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Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and their associated technologies have advanced by leaps and bounds in the nine years since the first edition of this book was published. The concept of survey has changed, especially in the disciplines of geomatics and geoinformatics. This revised and updated second edition provides a thorough understanding of the basic principles and techniques of GNSS, analyzes all four active systems, and explains clearly how each of these systems works. Because of its straightforward treatment of the subject, readers will gain an insight into the techniques, trends, and applications of GNSS and develop knowledge on selecting an appropriate GNSS instrument. Written for students and practitioners in geoinformatics, geomatics engineering, surveying, and remote sensing and GIS, this introductory and practical book includes questions and exercises in each chapter. Key Features: * Furnishes detailed information on GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, BeiDou, and other regional and augmented systems * Provides practical guidance for surveying, mapping, and navigation with GNSS * Sheds light on the latest developments and modern trends of GNSS * Includes a detailed glossary of related terms * Contains many illustrations that complement the text * Exercises for each chapter * MCQ, solution manual for mathematical problems, and PPT as online resources
An international team of over 150 experts provide up-to-date satellite imaging and quantitative analysis of the state and damics of the glaciers around the world, and they provide an in-depth review if analysis methodologies. Includes an e-published supplement.
Global Land Ice Measurements from Space - Satellite Multispectral Imaging of Glaciers (GLIMS book for short) is the leading state-of-the-art technical and interpretive presentation of satellite image data and analysis of the changing state of the world's glaciers. The book is the most definitive, comprehensive product of a global glacier remote sensing consortium, Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS, http: //www.glims.org).With 33 chapters and a companion e-supplement, the world's foremost experts in satellite image analysis of glaciers analyze the current state and recent and possible future changes of glaciers across the globe and interpret these findings for policy planners.
Climate change is with us for some time to come, and its impacts are being felt by the world's population. The GLIMS Book, to be released about the same time as the IPCC's 5th Assessment report onglobal climate warming, buttresses and adds rich details andauthority to the global change community's understanding of climate change impacts on the cryosphere. Thiswill be a definitive and technically complete reference for experts and students examining the responses of glaciers to climate change. Worldexperts demonstrate thatglaciers are changing in response to the ongoing climatic upheavalin addition to otherfactors that pertain to the circumstances of individual glaciers. The globalmosaic ofglacier changes is documented by quantitative analyses and are placed into a perspective of causative factors. Starting with a Foreword, Preface, and Introduction, theGLIMS book gives the rationale for and history of glaciermonitoring and satellite data analysis.It includes a comprehensive set of six "how-to"methodology chapters, twenty-five chaptersdetailing regional glacier state and dynamical changes, andan in-depth summary andinterpretation chapter placing theobserved glacier changes into a globalcontext of thecoupled atmosphere-land-ocean system.
An accompanying e-supplement will include oversize imagery and other other highly visual renderings of scientific data."
The environmentally oriented specialties of microbiology are in the midst of a major paradigm shift from a focus on single or a few key microbial species to consideration of the entirety of the microbial community and its interactions. This fully revised and updated edition focuses on the importance of soil microbial communities to sustainability of terrestrial ecosystems and solutions to global problems. Basic principles are covered, and details of the finer points of processes and their implications have been updated. This is a one-of-a-kind reference for advanced students and professionals.
In the modern marine environment, barium isotope ( 138Ba) variations are primarily driven by barite cycling-barite incorporates 'light' Ba isotopes from solution, rendering the residual Ba reservoir enriched in 'heavy' Ba isotopes by a complementary amount. Since the processes of barite precipitation and dissolution are vertically segregated and spatially heterogeneous, barite cycling drives systematic variations in the barium isotope composition of seawater and sediments. This Element examines these variations; evaluates their global, regional, local, and geological controls; and, explores how 138Ba can be exploited to constrain the origin of enigmatic sedimentary sulfates and to study marine biogeochemistry over Earth's history.
This is the first book to provide a comprehensive and state-of-the-art introduction to the novel and fast-evolving topic of in-situ produced cosmogenic nuclides. It presents an accessible introduction to the theoretical foundations, with explanations of relevant concepts starting at a basic level and building in sophistication. It incorporates, and draws on, methodological discussions and advances achieved within the international CRONUS (Cosmic-Ray Produced Nuclide Systematics) networks. Practical aspects such as sampling, analytical methods and data-interpretation are discussed in detail and an essential sampling checklist is provided. The full range of cosmogenic isotopes is covered and a wide spectrum of in-situ applications are described and illustrated with specific and generic examples of exposure dating, burial dating, erosion and uplift rates, and process model verification. Graduate students and experienced practitioners will find this book a vital source of information on the background concepts and practical applications in geomorphology, geography, soil-science, and geology.
