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A gripping history of the polar continent, from the great discoveries of the nineteenth century to modern scientific breakthroughs Antarctica, the ice kingdom hosting the South Pole, looms large in the human imagination. The secrets of this vast frozen desert have long tempted explorers, but its brutal climate and glacial shores notoriously resist human intrusion. Land of Wondrous Cold tells a gripping story of the pioneering nineteenth-century voyages, when British, French, and American commanders raced to penetrate Antarctica's glacial rim for unknown lands beyond. These intrepid Victorian explorers-James Ross, Dumont D'Urville, and Charles Wilkes-laid the foundation for our current understanding of Terra Australis Incognita. Today, the white continent poses new challenges, as scientists race to uncover Earth's climate history, which is recorded in the south polar ice and ocean floor, and to monitor the increasing instability of the Antarctic ice cap, which threatens to inundate coastal cities worldwide. Interweaving the breakthrough research of the modern Ocean Drilling Program with the dramatic discovery tales of its Victorian forerunners, Gillen D'Arcy Wood describes Antarctica's role in a planetary drama of plate tectonics, climate change, and species evolution stretching back more than thirty million years. An original, multifaceted portrait of the polar continent emerges, illuminating our profound connection to Antarctica in its past, present, and future incarnations. A deep-time history of monumental scale, Land of Wondrous Cold brings the remotest of worlds within close reach-an Antarctica vital to both planetary history and human fortunes.
Natural radiation arises from many sources, from the unstable atoms within our own bodies and in the materials around us, from the Sun, and even from beyond the Solar System. Additional sources include the legacy of testing nuclear weapons, nuclear waste, and nuclear accidents. All these sources have provided means of dating environmental materials and tracing the movements of substances through land, sea, and air. But ionising radiation also interacts with DNA, which has led to a remarkable range of studies to examine how and how quickly these unstable atoms are accumulated by both humans and biota, and their various effects on both. Providing an overview of the sources, uses and impacts of ionising radiation in the environment, and the frameworks developed to manage exposures to them, this is a valuable reference for graduate students and researchers interested in radioecology, environmental science and radiological protection.
With more than 10,000 geysers, hot springs, fumaroles, and mud pots, as well as cubic mile upon cubic mile of once-incendiary rhyolite, the landscape of Yellowstone Country vividly displays its fiery past and present. The region contains 1/5 of the world's geysers, including the most famous of them all, and is the setting of some of Earth's most destructive volcanic eruptions. The 19 road guides in Roadside Geology of Yellowstone Country fully explore this volcanic pedigree
while also delivering you to sites that have recorded the region's broadand deep geologic story, which includes exquisitely preserved, 50-million-year-old petrified trees buried in conglomerate; mountain-sized blocks of rock that slid more than 50 miles in a massive debris avalanche; the glacially carved craggy peaks and U-shaped valleys of the Beartooth Mountains and Absaroka Range; and the Grand
Canyon of the Yellowstone, the excavation of which is
still a mystery.
The region of the Sao Francisco river valley in eastern Brazil encompasses two main components of the geologic framework of the South American continent: the Sao Francisco craton and its marginal orogenic belts. Cratons, as the oldest, differentiated and relatively stable pieces of the continental lithosphere, preserve a substantial part of the Earth's memory. Orogenic belts, on the other hand, record collisional processes that occurred during a limited time span. Because of their topographic relief, mountain belts developed along craton margins provide however access to rock successions not exposed in the low lands of the adjacent cratons. The combination of geologic information obtained in cratonic domains and their marginal orogenic belts thus form the basis for deciphering substantial periods of Earth's history. Corresponding to the most intensively studied portion of the Precambrian nucleus of the South American plate, the Sao Francisco craton and its margins host a rock record that spans from the Paleoarchean to the Cenozoic. Precambrian sedimentary successions that witness ancient Earth processes - many of them of global significance - are especially well preserved and exposed in this region. With all these attributes the Sao Francisco craton together with its fringing orogenic belts can be viewed as a 'continent within a continent' or a 'continent in miniature'.
This is the first textbook to address all the components of the Earth's cryosphere - all forms of snow and ice, both terrestrial and marine. It provides a concise but comprehensive summary of snow cover, glaciers, ice sheets, lake and river ice, permafrost, sea ice and icebergs - their past history and projected future state. It is designed for courses at upper undergraduate and graduate level in environmental science, geography, geology, glaciology, hydrology, water resource engineering and ocean sciences. It also provides a superb up-to-date summary for researchers of the cryosphere. The book includes an extensive bibliography, numerous figures and color plates, thematic boxes on selected topics and a glossary. The book builds on courses taught by the authors for many decades at the University of Colorado and the University of Alberta. Whilst there are many existing texts on individual components of the cryosphere, no other textbook covers the whole cryosphere.
