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This exciting new textbook introduces the concepts and tools essential for upper-level undergraduate study in water resources and hydraulics. Tailored specifically to fit the length of a typical one-semester course, it will prove a valuable resource to students in civil engineering, water resources engineering, and environmental engineering. It will also serve as a reference textbook for researchers, practicing water engineers, consultants, and managers. The book facilitates students' understanding of both hydrologic analysis and hydraulic design. Example problems are carefully selected and solved clearly in a step-by-step manner, allowing students to follow along and gain mastery of relevant principles and concepts. These examples are comparable in terms of difficulty level and content with the end-of-chapter student exercises, so students will become well equipped to handle relevant problems on their own. Physical phenomena are visualized in engaging photos, annotated equations, graphical illustrations, flowcharts, videos, and tables.
Following the success of his first novel Dahab Chris Bean in this second book allows his basic geological training to give credibility to a story of the catastrophic events that overwhelm the planet in 2050. His passion and thrill for adventure combined with a much-travelled life while pursuing his profession as a fisherman and fisheries consultant has given him an insight into situations both harsh and beautiful. In this novel he makes no concessions while depicting the scene of utter desperation in which the main characters find themselves. Using love and hope together as he has done in his own life he shows how to turn around a situation of almost nothing into a viable future. Married and with grown up children and young grandchildren he lives on the Lizard Peninsular in Cornwall. Apart from his fishing activities he is an avid painter and runner in the local Hash House Harriers.
This unique richly-illustrated account of the landforms and geology of the world 's coasts, presented in a country-by-country (state-by-state) sequence, assembles a vast amount of data and images of an endangered and increasingly populated and developed landform. An international panel of 138 coastal experts provides information on what is where on each sector of coast, together with explanations of the landforms, their evolution and the changes taking place on them. As well as providing details on the coastal features of each country (state or county) the compendium can be used to determine the extent of particular features along the world 's coasts and to investigate comparisons and contrasts between various world regions. With more than 1440 color illustrations and photos, it is particularly useful as a source of information prior to researching or just visiting a sector of coast. References are provided to the current literature on coastal evolution and coastline changes.
For many years, planetary science has been taught as part of the astronomy curriculum, from a very physics-based perspective, and from the framework of a tour of the Solar System - body by body. Over the past decades, however, spacecraft exploration and related laboratory research on extraterrestrial materials have given us a new understanding of planets and how they are shaped by geological processes. Based on a course taught at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, this is the first textbook to focus on geologic processes, adopting a comparative approach that demonstrates the similarities and differences between planets, and the reasons for these. Profusely illustrated, and with a wealth of pedagogical features, this book provides an ideal capstone course for geoscience majors - bringing together aspects of mineralogy, petrology, geochemistry, volcanology, sedimentology, geomorphology, tectonics, geophysics and remote sensing.
Geopressure drives fluid flow and is important for hydrocarbon exploration, carbon sequestration, and designing safe and economical wells. This concise guide explores the origins of geopressure and presents a step-by-step approach to characterizing and predicting pressure and least principal stress in the subsurface. The book emphasizes how geology, and particularly the role of flow along permeable layers, drives the development and distribution of subsurface pressure and stress. Case studies, such as the Deepwater Horizon blowout, and laboratory experiments, are used throughout to demonstrate methods and applications. It succinctly discusses the role of elastoplastic behaviour, the full stress tensor, and diagenesis in pore pressure generation, and it presents workflows to predict pressure, stress, and hydrocarbon entrapment. It is an essential guide for academics and professional geoscientists and petroleum engineers interested in predicting pressure and stress, and understanding the role of geopressure in geological processes, well design, hydrocarbon entrapment, and carbon sequestration.
Namibia is a vast, ancient place, its legacy an endless expanse of desert sand fringed by coastal plain and rugged mountain terrain and dotted with geological wonders that remain the country’s most impressive features.
