeological and biological emphasis is apt. As a new development the synthetic model of expansion of cultural capacity is introduced and discussed in a broad perspective.
This book explores the socio-political implications of human heredity from the second half of the nineteenth century to the present postgenomic moment. It addresses three main phases in the politicization of heredity: the peak of radical eugenics (1900-1945), characterized by an aggressive ethos of supporting the transformation of human society via biological knowledge; the repositioning, after 1945, of biological thinking into a liberal-democratic, human rights framework; and the present postgenomic crisis in which the genome can no longer be understood as insulated from environmental signals. In Political Biology, Maurizio Meloni argues that thanks to the ascendancy of epigenetics we may be witnessing a return to soft heredity - the idea that these signals can cause changes in biology that are themselves transferable to succeeding generations. This book will be of great interest to scholars across science and technology studies, the philosophy and history of science, and political and social theory.
Contributors to this volume discuss advances in Arabidopsis research, including construction of the physical map, sequencing of the genome, and strategies for structure-function analysis. The power of mutagenesis as a tool to gain insights into plant developmental processes is illustrated in a range of stages in the life cycle of Arabidopsis, including embryogenesis, vegetative development, flowering, reproduction and cell death. In addition, the control of metabolism, secretion and biological rhythms is examined and the ways in which development is regulated by such stimuli as plant hormones and light are evaluated. The book should be useful to researchers and postgraduates in plant physiology, development, biochemistry, molecular biology, genetics and crop biotechnology.
"The Handbook of Behavioral Genetics and Phenotyping" represents an integrative approach to neurobehavioural genetics; worldwide experts in their field will review all chapters. Advanced overviews of neurobehavioural characteristics will add immense value to the investigation of animal mutants and provide unique information about the genetics and behavioural understanding of animal models, under both normal and pathological conditions. Cross-species comparisons of neurobehavioural phenotypes will pave the way for an evolutionary understanding of behaviour.
Moreover, while biological sciences are progressing towards a holistic approach to investigate the complexity of organisms (i.e., "systems biology" approach), an integrated analysis of behavioural phenotyping is still lacking. "The" "Handbook of Behavioral Genetics and Phenotyping" strengthens the cross-talk within disciplines that investigate the fundamental basis of behaviour and genetics. This will be the first volume in which traditionally distant fields including genomics, behaviour, electrophysiology, neuroeconomics, and computational neuroscience, among others, are evaluated together and simultaneously accounted for during discussions of future perspectives.
Boiled-down essentials of the top-selling Schaums Outline series for the student with limited time
What could be better than the bestselling Schaums Outline series? For students looking for a quick nuts-and-bolts overview, it would have to be Schaums Easy Outline series. Every book in this series is a pared-down, simplified, and tightly focused version of its predecessor. With an emphasis on clarity and brevity, each new title features a streamlined and updated format and the absolute essence of the subject, presented in a concise and readily understandable form.
Graphic elements such as sidebars, reader-alert icons, and boxed highlights stress selected points from the text, illuminate keys to learning, and give students quick pointers to the essentials.
Genetic Breeding and Molecular Marker-Assisted Selective Breeding of Largemouth Bass provides evidenced-based research that summarizes the theory and practice of genetic breeding. It provides a theoretical basis and technical support for the genetic improvement of largemouth bass varieties, but is also a good reference on the genetic breeding of other farmed fish. As knowledge of systematic studies, including germplasm resources, biology, quantitative genetics, selection breeding, variety hybridization and molecular marker assisted breeding is needed to increase growth performance, this book provides comprehensive information that is suitable for aquatic genetic breeding researchers and undergraduate and graduate students in aquatic genetics and breeding.
"The Selfish Gene" caused a wave of excitement among biologists and the general public when it was first published in 1976. Its vivid rendering of a gene's eye view of life, in lucid prose, gathered together the strands of thought about the nature of natural selection into a conceptual framework with far-reaching implications for our understanding of evolution.Time has confirmed its significance. Intellectually rigorous, yet written in non-technical language, "The Selfish Gene" is widely regarded as a masterpiece of science writing, and its insights remain as relevant today as on the day it was published."This book should be read, can be read, by almost everyone. It describes with great skill a new face of the theory of evolution." ?W. D. Hamilton"Learned, witty, and very well written?exhilaratingly good." ?Sir Peter Medawar, "The Spectator"
The work reported in this book represents an excellent example of how creative experimentation and technology development, complemented by computational data analysis, can yield important insights that further our understanding of biological entities from a systems perspective. The book describes how the study of a single RNA-binding protein and its interaction sites led to the development of the novel `protein occupancy profiling' technology that for the first time captured the mRNA sequence space contacted by the ensemble of expressed RNA binders. Application of protein occupancy profiling to eukaryotic cells revealed that extensive sequence stretches in 3' UTRs can be contacted by RBPs and that evolutionary conservation as well as negative selection act on protein-RNA contact sites, suggesting functional importance. Comparative analysis of the RBP-bound sequence space has the potential to unravel putative cis-acting RNA elements without a priori knowledge of the bound regulators. Here, Dr. Munschauer provides a comprehensive introduction to the field of post-transcriptional gene regulation, examines state-of-the-art technologies, and combines the conclusions from several journal articles into a coherent and logical story from the frontiers of systems-biology inspired life science. This thesis, submitted to the Department of Biology, Chemistry and Pharmacy at Freie Universitat Berlin, was selected as outstanding work by the Berlin Institute for Medical Systems Biology at the Max-Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Germany.
For all introductory genetics courses A forward-looking exploration of essential genetics topics Known for its focus on conceptual understanding, problem solving, and practical applications, this bestseller strengthens problem-solving skills and explores the essential genetics topics that today's students need to understand. The Ninth Edition maintains the text's brief, less-detailed coverage of core concepts and has been extensively updated with relevant, cutting-edge coverage of emerging topics in genetics. MasteringGenetics (TM) is not included. Students, if MasteringGenetics is a recommended/mandatory component of the course, please ask your instructor for the correct ISBN. MasteringGenetics should only be purchased when required by an instructor. Instructors, contact your Pearson representative for more information. Also Available with MasteringGenetics (TM) This title is also available with MasteringGenetics - an online homework and assessment program that guides students through complex topics in genetics and strengthens problem-solving skills using in-depth tutorials that coach students to the correct answers with hints and feedback specific to their misconceptions and errors. MasteringGenetics offers additional opportunities for students to master key concepts and practice problem solving, using interactive tutorials with hints and feedback. Instructors may also assign pre-lecture quizzes, end-of-chapter problems, practice problems, and test bank questions that are automatically scored and entered into the Mastering gradebook. Students, if interested in purchasing this title with MasteringGenetics, ask your instructor for the correct package ISBN and Course ID. Instructors, contact your Pearson representative for more information.
Conventional approaches to proteomics have been augmented with a new generation of technologies unfamiliar to many life science researchers. Proteomics: Methods Express identifies the most powerful of these new technologies and presents them in a way that allows their robust implementation in even non-specialist labs. The focus is on proteomic methods and strategies that are reliable and of general applicability. Each chapter presents descriptions of what can, and currently cannot, be achieved with the relevant procedures so that readers can make informed judgments prior to establishing the methods in-house. This book is an essential laboratory manual for researchers in all biomedical fields and at all levels, from postgraduate student to principal investigator.
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