The third edition of Radiogenic Isotope Geology examines revolutionary changes in geochemical thinking that have occurred over the past fifteen years. Extinct-nuclide studies on meteorites have called into question fundamental geochemical models of the Earth, while new dating methods have challenged conventional views of Earth history. At the same time, the problem of global warming has raised new questions about the causes of past and present climate change. In the new edition, these and other recent issues are evaluated in their scholarly and historical context, so readers can understand the development of current ideas. Controversial theories, new analytical techniques, classic papers, and illustrative case studies all come under scrutiny in this book, providing an accessible introduction for students and critical commentary for researchers.
Despite the undeniable importance of anti-evolutionism in American cultural history, and the plethora of publications since the 1980s, few libraries have collected more than the occasional book or pamphlet on creationism and early creationist periodicals are almost impossible to find. This collection makes available works on creationism by such stalwarts as Arthur I. Brown, William Bell Riley, Harry Rimmer, Byron C. Nelson, George McCready Price, Harold W. Clark and Frank Lewis Marsh. It also reprints three of the earliest and rarest creationist journals in America: the Creationist, the Bulletin of Deluge Geology and the Forum for the Correlation of Science and the Bible. The collection as a whole plays an important part in the continuing debate in America over science and religion. There is a new preface to all volumes by the series editor Ronald L. Numbers.
International Kimberlite Conferences (IKCs) are special events that are held across the world once in four to five years. IKC is the confluence platform for academicians, scientists and industrial personnel concerned with diamond exploration and exploitation, petrology, geochemistry, geochronology, geophysics and origin of the primary diamond host rocks and their entrained xenoliths and xenocrysts (including diamond) to get together and deliberate on new advances in research made in the intervening years. Ever since the organization of first IKC in 1973 and its tremendous success, the entire geological world eagerly look forward to subsequent such conferences with great enthusiasm and excitement. The scientific emanations from IKCs continue to make significant impact on our understanding of the composition, nature and evolution of the planet we live on. The previous conferences were held at Cape Town (1973), Santa Fe, New Mexico (1977), Clermont-Ferrand, France, (1982). Perth, Western Australia (1987), Araxa, Brazil (1991), Novosibirsk, Russia (1995), Cape Town (1998), Victoria, Canada (2003) and Frankfurt, Germany (2008).
The tenth IKC was held at Bangalore, India between 5th and 11th February 2012. The conference was organized by the Geological Society of India in association with the government organizations, academic institutions and Indian diamond mining companies. About 300 delegates from 36 countries attended the conference and 224 papers were presented. The papers include 78 oral presentations and 146 poster presentations on following topics: Kimberlite geology, origin, evolution and emplacement of kimberlites and related rocks, petrology and geochemistry of metasomatised lithospheric mantle magmas, diamond exploration, cratonic roots, diamonds, diamond mining and sustainable developments and policies and governance of diamond exploration. Pre- and post-conference field trips were organized to (i) the diamond bearing kimberlites of Dharwar Craton in South India, (ii) lamproites of Bundelkhand Craton in northern India and (iii) diamond cutting and polishing industry of Surat, Gujarat in western India. A series of social and cultural programmes depicting cultural diversity of India were organized during the conference. The Kimberlite fraternity enjoyed yet another socially and scientifically successful conference.
Gold-guarding griffins, Cyclopes, killer lakes, man-eating birds, and "fire devils" from the sky-such wonders have long been dismissed as fictional. Now, thanks to the richly interdisciplinary field of geomythology, researchers are taking a second look. It turns out that these and similar tales, which originated in pre-literate societies, contain surprisingly accurate, pre-scientific intuitions about startling or catastrophic earth-based phenomena such as volcanoes, earthquakes, tsunamis, and the unearthing of bizarre animal bones. Geomythology: How Common Stories Reflect Earth Events provides an accessible, engaging overview of this hybrid discipline. The introductory chapter surveys geomythology's remarkable history and its core concepts, while the second and third chapters analyze the geomythical resonances of universal earth tales about dragons and giants. Chapter 4 narrows the focus to regional stories and discusses the ways these and other myths have influenced legends about griffins, Cyclopes, and other iconic creatures. The final chapter considers future avenues of research in geomythology, including geohazard management, geomythology databases, geomythical "cold cases," and ways the discipline might eventually set, rather than merely support, research agendas in science. Thus, the book constitutes a valuable asset for scientists and lay readers alike, particularly in a time of growing interest in monsters, massive climate change, and natural disasters.
