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Advances in geomicrobiology have progressed at an accelerated pace in recent years. Ehrlich's Geomicrobiology, Sixth Edition surveys various aspects of the field, including the microbial role in elemental cycling and in the formation and degradation of minerals and fossil fuels. Unlike the fifth edition, the sixth includes many expert contributors besides the editors, providing added depth to each topic and broadening this edition's overall insight into geomicrobiology. The Sixth Edition Includes: Extensive revisions and updates to most chapters from the fifth edition A new chapter on terrestrial subsurface ecosystems A new chapter summarizing important principles of geomicrobiology New discussions and references on the latest findings and theories in geomicrobiology Through revisions, updates, and the introduction of new authors who are specialists on the topics covered, this new edition is the most in-depth and current overview of geomicrobiology. The research presented has applications in agriculture, forestry, aquaculture, marine science, the metals industry, and more. The new breadth and scope as well as the current and developing applications which this book addresses make it a must-have source in geomicrobiology.
When stresses are applied to saturated soil, deformation will occur as water in voids is squeezed out. Consolidation Analyses of Soils focuses on the consolidation of fully saturated soils. The book follows a classic approach by beginning with one-dimensional constitutive relations of soils and one-dimensional consolidation. It then moves on to analytical solutions to several one-dimensional consolidation problems and one-dimensional finite strain consolidation. The authors also present a finite element method for consolidation analysis of one-dimensional problems, analytical solutions to consolidation of soil with vertical drains, and a finite difference method for consolidation analysis of one-dimensional problems. Simplified methods for consolidation analysis of soils exhibiting creep are introduced and applied to different cases. Three-dimensional consolidation equations and solutions of typical three-dimensional consolidation problems are covered, as well as simplified finite element consolidation analysis of soils with vertical drain and finite element method for three-dimensional consolidation problems. The book is unique in that it covers both classic solutions and state-of-the-art work in consolidation analyses of soils. Authors Jian-Hua Yin is Chair Professor of Soil Mechanics in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. Guofu Zhu is a Professor in the Department of Engineering Structures and Mechanics at Wuhan University of Technology, China.
Biometry for Forestry and Environmental Data with Examples in R focuses on statistical methods that are widely applicable in forestry and environmental sciences, but it also includes material that is of wider interest. Features: * Describes the theory and applications of selected statistical methods and illustrates their use and basic concepts through examples with forestry and environmental data in R. * Rigorous but easily accessible presentation of the linear, nonlinear, generalized linear and multivariate models, and their mixed-effects counterparts. Chapters on tree size, tree taper, measurement errors, and forest experiments are also included. * Necessary statistical theory about random variables, estimation and prediction is included. The wide applicability of the linear prediction theory is emphasized. * The hands-on examples with implementations using R make it easier for non-statisticians to understand the concepts and apply the methods with their own data. Lot of additional material is available at www.biombook.org. The book is aimed at students and researchers in forestry and environmental studies, but it will also be of interest to statisticians and researchers in other fields as well.
The main objective of this book is to integrate environmental knowledge observed in local agriculture, based on the understanding of soils science and ecology, and to propose possible technical solutions and a more integrated approach to tropical agriculture. The chapters describe and analyze the ecological and technical countermeasures available for mitigating environmental degradation due to the increasing agricultural activities by humans, based on our scientific understanding of traditional agriculture in the tropics. This is an effective approach, as such ecological and technical tools previously involved in traditional activities are expected to be easily incorporated into present agricultural systems. The book starts with a rather classical pedological issue and analyzed traditional agricultural practices with different resource management strategies in terms of their modification of natural biological processes. It focuses on the present situation of tropical agriculture; that is, resource utilization in modern agriculture after application of technical innovation (increased application of chemical fertilizers as well as agricultural chemicals). Here, possible technical approaches to resource management that reasonably support agricultural production whilst mitigating environmental degradation are discussed. The negative impacts of agricultural development on our environment are rapidly growing, yet we are increasingly dependent on the agricultural sector for food and energy. The situation is similar in the tropics, where subsistence agriculture with low input management has long comprised most agricultural systems. Comparison of ecological and/or agronomical studies between different continents are still rare; therefore, this analysis may help clarify what is an essential problem when considering technical transportation beyond continents and/or between temperate and tropical regions.
