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This book, first published in 1973, focuses on non-urban terrain, and presents a uniquely balanced historical treatment of both the land degradation induced by man and his efforts at conservation, preservation and reclamation.
This book, first published in 1982, forms the proceedings volume of the 11th Binghamton Geomorphology Symposium. Chapters cover various coastline phenomena, glacial and periglacial processes, carbonate terrains, and specific applications of geomorphic knowledge and techniques.
This book, first published in 1902, is the product of the detailed geological survey undertaken by the Borneo Expedition of the late nineteenth century. The scientific exploration focused on Central Borneo, especially the sources of the Kapoewas and its tributaries, and its analysis of the geology of the region still today forms the bedrock of research into the area.
This book, first published in 1986, collects the articles presented to the 16th Binghamton Geomorphology Symposium and is a ground-breaking work in the study of hillslope processes. Hillslope processes are studied in a variety of disciplines other than geomorphology, such as hydrology, pedology, agricultural engineering, civil engineering and engineering geology - the study is truly an interdisciplinary science.
This book, first published in 1992, contains the proceedings of the 22nd Binghamton Geomorphology Symposium, and highlights the quantity and diversity of periglacial geomorphic research being undertaken in Arctic and alpine environments. The articles explore a variety of geomorphic processes and examine the potential impacts of global change on the nature and extent of permafrost and seasonal ice phenomena.
This book, first published in 1973, presents the papers from the 3rd Binghamton Geomorphology Symposium. The necessity for interdisciplinary cooperation in research on the processes and terrain of the littoral zone is reflected here, and the central theme that emerges from all papers is the dynamic aspect of the coastal environment, and the way geomorphic principles can be used to solve problems.
Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and their associated technologies have advanced by leaps and bounds in the nine years since the first edition of this book was published. The concept of survey has changed, especially in the disciplines of geomatics and geoinformatics. This revised and updated second edition provides a thorough understanding of the basic principles and techniques of GNSS, analyzes all four active systems, and explains clearly how each of these systems works. Because of its straightforward treatment of the subject, readers will gain an insight into the techniques, trends, and applications of GNSS and develop knowledge on selecting an appropriate GNSS instrument. Written for students and practitioners in geoinformatics, geomatics engineering, surveying, and remote sensing and GIS, this introductory and practical book includes questions and exercises in each chapter. Key Features: * Furnishes detailed information on GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, BeiDou, and other regional and augmented systems * Provides practical guidance for surveying, mapping, and navigation with GNSS * Sheds light on the latest developments and modern trends of GNSS * Includes a detailed glossary of related terms * Contains many illustrations that complement the text * Exercises for each chapter * MCQ, solution manual for mathematical problems, and PPT as online resources
An international team of over 150 experts provide up-to-date satellite imaging and quantitative analysis of the state and damics of the glaciers around the world, and they provide an in-depth review if analysis methodologies. Includes an e-published supplement.
Global Land Ice Measurements from Space - Satellite Multispectral Imaging of Glaciers (GLIMS book for short) is the leading state-of-the-art technical and interpretive presentation of satellite image data and analysis of the changing state of the world's glaciers. The book is the most definitive, comprehensive product of a global glacier remote sensing consortium, Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS, http: //www.glims.org).With 33 chapters and a companion e-supplement, the world's foremost experts in satellite image analysis of glaciers analyze the current state and recent and possible future changes of glaciers across the globe and interpret these findings for policy planners.
Climate change is with us for some time to come, and its impacts are being felt by the world's population. The GLIMS Book, to be released about the same time as the IPCC's 5th Assessment report onglobal climate warming, buttresses and adds rich details andauthority to the global change community's understanding of climate change impacts on the cryosphere. Thiswill be a definitive and technically complete reference for experts and students examining the responses of glaciers to climate change. Worldexperts demonstrate thatglaciers are changing in response to the ongoing climatic upheavalin addition to otherfactors that pertain to the circumstances of individual glaciers. The globalmosaic ofglacier changes is documented by quantitative analyses and are placed into a perspective of causative factors. Starting with a Foreword, Preface, and Introduction, theGLIMS book gives the rationale for and history of glaciermonitoring and satellite data analysis.It includes a comprehensive set of six "how-to"methodology chapters, twenty-five chaptersdetailing regional glacier state and dynamical changes, andan in-depth summary andinterpretation chapter placing theobserved glacier changes into a globalcontext of thecoupled atmosphere-land-ocean system.