Intrigued by the scenic splendour and entranced by the ever-changing landscape that emerges beyond every corner, every towering dune and every mountaintop, Lily and Marcel Jouve travelled the length and breadth of the country to discover the varying facets of the land and its geology. In Secret Namibia, they share their exploration of the terrain, and reveal its secrets – from the geomorphological make-up to the best routes to follow and the finest places to stay.
From the famed Spitzkoppe to Kaokoland, Etosha National Park to the Fish River Canyon, Sossusvlei to Sandwich Harbour, this is Namibia through their lens, their celebration of its rock and sand, valley, canyon and plain – and the unique flora and fauna found in these landscapes. Secret Namibia is an invitation to discover, through word and image, the intriguing natural features of this wild country.
This textbook is a complete rewrite, and expansion of Hugh Rollinson's highly successful 1993 book Using Geochemical Data: Evaluation, Presentation, Interpretation. Rollinson and Pease's new book covers the explosion in geochemical thinking over the past three decades, as new instruments and techniques have come online. It provides a comprehensive overview of how modern geochemical data are used in the understanding of geological and petrological processes. It covers major element, trace element, and radiogenic and stable isotope geochemistry. It explains the potential of many geochemical techniques, provides examples of their application, and emphasizes how to interpret the resulting data. Additional topics covered include the critical statistical analysis of geochemical data, current geochemical techniques, effective display of geochemical data, and the application of data in problem solving and identifying petrogenetic processes within a geological context. It will be invaluable for all graduate students, researchers, and professionals using geochemical techniques.
Rivers are important agents of change that shape the Earth's surface and evolve through time in response to fluctuations in climate and other environmental conditions. They are fundamental in landscape development, and essential for water supply, irrigation, and transportation. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the geomorphological processes that shape rivers and that produce change in the form of rivers. It explores how the dynamics of rivers are being affected by anthropogenic change, including climate change, dam construction, and modification of rivers for flood control and land drainage. It discusses how concern about environmental degradation of rivers has led to the emergence of management strategies to restore and naturalize these systems, and how river management techniques work best when coordinated with the natural dynamics of rivers. This textbook provides an excellent resource for students, researchers, and professionals in fluvial geomorphology, hydrology, river science, and environmental policy.
Salt marshes are highly dynamic and important ecosystems that dampen impacts of coastal storms and are an integral part of tidal wetland systems, which sequester half of all global marine carbon. They are now being threatened due to sea-level rise, decreased sediment influx, and human encroachment. This book provides a comprehensive review of the latest salt marsh science, investigating their functions and how they are responding to stresses through formation of salt pannes and pools, headward erosion of tidal creeks, marsh-edge erosion, ice-fracturing, and ice-rafted sedimentation. Written by experts in marsh ecology, coastal geomorphology, wetland biology, estuarine hydrodynamics, and coastal sedimentation, it provides a multidisciplinary summary of recent advancements in our knowledge of salt marshes. The future of wetlands and potential deterioration of salt marshes is also considered, providing a go-to reference for graduate students and researchers studying these coastal systems, as well as marsh managers and restoration scientists.
This is the first textbook to address all the components of the Earth's cryosphere - all forms of snow and ice, both terrestrial and marine. It provides a concise but comprehensive summary of snow cover, glaciers, ice sheets, lake and river ice, permafrost, sea ice and icebergs - their past history and projected future state. It is designed for courses at upper undergraduate and graduate level in environmental science, geography, geology, glaciology, hydrology, water resource engineering and ocean sciences. It also provides a superb up-to-date summary for researchers of the cryosphere. The book includes an extensive bibliography, numerous figures and color plates, thematic boxes on selected topics and a glossary. The book builds on courses taught by the authors for many decades at the University of Colorado and the University of Alberta. Whilst there are many existing texts on individual components of the cryosphere, no other textbook covers the whole cryosphere.
