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Every rock has a story tell, and none more so than those which have fallen from the sky: meteorites. Originating in the Asteroid Belt between Mars and Jupiter, these rocky fragments offer clues not just to the earliest origins of the Solar System but also to Earth's very survival into the future. Sky at Night presenter, Dr Tim Gregory takes us on a journey through the very earliest days of our Solar System to the spectacular meteorite falls that produced 'fiery rain' in 1792, to the pre-solar grains (literally stardust) that were blown in from other solar systems and are the oldest solid objects ever discovered on earth. Meteorites reveal a story much bigger than ourselves or our planet. As Tim says, 'it is an epic beyond compare'.
For many years, planetary science has been taught as part of the astronomy curriculum, from a very physics-based perspective, and from the framework of a tour of the Solar System - body by body. Over the past decades, however, spacecraft exploration and related laboratory research on extraterrestrial materials have given us a new understanding of planets and how they are shaped by geological processes. Based on a course taught at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, this is the first textbook to focus on geologic processes, adopting a comparative approach that demonstrates the similarities and differences between planets, and the reasons for these. Profusely illustrated, and with a wealth of pedagogical features, this book provides an ideal capstone course for geoscience majors - bringing together aspects of mineralogy, petrology, geochemistry, volcanology, sedimentology, geomorphology, tectonics, geophysics and remote sensing.
Geopressure drives fluid flow and is important for hydrocarbon exploration, carbon sequestration, and designing safe and economical wells. This concise guide explores the origins of geopressure and presents a step-by-step approach to characterizing and predicting pressure and least principal stress in the subsurface. The book emphasizes how geology, and particularly the role of flow along permeable layers, drives the development and distribution of subsurface pressure and stress. Case studies, such as the Deepwater Horizon blowout, and laboratory experiments, are used throughout to demonstrate methods and applications. It succinctly discusses the role of elastoplastic behaviour, the full stress tensor, and diagenesis in pore pressure generation, and it presents workflows to predict pressure, stress, and hydrocarbon entrapment. It is an essential guide for academics and professional geoscientists and petroleum engineers interested in predicting pressure and stress, and understanding the role of geopressure in geological processes, well design, hydrocarbon entrapment, and carbon sequestration.
This textbook is a complete rewrite, and expansion of Hugh Rollinson's highly successful 1993 book Using Geochemical Data: Evaluation, Presentation, Interpretation. Rollinson and Pease's new book covers the explosion in geochemical thinking over the past three decades, as new instruments and techniques have come online. It provides a comprehensive overview of how modern geochemical data are used in the understanding of geological and petrological processes. It covers major element, trace element, and radiogenic and stable isotope geochemistry. It explains the potential of many geochemical techniques, provides examples of their application, and emphasizes how to interpret the resulting data. Additional topics covered include the critical statistical analysis of geochemical data, current geochemical techniques, effective display of geochemical data, and the application of data in problem solving and identifying petrogenetic processes within a geological context. It will be invaluable for all graduate students, researchers, and professionals using geochemical techniques.
This heavily illustrated book contains descriptions and geologic interpretations of photographs (mostly aerial) illustrating the power and magnitude of repeated Ice Age flooding in the Pacific Northwest, as recently as 14,000 years ago. The scale of Ice Age floods was so huge that today it is often difficult to see and appreciate the power and magnitude of such megafloods from ground level. However, from the air, landforms created by the floods often come into clear focus. Aerial images, obtained via unmanned aerial vehicle (drone) as well as fixed-wing airplane, add a new perspective on evidence gathered by dozens of scientists since 1923.
From exploring the basic principles of geology to starting a rock and mineral collection, The Practical Geologist is the perfect introduction to the world of earth science.
Beginning with a history of the earth's formation and development, this book explores the substances that compose the planet, movements within the earth, the surface effects of weather and water, and underground landscapes.
It shows you how to search for, identify, and extract samples of various rocks and minerals, and for each rock and mineral type there is a brief mineralogy and explanation of its locations. There are also sections on mapping, preparing, and curating specimens, and geological sites on the six continents.
Packed with more than 200 full-color illustrations, this comprehensive guide is the essential practical companion for natural science enthusiasts everywhere.