Geologists must be able to "read" a geological map. That means interpreting the vertical dimension through the 2D view represented on the map and at different scales. The main objective of this book is to help students during this difficult learning process. Based on an abundant iconography (field photos, maps, cross-sections) and on basics in mathematics and mechanics, the book dissects the geometry of emblematic geological structures and objects in order to build 3 D models, printable in 3D. The book is dedicated to structural geology with a particular emphasis on kinematics of faulting and folding and on salt tectonics (chapters III, IV and V). The origin of continental great unconformities and oceanic break-up unconformities is also discussed (chapter II). The audience of the book is broad and includes (under)graduate students in Earth Sciences, professors of Natural Sciences, and professional or amateur geologists.
This book presents a unique and up-to-date summary of what is known about groundwater on our planet, from a global perspective and in terms of area-specific factual information. Unlike most textbooks on groundwater, it does not deal with theoretical principles, but rather with the overall picture that emerges as a result of countless observations, studies and other activities related to groundwater in all parts of the world. The focus is on showing the role and geographical diversity of groundwater-a natural resource of great importance in daily life, but poorly understood by the general public and even by many water sector professionals. The book starts by analysing groundwater in the context of the hydrological cycle. Subsequently, groundwater systems as physical units, with their boundaries mainly defined by geological conditions, are reviewed. The next chapter looks at groundwater as a resource, paying attention, among others, to its quantity and quality, to the differentiation between renewable and non-renewable resources, and to the techniques for withdrawing groundwater. This is followed by a systematic documentation of the quantities of groundwater withdrawn and used around the world, and of the corresponding shares of groundwater in each of the main water use sectors. After that, steadily growing needs for groundwater management interventions are identified, resulting from local human activities and global change (including demography, economic development and climate change). Finally, groundwater resources management is addressed and real-life cases are described that illustrate actions taken and experiences with different issues in different parts of the world. The authors attempted to write this book in such a way that it is accessible to a wider readership than just groundwater professionals. It will also benefit non-groundwater specialists who work in groundwater-related fields (water managers, land use planners, environmentalists, agronomists, engineers, economists, lawyers, and journalists), by broadening their understanding of groundwater and making them aware of the huge variety of groundwater settings. Groundwater specialists will use the book as a convenient reference on the geographical diversity of groundwater. Part of the contents or interpretations offered may even be new to them or enhance their knowledge of some aspects. The many maps, tables, and references will save much time for those who would otherwise have to search elsewhere for basic information on the globe's groundwater.
This unique treatment of geomorphology, first published in 1986, provides a comprehensive work to enable students to see the subject as a whole. Taking the concepts that run through the subject and cut across its standard divisions, the book summarises the history of intellectual debate in geomorphology and then describes modern developments, both pure and applied.
This book, first published in 1986, is an excellent introduction to the main topics of economic and applied geology for undergraduate students of geology, geophysics, mining geology and civil engineering.
Organic farming is not only a philosophy; it is also a well-researched science. The second edition of The Science and Technology of Organic Farming presents the scientific basis of organic farming and the methods of application needed to achieve adequate yields through plant nutrition and protection. Organic farming is a scientifically derived method of improving soil fertility to increase agricultural yields with limited chemical inputs. As such, it can meet public demand for reduced chemical inputs in agriculture and play a key role in meeting the needs of a growing world population. The new edition of this highly regarded book gives clear and comprehensive details on how soil fertility can be maintained and how plants can be nourished in organic agriculture. Chapters on soil fertility and plant nutrition explain the chemistry of the plant, the soil, and the soil solution and outline the importance of plant macronutrients and micronutrients. The book offers practical information on using of green manures, composts and lime to maintain soil fertility; introduces methods of tillage of land; provides organic methods of controlling weeds, insects, and diseases; and suggests how food produce can be stored without refrigeration. The text provides information on how to assess and govern the nutritional status of crops and the fertility and condition of soil and presents guidelines, recommendations, and procedures for determining the best fertility recommendations for individual situations. This edition includes an entirely new chapter on hydroponics that explains organic approaches to hydroponic crop production. With a full bibliography of references, this text is a practical guide for anyone interested in organic farming, from farmers and agricultural advisers to teachers, soil scientists, plant scientist, entomologists and students of other biological and environmental sciences.