Officially endorsed by OCR, this inspiring student book has been carefully designed to match the new OCR A Level Geology specification and has been written by experienced Geology authors and teachers. // Its engaging visual style and clear explanations support and motivate you throughout the course and help you thoroughly prepare for your assessments // Highly illustrated with large, clear diagrams and a wide range of geological photographs to illustrate the key information and content. // Case studies and key term definitions help you connect theory and reality, allowing you to apply your understanding of earth science to the examination. // Contains support for the mathematics component of the course throughout to help you develop your maths skills. // Includes practice questions with answers to test your knowledge and help introduce you to the new assessment criteria. //
This book focuses on Romania's more than 12,000 caves, which developed in limestone (including thermal water caves), salt, gypsum, and occasionally in sandstone. It examines these caves and related topics in a format suitable for cavers, while also addressing a broad range of aspects useful for students and researchers. Since the Institute of Speleology was first established by Emil Racovita in 1920, a great deal of research has been conducted on all cave and karst types. As such, the book examines a variety of scientific fields, including karst geology, hydrogeology, biospeleology, paleoclimatology, mineralogy and archaeology.
'Hugely readable and entertaining' JIM AL-KHALILI 'an accessible and crystal-clear portrait of this discipline's breadth, largely told through its history' PHIL BALL, PHYSICS WORLD Einstein's Fridge tells the story of how scientists uncovered the least known and yet most consequential of all the sciences, and learned to harness the power of heat and ice. The laws of thermodynamics govern everything from the behaviour of atoms to that of living cells, from the engines that power our world to the black hole at the centre of our galaxy. Not only that, but thermodynamics explains why we must eat and breathe, how the lights come on, and ultimately how the universe will end. The people who decoded its laws came from every branch of the sciences - they were engineers, physicists, chemists, biologists, cosmologists and mathematicians. Their discoveries, set over two hundred years, kick-started the industrial revolution, changed the course of world wars and informed modern understanding of black holes. This book captures the thrill of discovery and the power of revolutionary science to change the world forever.
Lithium isotopes are a relatively novel tracer of present and past silicate weathering processes. Given that silicate weathering is the primary long-term method by which CO2 is removed from the atmosphere, Li isotope research is going through an exciting phase. We show the weathering processes that fractionate dissolved and sedimentary Li isotope ratios, focusing on weathering intensity and clay formation. We then discuss the carbonate and silicate archive potential of past seawater 7Li. These archives have been used to examine Li isotope changes across both short and long timescales. The former can demonstrate the rates at which the climate is stabilised from perturbations via weathering, a fundamental piece of the puzzle of the long-term carbon cycle.
This book describes famous geosites and historical localities in national parks and conservation areas from North America, East Africa, and Europe. The geosites include iconic landforms associated with active volcanoes, canyons, glaciated landscapes, natural rock monoliths, and rifts. The potential for geotourism in historical localities such as the famous Greco-Roman antiquities of Greece, Italy, and Turkey, is emphasised. Some of the geosites and historical localities provide evidence that previous civilizations coped with active geology and major climatic cycles, whilst others reveal evidence of famous geological events recognized in history and ancient mythology that helped shape our current civilization. The book assists tour guides and visitors (both geologists and non-specialists) interested in geotourism by providing an understanding of geological processes in the national parks and historical locations with the assistance of photographs and simplified geological maps.
An explanatory guide for the 1: 625 000 Bedrock Geology UK (North) Map
Earth's present-day environments are the outcome of a 4.5 billion year period of evolution reflecting the interaction of global-scale geological and biological processes punctuated by several extraordinary events and episodes that perturbed the entire Earth system. One of the earliest and arguably greatest of these events was a substantial increase (orders of magnitude) in the atmospheric oxygen abundance, sometimes referred to as the Great Oxidation Event. Volume 1: The Palaeoproterozoic of Fennoscandia as Context for the Fennoscandian Arctic Russia - Drilling Earth Project describes the implementation of the FAR-DEEP drilling project in Arctic Russia. It summarises the knowledge of more than 50 years of largely Russian-led fieldwork, information hitherto virtually unavailable in the west, and provides geological description of drilling areas with an overwhelming illustration of rocks by high-quality, representative photographs. The volume offers a comprehensive review and rich photo-illustration of palaeotectonic, palaeogeographic and magmatic evolution of the Fennoscandian Shield in the early Palaeoproterozoic, and link the evolution of the shield to the emergence of an aerobic Earth system. The volume unfolds the event-based Fennoscandian chronostratigraphy and discusses the chronology of the Palaeoproterozoic global events as the base for a new subdivision of Palaeoproterozoic time. Welcome to the illustrative journey through one of the most exciting periods of planet Earth!