Marine sediments dominate the global seabed, creating the largest ecosystem on earth. Seafloor biodiversity is a key mediator of ecosystem functioning, yet critical processes are often excluded from global biogeochemical budgets or simplified to black boxes in ecosystem models. This accessible textbook provides an ideal point of entry into the field, providing basic information on the nature of soft-sediment ecosystems, examples of how and why we research them, the new questions these studies inspire, and the applications that ultimately benefit society. While focussing on coastal habitats (<200m depth) to emphasize process-based experimental studies, it is relevant to the full range of marine sedimentary habitats. The authors describe the interactions between marine organisms and their physical and chemical environment, demonstrating the need for carefully designed research programs and providing the basic steps required to formulate sound ecological questions before applying them to empirical studies of real-world ecosystems. The book reveals the connections between different system components and drivers of change, examining how we can develop knowledge on the biodiversity and functioning of soft sediments and apply it to a better understanding of ecosystem change, human impacts, and effective restoration. Ecology of Coastal Marine Sediments is intended for advanced undergraduate and graduate students who have completed a general ecology course but received no further training in marine science. It will also be useful to both professional researchers and resource managers in marine ecology and environmental science who seek a compact and authoritative introduction to sediment ecology.
An extraordinary life, recorded for posterity, by a man who beat adversity in his earlier days to fulfil his ambition to succeed in the commercial world. John Lucken tells the story of his time from an old-style naval school of the 1930s, thorugh WW11 and the Korean War to entering the field of hydrographic survey and exploration worldwide. He recalls working in Borneo and in the former Dutch New Guinea before the arrival there of the powerful mining companies and the influx of thousands of immigrants from other parts of Indonesia. He was present in Nigeria when the first oil well was discovered and stayed in contact throughout the Biafran civil war. Emotional recollections that are a real eye-opener and a lesson to anyone sat behind a desk in Britain about just how different a life can be.
Carbon plays a fundamental role on Earth. It forms the chemical backbone for all essential organic molecules produced by living organisms. Carbon-based fuels supply most of society's energy, and atmospheric carbon dioxide has a huge impact on Earth's climate. This book provides a complete history of the emergence and development of the new interdisciplinary field of deep carbon science. It traces four centuries of history during which the inner workings of the dynamic Earth were discovered, and documents extraordinary scientific revolutions that changed our understanding of carbon on Earth forever: carbon's origin in exploding stars; the discovery of the internal heat source driving the Earth's carbon cycle; and the tectonic revolution. Written with an engaging narrative style and covering the scientific endeavours of more than a hundred pioneers of deep geoscience, this is a fascinating book for students and researchers working in Earth system science and deep carbon research.
Soil and Sediment Remediation discusses in detail a whole set of remediative technologies currently available to minimise their impact. Technologies for the treatment of soils and sediments in situ (landfarming, bioscreens, bioventing, nutrient injection, phytoremediation) and ex situ (landfarming, bio-heap treatment, soil suspension reactor) will be discussed. The microbiological, process technological and socio-economical aspects of these technologies will be addressed. Special attention will be given to novel biotechnological processes that utilise sulfur cycle conversions, e.g. sulfur and heavy metal removal from soils. Also the potential of phytoremediation will be highlighted. In addition, treatment schemes for the clean-up of polluted megasites, e.g. harbours and Manufactured Gaswork Plants (MGP), will be elaborated. The aim of Soil and Sediment Remediation is to introduce the reader in: the biogeochemical characteristics of soil and sediments- new techniques to study soil/sediment processes (molecular probes, microelectrodes, NMR) clean up technologies for soils polluted with organic (PAH, NAPL, solvents) or inorganic (heavy metals) pollutants- preventative and remediative strategies and technologies available in environmental engineering novel process applications and bioreactor designs for bioremediation the impact of soil pollution on society and its economic importance.
The first field guide that allows amateur rock enthusiasts to identify basic rocks and rock formations in a systematic way Many of us are fascinated by rocks-but identifying them can seem daunting. It's often tricky even for geologists, who rely on experience, intuition, and in-depth familiarity with rock-forming components. Rocks and Rock Formations allows everyone, amateur or professional, to successfully distinguish these amazing masses of minerals, using only careful observation, a magnifying glass, a pocket knife-and a bit of patience. Jurg Meyer provides a structured approach to the identification of all rocks within the three groups: sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic. Bringing together more than 530 diagrams and photographs to illustrate essential characteristics, Meyer highlights some basics on rocks-their mineral constituents, structures, textures, fossils, weathering patterns, and more-which are important for a determination. The main part of the book is a handy and thorough identification key, which takes into account all possible rock variations, mixtures, and structural differences. The concluding section of the guide delves into rock systematics. Assuming little prior experience or knowledge, Rocks and Rock Formations is an invaluable resource for rock enthusiasts everywhere. Suitable for beginners and amateurs Helpful, systematic identification key Exploration of all types of rocks More than 530 diagrams and photographs
For courses in Earth Systems Science offered in departments of Geology, Earth Science, Geography and Environmental Science. The first textbook of its kind that addresses the issues of global change from a true Earth systems perspective, The Earth System offers a solid emphasis on lessons from Earth's history that may guide decision-making in the future. It is more rigorous and quantitative than traditional Earth science books, while remaining appropriate for non-science majors.