An accompanying e-supplement will include oversize imagery and other other highly visual renderings of scientific data."
The first process-based textbook on how soils form and function in biogeochemical cycles, offering a self-contained and integrated overview of the field as it now stands for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in soil science, environmental science, and the wider Earth sciences. The jargon-free approach quickly familiarises students with the field's theoretical foundations before moving on to analyse chemical and other numerical data, building the necessary skills to develop questions and strategies for original research by the end of a single semester course. The field-based framework equips students with the essential tools for accessing and interpreting the vast USDA soil dataset, allowing them to establish a working knowledge of the most important modern developments in soil research. Complete with numerous end-of-chapter questions, figures and examples, students will find this textbook a multidisciplinary toolkit invaluable to their future careers.
In the modern marine environment, barium isotope ( 138Ba) variations are primarily driven by barite cycling-barite incorporates 'light' Ba isotopes from solution, rendering the residual Ba reservoir enriched in 'heavy' Ba isotopes by a complementary amount. Since the processes of barite precipitation and dissolution are vertically segregated and spatially heterogeneous, barite cycling drives systematic variations in the barium isotope composition of seawater and sediments. This Element examines these variations; evaluates their global, regional, local, and geological controls; and, explores how 138Ba can be exploited to constrain the origin of enigmatic sedimentary sulfates and to study marine biogeochemistry over Earth's history.
This is the first book to provide a comprehensive and state-of-the-art introduction to the novel and fast-evolving topic of in-situ produced cosmogenic nuclides. It presents an accessible introduction to the theoretical foundations, with explanations of relevant concepts starting at a basic level and building in sophistication. It incorporates, and draws on, methodological discussions and advances achieved within the international CRONUS (Cosmic-Ray Produced Nuclide Systematics) networks. Practical aspects such as sampling, analytical methods and data-interpretation are discussed in detail and an essential sampling checklist is provided. The full range of cosmogenic isotopes is covered and a wide spectrum of in-situ applications are described and illustrated with specific and generic examples of exposure dating, burial dating, erosion and uplift rates, and process model verification. Graduate students and experienced practitioners will find this book a vital source of information on the background concepts and practical applications in geomorphology, geography, soil-science, and geology.
The third edition of Radiogenic Isotope Geology examines revolutionary changes in geochemical thinking that have occurred over the past fifteen years. Extinct-nuclide studies on meteorites have called into question fundamental geochemical models of the Earth, while new dating methods have challenged conventional views of Earth history. At the same time, the problem of global warming has raised new questions about the causes of past and present climate change. In the new edition, these and other recent issues are evaluated in their scholarly and historical context, so readers can understand the development of current ideas. Controversial theories, new analytical techniques, classic papers, and illustrative case studies all come under scrutiny in this book, providing an accessible introduction for students and critical commentary for researchers.
The environmentally oriented specialties of microbiology are in the midst of a major paradigm shift from a focus on single or a few key microbial species to consideration of the entirety of the microbial community and its interactions. This fully revised and updated edition focuses on the importance of soil microbial communities to sustainability of terrestrial ecosystems and solutions to global problems. Basic principles are covered, and details of the finer points of processes and their implications have been updated. This is a one-of-a-kind reference for advanced students and professionals.
Despite the undeniable importance of anti-evolutionism in American cultural history, and the plethora of publications since the 1980s, few libraries have collected more than the occasional book or pamphlet on creationism and early creationist periodicals are almost impossible to find. This collection makes available works on creationism by such stalwarts as Arthur I. Brown, William Bell Riley, Harry Rimmer, Byron C. Nelson, George McCready Price, Harold W. Clark and Frank Lewis Marsh. It also reprints three of the earliest and rarest creationist journals in America: the Creationist, the Bulletin of Deluge Geology and the Forum for the Correlation of Science and the Bible. The collection as a whole plays an important part in the continuing debate in America over science and religion. There is a new preface to all volumes by the series editor Ronald L. Numbers.