This cutting-edge summary combines ideas from several sub-disciplines including geology, geomorphology, oceanography and geochemistry to provide an integrated view of Earth surface dynamics in terms of sediment generation, transport and deposition. Introducing a global view of fundamental concepts underpinning source-to-sink studies, it provides an analysis of the component segments which make up sediment routing systems. The functioning of sediment routing systems is illustrated through calculations of denudation and sedimentation as well as the response to external drivers; with the final sections focusing on the stratigraphic record of sediment routing systems. Containing quantitative solutions to a wide range of problems in Earth surface dynamics, it is suitable for graduate students as well as academic and professional researchers; and will enable an understanding of sediment routing systems.
There are many UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Germany. Most of them are built with natural stones. These sites are commonly presented to the public with a lot of information regarding historical, cultural and artistic aspects. Mostly, there is no focus on the main building material if it concerns natural stones. This work aims to show that it is precisely the natural stone that lends the sites their distinctive character. The used stones demonstrate the context and the interaction with the geology of the surrounding countryside as well as possibilities of transport and treatment. They reflect the culture and society at the time of the building phases. The second part of the work presents the most important stones that were used at these sites, along with their occurrences, aspects of quarrying in historical times and of course their petrographical, mineralogical and technical features. It is shown how these features influence the weathering of the stones and how restoration of stones is carried out. The book will serve as a useful source book for geologists, archaeologists, architects, representatives of the natural stone industry, historians and cultural heritage management professionals specifically, and for academic and nonacademic communities, travelers and tourism industry operators in general.
This volume comprises a selection of papers describing the main features of the Lanzarote and Chinijo Islands Geopark (Canary Archipelago, Spain). Of all the Global Geoparks worldwide, it is the only one that has officially evaluated and characterized specific areas as analogues for the geological and astrobiological exploration of Mars. The identification and characterization of terrestrial sites that can be used as planetary analogues are currently considered vital study areas of planetary geology and astrobiology. Written by experts in the various fields, this multidisciplinary book is a unique resource for graduate students and professionals alike.
This book provides a comprehensive overview of the evolution of one of the oldest and best-exposed Archaean cratons on this planet. There is currently a renewed interest in the early Earth, and the Kaapvaal craton has long served as a model for early crustal evolution. This unique multidisciplinary resource features information on geology, tectonics, geochemistry, and geochronology. It offers a wealth of new data on various aspects of the craton as well as contributions on the various crustal units by international specialists.
This book shows the deformation characteristics of coseismic surface ruptures produced by the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake and the relationship between the Aso volcano and active faults. In particular, the rupturing mechanisms and processes involved in the seismogenic faults related to the crustal structure under the Aso volcano caldera are covered. The book is intended to help bridge the gaps between seismology, seismic disaster prevention, volcanology, seismotectonics, and geology and to encourage further studies of earthquake mechanisms and seismic faulting processes.
Why an awareness of Earth's temporal rhythms is critical to our planetary survival Few of us have any conception of the enormous timescales of our planet's long history, and this narrow perspective underlies many of the environmental problems we are creating. The lifespan of Earth can seem unfathomable compared to the brevity of human existence, but this view of time denies our deep roots in Earth's history-and the magnitude of our effects on the planet. Timefulness reveals how knowing the rhythms of Earth's deep past and conceiving of time as a geologist does can give us the perspective we need for a more sustainable future. Featuring illustrations by Haley Hagerman, this compelling book offers a new way of thinking about our place in time, showing how our everyday lives are shaped by processes that vastly predate us, and how our actions today will in turn have consequences that will outlast us by generations. This edition includes discussion questions for reading groups.