Glacially triggered faulting describes movement of pre-existing faults caused by a combination of tectonic and glacially induced isostatic stresses. The most impressive fault-scarps are found in northern Europe, assumed to be reactivated at the end of the deglaciation. This view has been challenged as new faults have been discovered globally with advanced techniques such as LiDAR, and fault activity dating has shown several phases of reactivation thousands of years after deglaciation ended. This book summarizes the current state-of-the-art research in glacially triggered faulting, discussing the theoretical aspects that explain the presence of glacially induced structures and reviews the geological, geophysical, geodetic and geomorphological investigation methods. Written by a team of international experts, it provides the first global overview of confirmed and proposed glacially induced faults, and provides an outline for modelling these stresses and features. It is a go-to reference for geoscientists and engineers interested in ice sheet-solid Earth interaction.
The ice mountains of the Karakoram are among the world's greatest natural treasures. At 8611 metres (28,251 ft), K2 is the second tallest mountain on Earth. There are three other mountains in the range that top 8000 metres (26,247 ft) - Gasherbrum I, Broad Peak and Gasherbrum II - and more than 60 peaks above 7000 metres (22,966 ft). Extending in a south-easterly direction from the north-eastern tip of Afghanistan and spanning the borders of Pakistan, India and China, the Karakoram is part of a complex of ranges in Central Asia that includes the Hindu Kush to the west and the Himalayas to the south-east. These mountains, however, are distinctive. This is the most glaciated region on the planet outside the Arctic and Antarctic. But while most of the world's great peaks are almost blanketed in snow and ice, the Karakoram is an exception: the mountains are so vertical that they rapidly shed snow, leaving their bold, jagged outlines of black granite glistening in the sun. The name of the range comes from the Turkic term for 'black rock' or 'black gravel'. The well-known landscape photographer Colin Prior was initially inspired to visit the Karakoram in his early twenties: in his local library he picked up the book In the Throne Room of the Mountain Gods (1977) by the American climber and photographer Galen Rowell, and was instantly captivated by images of the sharp, fractured peaks and vast glaciers. His first trip to the Karakoram came in the mid-1990s, and he has been passionate about these mountains ever since. Prior's new book is the result of six expeditions he has made to the Gilgit-Baltistan region of north-east Pakistan over the last six years. Because the region is so remote, there are no established base camps, and each expedition requires careful planning and miles of trekking with a large team of guides, porters and ponies to carry the equipment and provisions. There are regular rock falls and perilous snow-covered crevasses to contend with. The reward for Prior is what he calls the ultimate mountain landscape: 'The scenery is graphic, with towers, minarets and cathedrals of rock.' This beautifully produced volume showcases the breathtaking beauty of the Karakoram in some 130 duotone and colour photographs. The images are largely arranged to follow Prior's progress up the glaciers, and are accompanied by well-chosen quotations from accounts of historical expeditions to the region. A selection of 'making of' images at the end of the book highlights the challenges of documenting the most exceptional mountain range in the world.
This book focuses on Romania's more than 12,000 caves, which developed in limestone (including thermal water caves), salt, gypsum, and occasionally in sandstone. It examines these caves and related topics in a format suitable for cavers, while also addressing a broad range of aspects useful for students and researchers. Since the Institute of Speleology was first established by Emil Racovita in 1920, a great deal of research has been conducted on all cave and karst types. As such, the book examines a variety of scientific fields, including karst geology, hydrogeology, biospeleology, paleoclimatology, mineralogy and archaeology.
The book contributes to understanding the pattern of strain release and the level of seismic hazard imposed by large-great earthquakes in the frontal fold-thrust belts of Kumaun and Garhwal regions of Uttarakhand. The motivation for active fault studies and their characterization have been emphasized. The book presents the compilation of knowledge garnered in multidisciplinary or proxy studies involved in the understanding of seismic hazard in general and Kumaun-Garhwal Himalaya regions in particular with lucid new maps draped on modern Cartosat or SRTM DEM data. It also discusses satellite image calibration, active faults identifications, and map productions with flowchart. The book discusses window-wise active fault elements with attributes together with the tectonic geomorphic map. It also includes active fault scarp with topographic profile along with field photographs. Finally, it reviews all existing seismotectonic models of the Himalaya, its earthquake hazard, and its vulnerability, specifically for Kumaun and Garhwal regions.