Paleomagnetism is the study of the fossil magnetism in rocks. It
has been paramount in determining that the continents have drifted
over the surface of the Earth throughout geological time. The
fossil magnetism preserved in the ocean floor has demonstrated how
continental drift takes place through the process of sea-floor
spreading. The methods and techniques used in paleomagnetic studies
of continental rocks and of the ocean floor are described and then
applied to determining horizontal movements of the Earth's crust
over geological time. An up-to-date review of global paleomagnetic
data enables 1000 million
This volume presents selected papers presented during the 4th International Conference on Transportation Geotechnics. The papers address the geotechnical challenges in design, construction, maintenance, monitoring, and upgrading of roads, railways, airfields, and harbor facilities and other ground transportation infrastructure with the goal of providing safe, economic, environmental, reliable and sustainable infrastructures. This volume will be of interest to postgraduate students, academics, researchers, and consultants working in the field of civil and transport infrastructure.
A new edition of a unique textbook that provides an exhaustive treatment of the world's different coasts--with focus on climate change sea-level rise Coastlines of the world are as diverse and complex as any geological setting on Earth, and understanding them is extremely important. Beaches and Coasts, Second Edition is an exciting and unique textbook that covers the world's different coasts and details the highly varied processes that have shaped them. This new edition emphasizes the future susceptibility of coast to climate driven stresses and decreasing sediment supplies, and considers various aspects of coastal management that are and/or that need to be undertaken. Seeking to better educate students and readers about the sustainability of coast and coastal environments, this exciting and unique book offers enlightening coverage of: the Earth's mobile crust; sediments of coastal environments; impacts of sea level change; weather systems and the effects of storms; the influence of wave energy and different tidal regimes; river deltas; coastal bays; estuaries and lagoons; tidal flats; coastal wetlands; beach and nearshore areas; coastal barriers; tidal inlets; glaciated coasts; and rocky coasts. Takes an extensive look at the world's varied coasts and covers the many processes that have shaped them over time Shows how coastal processes and landform evolution are expected to be impacted by climate change Includes new coverage of Hurricane Katrina and the 2005 flooding of New Orleans, Hurricane Sandy and its affect on New York and the earthquake and tsunami in the Indian Ocean and Tohoku Lavishly illustrated with over 400 color photographs and figures Draws on a wealth of author experience that broadens the content of chapters and provides for numerous and varied examples Beaches and Coasts, Second Edition is an excellent text for undergraduate and graduate students of coastal geology, coastal processes and coastal environments.
The living soil is crucial to photosynthesis, biogeochemical cycles, global food production, climate change, biodiversity, and plant and animal health. In the past decade, scientists have made significant advances in soil microbiology research. While the basic principles are now better understood, knowledge has been forthcoming on the best available technologies and methods applied to researching soil microorganisms, their diversity, interactions, biochemistry, survival, gene expression, and their roles in global climate change, plant disease suppression and growth stimulation, and biogeochemical cycles. This knowledge can be applied to better predict the transformation of pollutants in soil and the activities of microbes in the rhizosphere. It will also assist us in fostering crop production in an era with an increasing human population and intensification of agriculture. Following the tradition of its predecessors, Modern Soil Microbiology, Third Edition, is an indispensable source that supports graduate/undergraduate teaching for soil and environmental microbiologists in academia, as well as in government and industrial laboratories. It is a comprehensive collection of chapters on various aspects of soil microbiology, useful for all professionals working with soils. Compiled by internationally renowned educators and research scholars, this textbook contains key tables, figures, and photographs, supported by thousands of references to illustrate the depth of knowledge in soil microbiology. FEATURES Fully updated and expanded to include new key chapters on historical developments, future applications, and soil viruses and proteins Discusses molecular methods applied to soil microbiology, diverse soil microorganisms, and global climate change Emphasizes the role of terrestrial microorganisms and cycles involved in climate change Details the latest molecular methods applied to soil microbiology research User-friendly for students, and containing numerous tables, figures, and illustrations to better understand the current knowledge in soil microbiology
Nature-based solutions (NBS) are essential to ensure a sustainable society and healthy ecosystem over the coming decades. However, the systems to be managed are both broad and complex, requiring an integrated understanding of both bio-physical systems, such as soils and water, and economic and social systems, such as urban development and human behaviour. This edited book joins these domains of knowledge together from an applied perspective and considers how computer science can help. It takes a strategic look at the benefits and barriers to using modelling within environmental management and planning practice. It delves further by providing an in-depth comparative review of a wide range of models from a variety of scientific disciplines of interest with examples of their use for NBS. As such, this illustrated guide is designed to help students, researchers and practitioners navigate the huge range of modelling options available and develop the common understanding to work inter-disciplinarily.
