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Geoarchaeology is the archaeological subfield that focuses on archaeological information retrieval and problem solving utilizing the methods of geological investigation. Archaeological recovery and analysis are already geoarchaeological in the most fundamental sense because buried remains are contained within and removed from an essentially geological context. Yet geoarchaeological research goes beyond this simple relationship and attempts to build collaborative links between specialists in archaeology and the earth sciences to produce new knowledge about past human behavior using the technical information and methods of the geosciences. The principal goals of geoarchaeology lie in understanding the relationships between humans and their environment. These goals include (1) how cultures adjust to their ecosystem through time, (2) what earth science factors were related to the evolutionary emergence of humankind, and (3) which methodological tools involving analysis of sediments and landforms, documentation and explanation of change in buried materials, and measurement of time will allow access to new aspects of the past. This encyclopedia defines terms, introduces problems, describes techniques, and discusses theory and strategy, all in a format designed to make specialized details accessible to the public as well as practitioners. It covers subjects in environmental archaeology, dating, materials analysis, and paleoecology, all of which represent different sources of specialist knowledge that must be shared in order to reconstruct, analyze, and explain the record of the human past. It will not specifically cover sites, civilizations, and ancient cultures, etc., that are better described in other encyclopedias of world archaeology. The Editor Allan S. Gilbert is Professor of Anthropology at Fordham University in the Bronx, New York. He holds a B.A. from Rutgers University, and his M.A., M.Phil., and Ph.D. were earned at Columbia University. His areas of research interest include the Near East (late prehistory and early historic periods) as well as the Middle Atlantic region of the U.S. (historical archaeology). His specializations are in archaeozoology of the Near East and geoarchaeology, especially mineralogy and compositional analysis of pottery and building materials. Publications have covered a range of subjects, including ancient pastoralism, faunal quantification, skeletal microanatomy, brick geochemistry, and two co-edited volumes on the marine geology and geoarchaeology of the Black Sea basin.
For many years, planetary science has been taught as part of the astronomy curriculum, from a very physics-based perspective, and from the framework of a tour of the Solar System - body by body. Over the past decades, however, spacecraft exploration and related laboratory research on extraterrestrial materials have given us a new understanding of planets and how they are shaped by geological processes. Based on a course taught at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, this is the first textbook to focus on geologic processes, adopting a comparative approach that demonstrates the similarities and differences between planets, and the reasons for these. Profusely illustrated, and with a wealth of pedagogical features, this book provides an ideal capstone course for geoscience majors - bringing together aspects of mineralogy, petrology, geochemistry, volcanology, sedimentology, geomorphology, tectonics, geophysics and remote sensing.
This volume is the first comprehensive description of the most spectacular landforms of Hungary. It is a richly illustrated book which presents a collection of significant sites, capturing the geodiversity of Hungarian landscapes. The Landscapes and Landforms of Hungary discusses the effects of geomorphological features to the landscape, such as volcanism, weathering, fluvial or aeolian erosion, karst formation, gravitational movements, and others. The importance of the conservation of geomorphological heritage is underlined, as well as the importance of geomorphological heritage and conservation. This book can be used for undergraduate and graduate courses in geomorphology, physical geography, hydrogeography, and nature conservation. It will be of benefit to environmental scientists, geomorphologists, conservationists, among others.
This book presents a beautifully illustrated overview of the most prominent landscapes of South Africa and the distinctive landforms associated with them. It describes the processes, origins and the environmental significance of those landscapes, including their relationships to human activity of the past and present. The sites described in this book include, amongst others, the Blyde River Canyon, Augrabies Falls, Kruger National Park, Kalahari desert landscapes, the Great Escarpment, Sterkfontein caves and karst system, Table Mountain, Cape winelands, coastal dunes, rocky coasts, Boer War battlefield sites, and Vredefort impact structure. Landscapes and Landforms of South Africa provides a new perspective on South Africa's scenic landscapes by considering their diversity, long and short term histories, and importance for geoconservation and geotourism. This book will be relevant to those interested in the geology, physical geography and history of South Africa, climate change and landscape tourism.
The tropics provide the key to understanding much biological and Earth science. This is particularly true for the study of landforms, which in higher latitudes suffer great seasonal contrasts in process intensity and type, and which often in the past underwent the dramatic changes of glaciation and periglaciation. Yet studies in the tropics have shown that the legacy of past climate changes is much more dramatic than was formerly believed. This book, first published in 1985, brings together the variety of evidence about such environmental changes, over a variety of timescales, and sets it against the current knowledge of the nature of geomorphic processes in the tropics.
The study of landforms is becoming increasingly scientific. This book, first published in 1971, attempts to do justice to the work done in the last few decades, but strives to avoid a too uncritical acceptance of contemporary trends. The author first examines the fundamental characteristics and basic postulates of geomorphology. He then seeks to define the systematic stages through which the study of the landforms of a given area might proceed. Examples are drawn from a wide geographical range with emphasis on presenting examples of actual observations and measurements. The final section presents concise descriptions of simple and inexpensive methods of acquiring field data in landform study.
This book, first published in 1983, incorporates a wealth of reference material - keys, nomograms, tables, charts - likely to be needed in the field for actual fieldwork. The widest possible coverage of material is provided in anticipation of problems that individual specialists will encounter on the periphery of their main areas of interest.
This book, first published in 1980, collects together thirteen articles on 'Geomorphology in Arid Regions'. It uses the term 'arid' loosely to include studies from climes which might otherwise be considered semi-arid, in order to provide a diversity of papers dealing with important problems of interest to geomorphologists today.