This book provides a comprehensive overview of the evolution of one of the oldest and best-exposed Archaean cratons on this planet. There is currently a renewed interest in the early Earth, and the Kaapvaal craton has long served as a model for early crustal evolution. This unique multidisciplinary resource features information on geology, tectonics, geochemistry, and geochronology. It offers a wealth of new data on various aspects of the craton as well as contributions on the various crustal units by international specialists.
This book serves as a guide to discovering the most interesting volcano sites in Italy. Accompanied by some extraordinary contemporary images of active Neapolitan volcanoes, it explains the main volcanic processes that have been shaping the landscape of the Campania region and influencing human settlements in this area since Greek and Roman times and that have prompted leading international scientists to visit and study this natural volcanology laboratory. While volcanology is the central topic, the book also addresses other aspects related to the area's volcanism and is divided into three sections: 1) Neapolitan volcanic activity and processes (with a general introduction to volcanology and its development around Naples together with descriptions of the landscape and the main sites worth visiting); 2) Volcanoes and their interactions with local human settlements since the Bronze Age, recent population growth and the transformation of the territory; 3) The risks posed by Neapolitan Volcanoes, their recent activity and the problem of forecasting any future eruption.
This heavily illustrated book contains descriptions and geologic interpretations of photographs (mostly aerial) illustrating the power and magnitude of repeated Ice Age flooding in the Pacific Northwest, as recently as 14,000 years ago. The scale of Ice Age floods was so huge that today it is often difficult to see and appreciate the power and magnitude of such megafloods from ground level. However, from the air, landforms created by the floods often come into clear focus. Aerial images, obtained via unmanned aerial vehicle (drone) as well as fixed-wing airplane, add a new perspective on evidence gathered by dozens of scientists since 1923.
A summary of the results achieved in the geological-structural mapping, by potential fields and airborne gamma spectrometry data, of the units of igneous and metamorphic rocks in the western regions (Havana-Matanzas), central (Cienfuegos, Villa Clara-Sancti Spiritus) and central-eastern (Camaguey-Las Tunas-Holguin) of Cuba is presented. In addition, the structural- tectonic regionalization with hydrocarbon exploration purposes, focusing mapping of possible new oil-gas targets in the regions of Land Blocks 9, 23 and 17-18 are detailed in this volume. In certain case study locations (Majaguillar, North Motembo, Guamutas and Maniabon) reconnaissance work by a profile of Redox Complex (complex of unconventional geophysical-geochemical exploration techniques) was performed with positive results. In an attempt to contribute to the geological-structural mapping of the metamorphic massif Isla de la Juventud, with emphasis on acid magmatism, the gravi-magnetometric data is used. According to the results, the presumed post metamorphic granitic bodies of low density are located, mainly, in the central and southwestern part of the massif. The granitic bodies apparently were introduced through the system of longitudinal faults (syn metamorphic) and transverse (post metamorphic) at the end of the process multyfolding and metamorphism of the massif sequences, taking a leading role the deep longitudinal fracture zones of sublatitudinal direction in the central and southern part of the massif. On the map of the magnetic field vertical derivative the anomalies, basically, reflected the direction and limits of the folded tectonic structure, the development area of volcanogenic rocks, the presumed development zones of migmatitic rocks and tectonised rocks in North and center of the massif, respectively, and the prevailing direction of the main tectonic dislocations.