During the last three decades geosciences and geo-engineering were influenced by two essential scenarios: First, the technological progress has changed completely the observational and measurement techniques. Modern high speed computers and satellite based techniques are entering more and more all geodisciplines. Second, there is a growing public concern about the future of our planet, its climate, its environment and about an expected shortage of natural resources. Obviously, both aspects, viz. efficient strategies of protection against threats of a changing Earth and the exceptional situation of getting terrestrial, airborne as well as space borne data of better and better quality explain the strong need of new mathematical structures, tools and methods. Mathematics concerned with geoscientific problems, i.e., Geomathematics, is becoming increasingly important. The 'Handbook of Geomathematics' deals with the qualitative and quantitative properties for the current and possible structures of the system Earth. As a central reference work it comprises the following geoscientific fields: (I) observational and measurement key technologies (II) modelling of the system Earth (geosphere, cryosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere) (III) analytic, algebraic and operator-theoretic methods (IV) statistical and stochastic methods (V) computational and numerical analysis methods (VI) historical background and future perspectives.
Environmental Impacts of Mining is a comprehensive reference addressing some of the most significant environmental problems associated with mining. These issues include destruction of landscapes, destruction of agricultural and forest lands, sedimentation and erosion, soil contamination, surface and groundwater pollution, air pollution, and waste management. The book presents an agenda for minimizing environmental damage and offers solutions for the restoration and remediation of degraded areas. This book is a "must have" for environmental consultants, regulators, planners, workers in the mining industry, geologists, hydrologists, hazardous waste professionals, and instructors in the environmental sciences.
Petroleum Geoscience, 2nd edition is a comprehensive introduction to the application of geology and geophysics to the search for and production of oil and gas. The aim this updated second edition remains the same - to provide a comprehensive grounding in the geological sciences as applied to exploration for and production of oil and gas. Uniquely, this book is structured to reflect the sequential and cyclical processes of exploration, appraisal, development and production. Chapters dedicated to each of these aspects are further illustrated by new case histories drawn from the authors' experiences. Petroleum Geoscience, 2nd edition has a global and 'geo-temporal' backdrop, drawing examples and case histories from around the world and from petroleum systems ranging in age from late-Pre-Cambrian to Pliocene. In order to show how geoscience is integrated at all levels within the industry, the authors stress throughout the links between geology and geophysics on the one hand, and drilling, reservoir engineering, petrophysics, petroleum engineering, facilities design, and health, safety and the environment on the other. Discovery and production of petroleum underpinned global development throughout the twentieth century but times are changing. Combustion of fossil fuels and release of greenhouse gases, mainly carbon dioxide, is driving climate change. The skills and knowledge of the petroleum geoscientist also find application in carbon storage in and heat recovery (geothermal energy) from the Earth. This second edition addresses such technologies in the newly added Chapter 7. The target readership is mainly final year undergraduates and postgraduates in the earth sciences together with little-experienced technical staff within the petroleum industry. The book draws on a large variety of examples from many basins around the world and as a consequence should appeal to those interested in petroleum geoscience, whether they be in Aberdeen or Abu Dhabi, Houston or Ho Chi Min.
The Abiquiu region includes some of the most spectacular and diverse geology in the state of New Mexico. A triple junction of geologic provinces, including the Colorado Plateau, the Rio Grande Rift, and the Jemez Volcanic Field, coincide to tell a fascinating story of landscape evolution in constant change. Abiquiu: The Geologic History of O'Keeffe Country presents the three-hundred-million-year history told by the rocks of the Abiquiu area. With stunning photographs, timelines, and a regional geologic map, noted geologist Kirt Kempter explains the geologic story and landscape evolution of the region for travelers, hikers, and armchair geologists. With large-scale aerial photographs showing major geologic features, explanations of volcanic activity related to the Rio Grande Rift, and detailed descriptions of geologic strata that make up O'Keeffe's beloved Cerro Pedernal, Abiquiu tells the many chapters of changing environments and landscapes from Abiquiu's geologic past.
Volcanoes are capable of acts of pyrotechnical prowess verging on magic: they spout black magma more fluid than water, create shimmering cities of glass at the bottom of the ocean and frozen lakes of lava on the moon and can even tip entire planets over. Despite their reputation for destruction, volcanoes are inseparable from the creation of our planet. Super Volcanoes revels in the incomparable power of volcanic eruptions past and present, Earth-bound and otherwise, it explores how these eruptions reveal secrets about the worlds to which they belong. Science journalist and volcanologist Robin George Andrews describes the stunning ways in which volcanoes can sculpt the sea, land and sky, and even influence the machinery that makes or breaks the existence of life. Travelling from Hawaii, Tanzania, Yellowstone and the ocean floor to the moon, Venus and Mars, Andrews explores cutting-edge discoveries and lingering scientific mysteries surrounding these phenomenal forces of nature.