This book, first published in 1977, is a concise, fully illustrated introduction to modern geomorphology. Geomorphologists pay much attention to the measurement of present day processes in attempting to develop explanations of landscape evolution, and this book reflects this approach by deliberately emphasising processes in humid environments.
Soils and sediments influence current processes, preserve evidence of past processes, indicate evolutionary phases in landscapes and provide a basis for relative and absolute chronologies. They provide an important key to the integration of short-term process studies and investigation of longer-term landform evolution. This book, first published in 1985, has been arranged to provide wide temporal and spatial coverage, with studies ranging from historic to geologic time scales and micro- to macro-spatial scales. The interdisciplinary nature of the subject is reflected in contributions from soil scientists, engineering geologists, hydrologists and geomorphologists.
This book, first published in 1979, collects together a key set of papers from the 10th Binghamton Geomorphology Symposium. They analyse fluvial theory, channel processes, stream adjustments, paleo-adjustments and channel adjustments.
This book, first published in 1980, is a timely and comprehensive appraisal of thresholds in geomorphology. The papers, arising from the 9th Binghamton Geomorphology Symposium, form the cornerstone of a subject that is increasingly important in geomorphology. This book analyses the historical background to thresholds and geomorphology, as well as fluvial landforms, hydrogeologic regimes and other processes, and the impact of man.
This book, first published in 1981, provides an excellent introductory analysis to plate tectonic theory. It covers plate tectonics, continental drift, mountain building, ocean trenches, earthquakes and volcanoes.
Whether the project is river engineering, soil mapping for landuse planning, or control of landslides, this volume, first published in 1976, illustrates that the professional partnership between geomorphology and engineering can significantly minimize environmental damage. The papers here were presented at the 7th Binghamton Geomorphology Symposium, and using the broad viewpoint of the planner, much new ground is covered: landfill design, prediction of geomorphic processes and their effects, and minimization of streamflow distortion.
This book, first published in 1989, the proceedings of the 19th Binghamton Geomorphology Symposium, is the first set of essays focused on the history of the subject. The articles analyse the founding precepts of geomorphology, the early pioneers, the formation of a defined discipline, and the present state of the topic.
This book, first published in 1987, contains a collection of papers presented at the 18th Binghamton Symposium, focusing on the topic of catastrophic flooding. These papers make the case for the careful collection and interpretation of data from which the importance and effects of catastrophic flooding may be deduced. Questions tackled include: what are the causes and effects of catastrophic flooding? What parameters should be used to measure them? What effect do they have on erosional and depositional landforms? Can modelling be used to predict their flow dynamics?
This book, first published in 1985, arises from the 14th Binghamton Geomorphology Symposium. The chapters here illustrate the use of models in various areas of research in geomorphology.
This book, first published in 1965, was the first by a British soil expert in which he wrote a study of his subject from a geographical, not an agricultural or biological, viewpoint. Chapters 1-8 deal with the factors and processes in soil formation. Chapters 9-17 describe the soil groups of the different regions of the world - for example, desert and tundra, the boreal zone, the Mediterranean, and intertropical areas.
This book, first published in 1986, stems from the 1986 Binghamton Geomorphology Symposium. The topic was chosen because of the advances in the study of aeolian processes and landforms, particularly in the area of desertification, and the papers collected here clearly indicate that their study is not constrained by discipline boundaries but are of interest to geologists, physical geographers, soil scientists, meteorologists and engineers.
Time is a central feature of geomorphological research, and is used in this book (first published in 1977) to provide a conceptual framework within which to consider and compare old and new approaches to the field of geomorphology. The emphasis is on providing not merely a manual of current research but an introduction to isolate ideas and concepts, stimulate critical discussion and examine some of the problems that are involved in dealing with data.
In this re-evaluation of the basic postulates of geomorphology, first published in 1982, Alistair Pitty examines the subject within its scientific context, arguing that coherence in geomorphology can be demonstrated despite the many apparent divergences, which should themselves be regarded as poles within a spectrum of opinion. Not least, the particularly geological and geographical aspects of geomorphology are carefully identified and explained within this coherence.
This book, first published in 1985, conveys the flavours of geomorphology and the bases of its ideas. It portrays the positive features of pluralism in geomorphology, and focuses on processes operative and their associated landforms; the distinctive geological settings of karst, volcanicity and tectonic activity; and technological advances.
This book, first published in 1982, is a collection of articles aimed at advancing the field of geomorphology. It starts from the position that a meaningful grasp of landscape evolution would depend upon an understanding of the present spatial distribution of processes and process rates; comparison of spatial versus temporal change; and careful appraisal of the character and composition of the stratigraphic record. Each article uses a data set to address between threshold variability in either a spatial or temporal context, and often both.
This book, first published in 1978, provides a comprehensive guide to soil properties in any major world region. It emphasizes the significance of the spatial changes in soil patterns, the environmental influence on soils, and their temporal changes, but focuses attention on the systematic examination of soil properties and their reciprocal effects. It covers such important topics as the mineral composition of different soils, their organic matter, structure and porosity, chemical make-up and mechanical properties.
This book, first published in 1985, is a comprehensive guide to the main ideas in the history of geomorphology. It traces the development of thinking on landforms, with material ranging from the ancient world to the present day. The main areas covered are the Renaissance, the explosive growth of the Natural Sciences in the nineteenth century and the impact of the Second World War. The papers and theories of specialists like James Hutton, John Playfair and W.M. Davies are presented and discussed and the final chapters reflect on future change, based on the past and speculation on possible developments. Balance is maintained between the dual importance and dominance of English and North American contributions to the subject, and quite substantial research was undertaken to provide a more complete approach to some areas hitherto neglected.
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