Knowledge of the basic interactions that take place between geological materials and different substances is the first step in understanding the effects of adsorption and other interfacial processes on the quality of rocks and soils, and on driving these processes towards a beneficial or neutral result. Interfacial Chemistry of Rocks and Soils examines the different processes at solid and liquid interfaces of soil and rock, presenting a complete analysis that emphasizes the importance of chemical species on these interactions. This Second Edition features novel results in the field and expanded coverage of the kinetics of interfacial processes. New content includes models of heterogeneous isotope exchange, sorption isotherms for heterovalent cation exchange, as well as sorption of anions by chemically modified clays. Summarizing the results and knowledge of the authors' research in this field over several decades, this volume: Explores the individual components of the studied systems: the solid, the solution, and the interface Discusses the characteristics and thermodynamics of the interface Profiles the most important analytical methods in the study of interfacial processes Demonstrates transformations initiated by interfacial processes Outlines avenues of treatment that may solve geological, soil science, and environmental problems Drawn chiefly from the authors' years of research at the Imre Lajos Isotope Laboratory in the Department of Physical Chemistry at the University of Debrecen in Hungary, this book discusses chemical reactions on the surfaces/interfaces of soils and rocks; examines the role of these processes in environmental, colloid and geochemistry; and explores the effects on agricultural, environmental and industrial applications.
International Kimberlite Conferences (IKCs) are special events that are held across the world once in four to five years. IKC is the confluence platform for academicians, scientists and industrial personnel concerned with diamond exploration and exploitation, petrology, geochemistry, geochronology, geophysics and origin of the primary diamond host rocks and their entrained xenoliths and xenocrysts (including diamond) to get together and deliberate on new advances in research made in the intervening years. Ever since the organization of first IKC in 1973 and its tremendous success, the entire geological world eagerly look forward to subsequent such conferences with great enthusiasm and excitement. The scientific emanations from IKCs continue to make significant impact on our understanding of the composition, nature and evolution of the planet we live on. The previous conferences were held at Cape Town (1973), Santa Fe, New Mexico (1977), Clermont-Ferrand, France, (1982). Perth, Western Australia (1987), Araxa, Brazil (1991), Novosibirsk, Russia (1995), Cape Town (1998), Victoria, Canada (2003) and Frankfurt, Germany (2008).
The tenth IKC was held at Bangalore, India between 5th and 11th February 2012. The conference was organized by the Geological Society of India in association with the government organizations, academic institutions and Indian diamond mining companies. About 300 delegates from 36 countries attended the conference and 224 papers were presented. The papers include 78 oral presentations and 146 poster presentations on following topics: Kimberlite geology, origin, evolution and emplacement of kimberlites and related rocks, petrology and geochemistry of metasomatised lithospheric mantle magmas, diamond exploration, cratonic roots, diamonds, diamond mining and sustainable developments and policies and governance of diamond exploration. Pre- and post-conference field trips were organized to (i) the diamond bearing kimberlites of Dharwar Craton in South India, (ii) lamproites of Bundelkhand Craton in northern India and (iii) diamond cutting and polishing industry of Surat, Gujarat in western India. A series of social and cultural programmes depicting cultural diversity of India were organized during the conference. The Kimberlite fraternity enjoyed yet another socially and scientifically successful conference.
Geologists must be able to "read" a geological map. That means interpreting the vertical dimension through the 2D view represented on the map and at different scales. The main objective of this book is to help students during this difficult learning process. Based on an abundant iconography (field photos, maps, cross-sections) and on basics in mathematics and mechanics, the book dissects the geometry of emblematic geological structures and objects in order to build 3 D models, printable in 3D. The book is dedicated to structural geology with a particular emphasis on kinematics of faulting and folding and on salt tectonics (chapters III, IV and V). The origin of continental great unconformities and oceanic break-up unconformities is also discussed (chapter II). The audience of the book is broad and includes (under)graduate students in Earth Sciences, professors of Natural Sciences, and professional or amateur geologists.