A degree in geology is a rock-solid step toward success
You've worked hard for that geology degree. Now what? Sometimes the choice of careers can seem endless; the most difficult part of a job search is narrowing down your options.
"Great Jobs for Geology Majors" will help you choose the right career out of the myriad possibilities at your disposal. It provides detailed profiles of careers in your field along with the basic skills necessary to begin a focused job search. You'll soon be on the fast track to landing a job that satisfies your personal, professional, and practical needs.
"Great Jobs for Geology Majors" will help you: Determine the occupation that's best suited to you Craft a resume and cover letter that stand out from the rest Learn from practicing professionals about everyday life on the job Become familiar with current statistics on salaries and trends within the profession
Go from geology major to:
Volcanologist * Soil scientist * Economic geologist * Geodynamacist * Laboratory technician * Paleoceanographer *Architect * Petroleum engineer * Surveyor
The traces of much of human history - and that which preceded it - lie beneath the ocean surface; broken up, dispersed, often buried and always mysterious. This is fertile ground for speculation, even myth-making, but also a topic on which geologists and climatologists have increasingly focused in recent decades. We now know enough to tell the true story of some of the continents and islands that have disappeared throughout Earth's history, to explain how and why such things happened, and to unravel the effects of submergence on the rise and fall of human civilizations. In Worlds in Shadow Patrick Nunn sifts the facts from the fiction, using the most up-to-date research to work out which submerged places may have actually existed versus those that probably only exist in myth. He looks at the descriptions of recently drowned lands that have been well documented, those that are plausible, and those that almost certainly didn't exist. Going even further back, Patrick examines the presence of more ancient lands, submerged beneath the waves in a time that even the longest-reaching folk memory can't touch. Such places may have played important roles in human evolution, but can only be reconstructed through careful geological detective work. Exploring how lands become submerged, whether from sea-level changes, tectonic changes, gravity collapse, giant waves or volcanoes, helps us determine why, when and where land may disappear in the future, and what might be done to prevent it.
The Gulf of Mexico Basin is one of the most prolific hydrocarbon-producing basins in the world, with an estimated endowment of 200 billion barrels of oil equivalent. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the basin, spanning the US, Mexico and Cuba. Topics covered include conventional and unconventional reservoirs, source rocks and associated tectonics, basin evolution from the Mesozoic to Cenozoic Era, and different regions of the basin from mature onshore fields to deep-water subsalt plays. Cores, well logs and seismic lines are all discussed providing local, regional and basin-scale insights. The scientific implications of seminal events in the basin's history are also covered, including sedimentary effects of the Chicxulub Impact. Containing over 200 color illustrations and 50 stratigraphic cross-sections and paleogeographic maps, this is an invaluable resource for petroleum industry professionals, as well as graduate students and researchers interested in basin analysis, sedimentology, stratigraphy, tectonics and petroleum geology.
Salt marshes are highly dynamic and important ecosystems that dampen impacts of coastal storms and are an integral part of tidal wetland systems, which sequester half of all global marine carbon. They are now being threatened due to sea-level rise, decreased sediment influx, and human encroachment. This book provides a comprehensive review of the latest salt marsh science, investigating their functions and how they are responding to stresses through formation of salt pannes and pools, headward erosion of tidal creeks, marsh-edge erosion, ice-fracturing, and ice-rafted sedimentation. Written by experts in marsh ecology, coastal geomorphology, wetland biology, estuarine hydrodynamics, and coastal sedimentation, it provides a multidisciplinary summary of recent advancements in our knowledge of salt marshes. The future of wetlands and potential deterioration of salt marshes is also considered, providing a go-to reference for graduate students and researchers studying these coastal systems, as well as marsh managers and restoration scientists.
Namibia is a vast, ancient place, its legacy an endless expanse of desert sand fringed by coastal plain and rugged mountain terrain and dotted with geological wonders that remain the country’s most impressive features.
Intrigued by the scenic splendour and entranced by the ever-changing landscape that emerges beyond every corner, every towering dune and every mountaintop, Lily and Marcel Jouve travelled the length and breadth of the country to discover the varying facets of the land and its geology. In Secret Namibia, they share their exploration of the terrain, and reveal its secrets – from the geomorphological make-up to the best routes to follow and the finest places to stay.
From the famed Spitzkoppe to Kaokoland, Etosha National Park to the Fish River Canyon, Sossusvlei to Sandwich Harbour, this is Namibia through their lens, their celebration of its rock and sand, valley, canyon and plain – and the unique flora and fauna found in these landscapes. Secret Namibia is an invitation to discover, through word and image, the intriguing natural features of this wild country.
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