This second edition is fully updated to include new developments in the study of metamorphism as well as enhanced features to facilitate course teaching. It integrates a systematic account of the mineralogical changes accompanying metamorphism of the major rock types with discussion of the conditions and settings in which they formed. The use of textures to understand metamorphic history and links to rock deformation are also explored. Specific chapters are devoted to rates and timescales of metamorphism and to the tectonic settings in which metamorphic belts develop. These provide a strong connection to other parts of the geology curriculum. Key thermodynamic and chemical concepts are introduced through examples which demonstrate their application and relevance. Richly illustrated in colour and featuring end-of-chapter and online exercises, this textbook is a comprehensive introduction to metamorphic rocks and processes for undergraduate students of petrology, and provides a solid basis for advanced study and research.
The time-dependent decay of naturally occurring radioactive isotopes or in-growth of their radioactive or stable daughter products form the basis of radiometric dating of several natural processes. Developed in the beginning of the last century mainly to determine the absolute ages of rocks and minerals, radiometric chronology now plays a central role in a broad range of Earth and planetary sciences - from extra-solar-system processes to environmental geoscience. With the prerequisite of only college-level knowledge in physics, chemistry and mathematics, this concise book focuses on the essential principles of radiometric dating in order to enable students and teachers belonging to diverse fields of studies to select, understand and interpret radiometric dating results generated and published by professionals.
This lab manual offers a variety of activities for an active, applied student experience and increased flexibility for instructors. Every lab includes "What Do You Think?" exercises in which students apply the course concepts to real-world scenarios. New Geotours Google Earth exercises get students exploring and analyzing real-world sites. A new, unique chapter on global change in which students explore how the Earth will evolve during their lifetime has been added to this edition.
This book focuses on the recent advents and technological breakthroughs in metagenomic approaches coupled with their applications in agriculture. The intended audience include soil and environmental microbiologists, molecular biologists and policy makers. The book expertly describes the latest fourth generation metagenomic technologies from sample collection to data analysis, metatranscriptomic, metaproteomic and metabolomics studies Note: T& F does not sell or distribute the Hardback in India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka.
This book presents a compilation of findings, review and original works, on the tectonic evolution and structural detail of several terrains in India. It captures the tectonic diversity of the Indian terrain, including tectonics of India's coastal areas, the tectonic evolution of Gondwana and Proterozoic (Purana) basins. It also describes the research results of the Indian craton's geo-history, Tertiary Bengal basin, and also the Himalayan collisional zone. Thus the book covers the deformation history of Indian terrain involving strike slip, compressional and extensional tectonics, and ductile and brittle shear deformations.
Written for students and professionals, this revised textbook surveys the mineral industry from geological, environmental and economic perspectives. Thoroughly updated, the text includes a new chapter on technology industry metals as well as separate chapters on mineral economics and environmental geochemistry. Carefully designed figures simplify difficult concepts and show the location of important deposits and trade patterns, emphasising the true global nature of mineral resources. Featuring boxes highlighting special interest topics, the text equips students with the skills they need to contribute to the energy and mineral questions currently facing society, including issues regarding oil pipelines, nuclear power plants, water availability and new mining locations. Technical terms are highlighted when first used, and references are included to allow students to delve more deeply into areas of interest. Multiple choice and short answer questions are provided for instructors online at www.cambridge.org/kesler to complete the teaching package.