This book presents a unique and up-to-date summary of what is known about groundwater on our planet, from a global perspective and in terms of area-specific factual information. Unlike most textbooks on groundwater, it does not deal with theoretical principles, but rather with the overall picture that emerges as a result of countless observations, studies and other activities related to groundwater in all parts of the world. The focus is on showing the role and geographical diversity of groundwater-a natural resource of great importance in daily life, but poorly understood by the general public and even by many water sector professionals. The book starts by analysing groundwater in the context of the hydrological cycle. Subsequently, groundwater systems as physical units, with their boundaries mainly defined by geological conditions, are reviewed. The next chapter looks at groundwater as a resource, paying attention, among others, to its quantity and quality, to the differentiation between renewable and non-renewable resources, and to the techniques for withdrawing groundwater. This is followed by a systematic documentation of the quantities of groundwater withdrawn and used around the world, and of the corresponding shares of groundwater in each of the main water use sectors. After that, steadily growing needs for groundwater management interventions are identified, resulting from local human activities and global change (including demography, economic development and climate change). Finally, groundwater resources management is addressed and real-life cases are described that illustrate actions taken and experiences with different issues in different parts of the world. The authors attempted to write this book in such a way that it is accessible to a wider readership than just groundwater professionals. It will also benefit non-groundwater specialists who work in groundwater-related fields (water managers, land use planners, environmentalists, agronomists, engineers, economists, lawyers, and journalists), by broadening their understanding of groundwater and making them aware of the huge variety of groundwater settings. Groundwater specialists will use the book as a convenient reference on the geographical diversity of groundwater. Part of the contents or interpretations offered may even be new to them or enhance their knowledge of some aspects. The many maps, tables, and references will save much time for those who would otherwise have to search elsewhere for basic information on the globe's groundwater.
This book, first published in 1986, is an excellent introduction to the main topics of economic and applied geology for undergraduate students of geology, geophysics, mining geology and civil engineering.
Organic farming is not only a philosophy; it is also a well-researched science. The second edition of The Science and Technology of Organic Farming presents the scientific basis of organic farming and the methods of application needed to achieve adequate yields through plant nutrition and protection. Organic farming is a scientifically derived method of improving soil fertility to increase agricultural yields with limited chemical inputs. As such, it can meet public demand for reduced chemical inputs in agriculture and play a key role in meeting the needs of a growing world population. The new edition of this highly regarded book gives clear and comprehensive details on how soil fertility can be maintained and how plants can be nourished in organic agriculture. Chapters on soil fertility and plant nutrition explain the chemistry of the plant, the soil, and the soil solution and outline the importance of plant macronutrients and micronutrients. The book offers practical information on using of green manures, composts and lime to maintain soil fertility; introduces methods of tillage of land; provides organic methods of controlling weeds, insects, and diseases; and suggests how food produce can be stored without refrigeration. The text provides information on how to assess and govern the nutritional status of crops and the fertility and condition of soil and presents guidelines, recommendations, and procedures for determining the best fertility recommendations for individual situations. This edition includes an entirely new chapter on hydroponics that explains organic approaches to hydroponic crop production. With a full bibliography of references, this text is a practical guide for anyone interested in organic farming, from farmers and agricultural advisers to teachers, soil scientists, plant scientist, entomologists and students of other biological and environmental sciences.
The Earth's surface is always changing. Learn how weathering and erosion constantly reshapes the earth through wind, water, and more! Even people can drastically change the earth's surface. With the help of easy-to-read text and bright, colorful images, this reader simplifies challenging scientific topics while keeping students engaged from cover to cover. This reader also includes instructions for an engaging science activity where students can see what happens when land erodes. A helpful glossary and index are also included for additional support.
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