This proceedings volume presents selected research highlights from the Sixth Argentine Geomorphology and Quaternary Studies Congress, hosted at CADIC, Ushuaia, on April 8-12, 2015 by the Argentine Association of Geomorphology and Quaternary Studies (AACYG). The congress included special sessions, symposia, invited lectures and posters on the following topics: Quaternary stratigraphy and geochronology, paleontology (diatoms, mollusks, foraminifera, palynology, phytoliths, paleobotany, vertebrates), dendrochronology, climate change, paleoclimate, Pampean Quaternary paleolimnology, paleomagnetism, environmental magnetism, hydrogeochemical processes, geoarchaeology, geomorphology, structural geology and neotectonics, paleosurfaces, volcanism, geological hazards, assets, geomorphosites, and digital mapping. The Scientific Committee of the Congress has selected the papers published in this volume from more than 150 contributions in many different disciplines.
The book aims to present the unique geomorphological landscapes of the Czech Republic. The geomorphic uniqueness of this country benefits from the proximity to two distinct European geological domains: the old cratonized Bohemian Massif and the relatively young Tertiary fold and thrust belt of the Western Carpathians. Landscapes and Landforms of the Czech Republic introduces general physiographical characteristics of the landscape and presents the main driving factors leading to the evolution of the present landscape. The book contains twenty two chapters describing the most interesting geomorphic landscapes of the Czech Republic. The selection of individual landscapes was based on visual exceptionality (e.g. sandstone landscapes of the Northern Bohemia), scientific importance (e.g. patterned grounds in the Sudetic Mountains) and historical relevance (e.g. mining of the Nizky and Hruby Jesenik Mountains). The final chapters of the book discuss the protection of geomorphic heritage in the Czech Republic.
This book will broaden readers' understanding of pegmatites in a special geodynamic setting, dealing with the emplacement of the Hagendorf-Pleystein Pegmatite Province (HPPP) in the Central European Variscides. This treatise illustrates the complex processes leading to the formation and partial destruction of the pegmatites, documenting the geochronological, chemical, mineralogical, geological and geomorphological / sedimentological data set. The book starts with a detailed account of the economic geology of the various pegmatites, explaining why these deposits are a major resource of ceramic raw materials. In its concluding section, a model of the pegmatite evolution in an ensialic orogen provides meaningful insights into the genetic aspects of pegmatite generation. The Late Paleozoic rare-element pegmatites of the HPPP, Oberpfalz-SE, Germany, rank among the largest concentrations in Europe. The biggest pegmatite of this mining district totals 4.4 million tons of ore (Hagendorf-South). The mining history of the HPPP is restricted to the 20th century, when local entrepreneurs started mining operations in search of ceramic raw materials, feldspar and quartz. Today the "Silbergrube Aplite" is still worked for feldspar. The traditional mining of pegmatitic and aplitic rocks in Central Europe, such as the Bohemian Massif, which is shared by Germany, the Czech Republic, Poland and Austria, has been focused on these industrial minerals. In addition to these major commodities, lithium was mined for a period of time. But even today many of these pegmatites of calc-alkaline affiliation have not lost their appeal to mineralogists and mineral enthusiasts for their wealth of minerals that contain P, Nb, Ta, Li, Be, B, U, Th, Sc, Ti and Sn. The most favorable crustal section to bring about pegmatitic rocks of this type, encompassing pegmatoids, metapegmatites, reactivated pseudopegmatites and pegmatites sensu stricto is the ensialic orogen, exemplified by the Variscan (Hercynian) Orogen, which geodynamically connects the Paleozoic pegmatite provinces in North America and Europe. The geological history of the HPPP, however, goes much further than the Carboniferous-Permian magmatic activity, when the last structural disturbances of the Variscan orogeny affected the NE-Bavarian Basement between 450 and 330 Ma. During this time mafic magmatic rocks together with calcareous and arenaceous sediments were converted into paragneisses, calcsilicate rocks, and amphibolites. It is the period of time when tectonic shortening led to over thrusting and when the emplacement of nappes and the architectural elements of the ensialic orogen began taking shape. During the Late Permian, the Mesozoic and the Cenozoic, the HPPP did not lie idle in geological terms; hypogene and supergene alteration continued and found its most recent expression in alluvial-fluvial "nigrine" placer deposits, which resulted from the unroofing of the pegmatites and aplites in the HPPP and can be used even outside HPPP as an ore guide to pegmatites.