The Earth's surface is always changing. Learn how weathering and erosion constantly reshapes the earth through wind, water, and more! Even people can drastically change the earth's surface. With the help of easy-to-read text and bright, colorful images, this reader simplifies challenging scientific topics while keeping students engaged from cover to cover. This reader also includes instructions for an engaging science activity where students can see what happens when land erodes. A helpful glossary and index are also included for additional support.
This book offers a comprehensive overview of the alluvial fan phenomena, including all terminology, morphology, sedimentology, controlling factors, processes and the human impact. It combines the knowledge dispersed widely in existing literature with regional case studies, color figures and photographs. The chapters provide a useful basis to understand alluvial fans and a selection of papers attached to each chapter offers additional, more focused reading. This volume is aimed at engineers, planners and especially students in earth sciences.
Diverse and abundant lipid biomarker assemblages have been reported from a variety of Proterozoic marine environments from the careful analysis of well-preserved rocks and oils. These molecular biosignatures have provided unique insights into the communities and the environmental conditions which characterized the Proterozoic marine biosphere. We summarize some of the major temporal patterns evident in Proterozoic lipid biomarkers found to date, whilst emphasizing the scale of local heterogeneity found within Neoproterozoic oceans from region to region, and their relationship with the evolving ecological, climatic and ocean/atmospheric redox conditions. Short commentaries on a selection of papers published from the last 15 years of biomarker literature are given. The focus here is on key studies, highlighted for further reading, which have helped to better constrain the timing of the ecological expansion of eukaryotes in Proterozoic oceans or which have impacted on our knowledge of the biological sources of Proterozoic biomarkers.
A passionate eyewitness account of the mysteries and looming demise of glaciers-and what their fate means for our shared future The ice sheets and glaciers that cover one-tenth of Earth's land surface are in grave peril. High in the Alps, Andes, and Himalaya, once-indomitable glaciers are retreating, even dying. Meanwhile, in Antarctica, thinning glaciers may be unlocking vast quantities of methane stored for millions of years beneath the ice. In Ice Rivers, renowned glaciologist Jemma Wadham offers a searing personal account of glaciers and the rapidly unfolding crisis that they-and we-face. Taking readers on a personal journey from Europe and Asia to Antarctica and South America, Wadham introduces majestic glaciers around the globe as individuals-even friends-each with their own unique character and place in their community. She challenges their first appearance as silent, passive, and lifeless, and reveals that glaciers are, in fact, as alive as a forest or soil, teeming with microbial life and deeply connected to almost everything we know. They influence crucial systems on which people depend, from lucrative fisheries to fertile croplands, and represent some of the most sensitive and dynamic parts of our world. Their fate is inescapably entwined with our own, and unless we act to abate the greenhouse warming of our planet the potential consequences are almost unfathomable. A riveting blend of cutting-edge research and tales of encounters with polar bears and survival under the midnight sun, Ice Rivers is an unforgettable portrait of-and love letter to-our vanishing icy wildernesses.
Some years ago Edward Cole, a West Indian living in London, discovered an extraordinary natural limestone landscape on land he had bought in Trelawny, Jamaica, to build a house. Ever since the discovery he has worked tirelessly to expose and display the stones, created by nature millions of years ago and since buried by earth, trees and bushes, in order to allow them to be seen by the public. There are few if any other places in the world where you can see such a rich array of examples of nature's work in carving rock formations from limestone. They have now been used to create an artful range of displays as the basis of the Limestone Garden. This book is designed to inspire the reader and to reach a wider geological audience.
This book discusses the theoretical and practical issues of glaciokarsts. After a research history, a general description of glaciokarsts is provided. Thereafter, the glacial erosion on karst, the karstic features of glaciokarsts, the development of these features, the karstic zones of glaciokarsts, surface development of glaciokarsts, case studies on glaciokarsts and an overview of the glaciokarsts of the Earth are presented.
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