This book is a brief summary of the course of lectures in Geochemistry for undergraduate and graduate students from other than Geological Departments (chemists, biologists, ecologists and naturalists). It describes the Earth's structure and some geological processes. The modern geochemical concepts take proper account of global geological processes and the influence of Cosmos. They are based on the laws and approaches of equilibrium and non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The cycles of energy and chemical elements within the Earth are interrelated with the global geochemical cycle. In addition to the traditional Geochemistry course, this book offers Geochemistry of microorganisms, Geochemistry of dispersed systems, Geochemistry of cryogenesis, and Geochemistry of cryptobiosphere. Features: Provides the reader with a general idea of the Earth's chemical life and its related global geological events Offers a concise and clear description of the modern concepts in Geochemistry, including new directions such as Geochemistry of Cryogenesis, Geochemistry of Disperse Systems, Geochemistry of Microorganisms, and Geochemistry of Cryptobiosphere Implies a wide application of the thermodynamic approach. Useful for students who, though lacking in geology basics, are experienced in chemistry and biology
Quaternary studies provide the essential context for evaluation of what is happening with the earth's climate today, and to clarify our vulnerability to hazardous natural processes. This book covers scientific aspects of past and present climatic changes of the quaternary period focused on the Indian subcontinent via response of modern environmental conditions on climate proxies, reconstruction of paleoclimate, paleomonsoon, glacial geology, climate variabilities using dendrochronology, cave deposits including quaternary tectonics and climate change over the Himalayan region. It consists of data generated from different landforms including lakes, caves, rivers, swamps, pits, and trenches using different proxies. Aimed at researchers, graduate students, professionals in geology, geography and environmental sciences, micropaleontology, and Quaternary climate change, this book: Studies Quaternary climate using various proxies in varied environments on the Indian sub-continent Covers pertinent historical and environmental archives to understand the current climate scenario Discusses the impact of climate change on biotic and abiotic components Includes thorough review of paleoclimate change studies Devotes significant space to glacial geology and all glacial climate proxies
Clay minerals are one of the most important groups of minerals that
destroy permeability in sandstones. However, they also react with
drilling and completion fluids and induce fines migration during
hydrocarbon production. They are a very complex family of minerals
that are routinely intergrown with each other, contain a wide range
of solid solutions and form by a variety of processes under a wide
range temperatures and rock and fluid compositions.
In this volume, clay minerals in sandstones are reviewed in
terms of their mineralogy and general occurrence, their stable and
radiogenic isotope geochemistry, XRD quantification, their effects
on the petrophysical properties of sandstones and their
relationships to sequence stratigraphy and palaeoclimate. The
controls on various clay minerals are addressed and a variety of
geochemical issues, including the importance of mass flux, links to
carbonate mineral diagenesis and linked clay mineral diagenesis in
interbedded mudstone-sandstone are explored. A number of case
studies are included for kaolin, illite and chlorite cements, and
the occurrence of smectite in sandstone is reviewed. Experimental
rate data for clay cements in sandstones are reviewed and there are
two model-based case studies that address the rates of growth of
kaolinite and illite.
The readership of this volume will include sedimentologists and petrographers who deal with the occurrence, spatial and temporal distribution patterns and importance of clay mineral cements in sandstones, geochemists involved in unraveling the factors that control clay mineral cement formation in sandstones and petroleum geoscientists involved in predicting clay mineral distribution in sandstones. The book will also be of interest to geologists involved in palaeoclimate studies basin analysis.Latest geochemical data on clays in sandstonesProvides important information for geologists involved in basin analysis, sandstone petrology and petroleum geology
If you are a member of the International Association of Sedimentologists (IAS), for purchasing details, please see: http: //www.iasnet.org/publications/details.asp?code=SP34
Why an awareness of Earth's temporal rhythms is critical to our planetary survival Few of us have any conception of the enormous timescales of our planet's long history, and this narrow perspective underlies many of the environmental problems we are creating. The lifespan of Earth can seem unfathomable compared to the brevity of human existence, but this view of time denies our deep roots in Earth's history-and the magnitude of our effects on the planet. Timefulness reveals how knowing the rhythms of Earth's deep past and conceiving of time as a geologist does can give us the perspective we need for a more sustainable future. Featuring illustrations by Haley Hagerman, this compelling book offers a new way of thinking about our place in time, showing how our everyday lives are shaped by processes that vastly predate us, and how our actions today will in turn have consequences that will outlast us by generations. This edition includes discussion questions for reading groups.