This edited volume discusses scientific and technological aspects of the history of the oil and gas industry in national and international contexts. The search for oil for industrial uses began in the nineteenth century, the first drills made in Azerbaijan and the United States. This intense search for a substance to become one of the most important energy sources was, many times, based on skill as well as luck, resulting in knowledge and the development of prospecting and exploration technologies. The demand for oil improved expertise in geological science, in areas such as micropaleontology, stratigraphy or sedimentology and informed different disciplines such as geophysics. These contributions made possible not only the discovery of new oil fields but also new applications and methods of exploration. Beyond the scientific and technological aspects, an industry that grew to such considerable size also impacted the political, economic, social, cultural, environmental and diplomatic issues in history. The book approaches these changes in different scales, countries, areas, and perspectives. This edited book appeals to researchers, student, practitioners in various fields from geology and geophysics to history. It is also an important resource for professionals in the oil and gas industry.
This book explores basic and applied aspects of microorganisms, which have a unique ability to cope with abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity and changing climate, as well as biodegrader microorganisms and their functional roles. Further, readers will find detailed information on all aspects that are required to make a microbe "agriculturally beneficial." The book's primary focus is on microbes that are essentially "hidden miniature packages of nature" that influence agro-ecosystems. Inviting papers by prominent national and international scientists working in the field of agricultural microbiology, it addresses the biogdegrader group of microbial inoculants. Each chapter covers the respective mechanism of action and recent advances in agricultural microbiology. In addition, the book especially highlights innovations involving agriculturally beneficial microorganisms, including strategies for coping with a changing climate, and methods for developing microbial inoculants and promoting climate-smart agriculture. The information presented here is based on the authors' extensive experience in the subject area, gathered in the course of their careers in the field of agricultural microbiology. The book offers a valuable resource for all readers who are actively involved in research on agriculturally beneficial microorganisms. In addition, it will help prepare readers for the future challenges that climate change will pose for agriculture and will help to bridge the current gaps between different scientific communities.
This book, the only one of its kind on ravine lands, reflects the significant advances made over the past two decades in our understanding of gully erosion, its controlling factors, and various aspects of gully erosion. It also addresses central research gaps and unanswered questions, which include historical studies on gully erosion to better understand the different stages of their formation; appropriate measuring techniques for monitoring or assessing the geological and hydrological parameters and processes involved in gully development; interaction of hydrological and other soil degradation processes; ecology and biodiversity of fragile ravines; impact of climate and environmental changes on soil erosion processes; development of effective and reliable gully erosion models; effective gully prevention and control measures; watershed-based management options; and ravine rehabilitation policies. The present book is a highly timely publication and deals with various aspects of ravine ecology and rehabilitation of degraded lands, particularly with the aid of biological approaches. As such, it offers a valuable guide for all scientists working in the fields of soil conservation / rehabilitation and agroforestry, students, environmentalists, educationists, and policymakers. More importantly, it focuses on the rehabilitation of one of the world's most degraded and fragile ecosystems, ensuring the livelihoods of resource-poor farmers and landless families living in harsh ecologies that are more vulnerable to climate change.
Liquid water is essential for the emergence of life at least as we know it on Earth. Written by recognized experts in the field, this volume provides a complete inventory of water throughout the Solar System and a comprehensive overview of the evolution of water from the interstellar medium to the final planetesimals and planets. Through a series of up-to-date review papers, the book describes how water influences the geophysical evolutions of bodies and how it is in turn affected by such evolutions. Processes like atmospheric escape under the effect of stellar irradiation and collisional impacts are discussed in detail, with specific emphasis on the consequences for the budgets of water and volatile elements in general. Specific papers on the emergence of life on Earth and the prospects of habitability on extrasolar planets are included. The papers take an interdisciplinary approach to habitability, addressing it from the perspectives of astronomy, planetary science, geochemistry, geophysics and biology. Comprehensive yet easy to read, this volume serves as an invaluable resource to scholarly, professional and general audiences alike. Originally published in Space Science Reviews in the Topical Collection "The Delivery of Water to Protoplanets, Planets and Satellites"
The book offers an integrated overview of plant-pathogen interactions. It discusses all the steps in the pathway, from the microbe-host-cell interface and the plant's recognition of the microbe to the plant's defense response and biochemical alterations to achieve tolerance / resistance. It also sheds light on the classes of pathogens (bacteria, fungus and viruses); effector molecules, such as PAMPs; receptor molecules like PRRs and NBS-LRR proteins; signaling components like MAPKs; regulatory molecules, such as phytohormones and miRNA; transcription factors, such as WRKY; defense-related proteins such as PR-proteins; and defensive metabolites like secondary metabolites. In addition, it examines the role of post-genomics, high-throughput technology (transcriptomics and proteomics) in studying pathogen outbreaks causing crop losses in a number of plants. Providing a comprehensive picture of plant-pathogen interaction, the updated information included in this book is valuable for all those involved in crop improvement.
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