This book takes an in depth look at a novel methodology for analyzing Global Positioning System (GPS) data to obtain the highest possible resolution surface imaging of tectonic deformation sources without prescribing the nature of either the sources or the subsurface medium. GPS methods are widely used to track the surface expression of crustal deformation at tectonic plate boundaries, and are typically expressed in terms of velocity fields or strain rate fields. Vertical derivatives of horizontal stress (VDoHS) rates at the Earth's surface can also be derived from GPS velocities, and VDoHS rates provide much higher resolution information about subsurface deformation sources than velocities or strain rates. In particular, VDoHS rates allow for high precision estimates of fault dips, slip rates and locking depths, as well as objective characterization of previously unknown (or hidden) tectonic deformation zones.
An international team of over 150 experts provide up-to-date satellite imaging and quantitative analysis of the state and damics of the glaciers around the world, and they provide an in-depth review if analysis methodologies. Includes an e-published supplement.
Global Land Ice Measurements from Space - Satellite Multispectral Imaging of Glaciers (GLIMS book for short) is the leading state-of-the-art technical and interpretive presentation of satellite image data and analysis of the changing state of the world's glaciers. The book is the most definitive, comprehensive product of a global glacier remote sensing consortium, Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS, http: //www.glims.org).With 33 chapters and a companion e-supplement, the world's foremost experts in satellite image analysis of glaciers analyze the current state and recent and possible future changes of glaciers across the globe and interpret these findings for policy planners.
Climate change is with us for some time to come, and its impacts are being felt by the world's population. The GLIMS Book, to be released about the same time as the IPCC's 5th Assessment report onglobal climate warming, buttresses and adds rich details andauthority to the global change community's understanding of climate change impacts on the cryosphere. Thiswill be a definitive and technically complete reference for experts and students examining the responses of glaciers to climate change. Worldexperts demonstrate thatglaciers are changing in response to the ongoing climatic upheavalin addition to otherfactors that pertain to the circumstances of individual glaciers. The globalmosaic ofglacier changes is documented by quantitative analyses and are placed into a perspective of causative factors. Starting with a Foreword, Preface, and Introduction, theGLIMS book gives the rationale for and history of glaciermonitoring and satellite data analysis.It includes a comprehensive set of six "how-to"methodology chapters, twenty-five chaptersdetailing regional glacier state and dynamical changes, andan in-depth summary andinterpretation chapter placing theobserved glacier changes into a globalcontext of thecoupled atmosphere-land-ocean system.
An accompanying e-supplement will include oversize imagery and other other highly visual renderings of scientific data."
This book offers a comprehensive overview of the alluvial fan phenomena, including all terminology, morphology, sedimentology, controlling factors, processes and the human impact. It combines the knowledge dispersed widely in existing literature with regional case studies, color figures and photographs. The chapters provide a useful basis to understand alluvial fans and a selection of papers attached to each chapter offers additional, more focused reading. This volume is aimed at engineers, planners and especially students in earth sciences.
Some years ago Edward Cole, a West Indian living in London, discovered an extraordinary natural limestone landscape on land he had bought in Trelawny, Jamaica, to build a house. Ever since the discovery he has worked tirelessly to expose and display the stones, created by nature millions of years ago and since buried by earth, trees and bushes, in order to allow them to be seen by the public. There are few if any other places in the world where you can see such a rich array of examples of nature's work in carving rock formations from limestone. They have now been used to create an artful range of displays as the basis of the Limestone Garden. This book is designed to inspire the reader and to reach a wider geological audience.
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