The report presents the results of the measurements of grain size, total organic carbon (TOC),hydrocarbons and metals in surface sediments (greater than 100 samples) collected from 40 locations off the coast of northern Mozambique during an environmental survey in March-April 2018. The survey was carried out from the R/V Dr Fridtjof Nansen in the following areas: (i) Pemba - planned gas industry logistic base, (ii) Ibo Island (Quirimbas National Protected Area) to St. Lazarus Bank - the reference area, and(iii) Palma - gas exploration area. The contents of fine-grained fraction (les than 63 um) of the sediment varied strongly in all areas from coarse sediment to high mud contents, whereas TOC levels were generally low and correlated poorly with fine-grained fraction. Background levels of hydrocarbons and metals were found in most of the samples. Anthropogenic contamination was found at one site in Pemba harbour. No oil-related contamination was demonstrated, including the Palma area where gas exploration is concentrated. Elevated concentrations of barium and total hydrocarbon content at some locations in the Palma area are attributed to drilling activities but are not considered to be of environmental concern. Based on the measured concentrations of chemicals, background concentrations for the studied areas are proposed
Southern California is sandwiched between two tectonic plates with an ever-shifting boundary. Over the last several million years, movements of these plates have dramatically reshuffled the Earth's crust to create rugged landscapes and seascapes riven with active faults. Movement along these faults triggers earthquakes and tsunamis, pushes up mountains, and lifts sections of coastline. Over geologic time, beaches come and go, coastal bluffs retreat, and the sea rises and falls. Nothing about Southern California's coast is stable. Surf, Sand, and Stone tells the scientific story of the Southern California coast: its mountains, islands, beaches, bluffs, surfing waves, earthquakes, and related phenomena. It takes readers from San Diego to Santa Barbara, revealing the evidence for how the coast's features came to be and how they are continually changing. With a compelling narrative and clear illustrations, Surf, Sand, and Stone outlines how the coast will be altered in the future and how we can best prepare for it.
State-of-the-art analysis of geological structures has become increasingly quantitative but traditionally, graphical methods are used in teaching. This innovative lab book provides a unified methodology for problem-solving in structural geology using linear algebra and computation. Assuming only limited mathematical training, the book begins with classic orientation problems and progresses to more fundamental topics of stress, strain and error propagation. It introduces linear algebra methods as the foundation for understanding vectors and tensors, and demonstrates the application of geometry and kinematics in geoscience without requiring students to take a supplementary mathematics course. All algorithms are illustrated with a suite of online MATLAB functions, allowing users to modify the code to solve their own structural problems. Containing 20 worked examples and over 60 exercises, this is the ideal lab book for advanced undergraduates or beginning graduate students. It will also provide professional structural geologists with a valuable reference and refresher for calculations.
From the secret fossils of London to the 3-billion-year-old rocks of the Scottish Highlands, and from state-of-the-art Californian laboratories to one of the world's most dangerous volcanic complexes hidden beneath the green hills of western Naples, set out on an adventure to those parts of the world where the Earth's life-story is written into the landscape. Helen Gordon turns a novelist's eye on the extraordinary scientists who are piecing together this planetary drama. She gets to grips with the theory that explains how it all works - plate tectonics, a breakthrough as significant in its way as evolution or quantum mechanics, but much younger than either, and still with many secrets to reveal. And she looks to the future of our world, with or without us.
Anthropogenic activity has clearly altered the N cycle contributing (among other factors) to climate change. This book aims to provide new biotechnological approach representing innovative strategies to solve specific problems related to the imbalance originating in the N cycle. Aspects such as new conceptions in agriculture, wastewater treatment, and greenhouse gas emissions are discussed in this book with a multidisciplinary vision. A team of international authors with wide experience have contributed up-to-date reviews, highlighting scientific principles and their environmental importance and integrating different biotechnological processes in environmental technology.
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