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Soilborne microbial plant pathogens including oomycetes, fungi, bacteria and viruses cause several economically important destructive diseases and the symptoms of infection can be recognized only after the pathogen has invaded many tissues primarily vascular tissues of susceptible plants. This condition places formidable challenges in investigating different aspects of host-microbial pathogen interactions. Early detection of infection and precise identification, differentiation, and quantification of the microbial plant pathogens in plants, soil and water sources are essential requirements for development of effective tactics to reduce the incidence and spread of the diseases caused by them. As the microbial plant pathogens differ in their virulence and sensitivity to the environment and chemicals applied, it is imperative to assess the extent of variability in the concerned pathogens. This first volume of a two-volume set introduces disease-causing microorganisms including oomycetes, fungi, bacteria, and viruses found in soils. It focuses on the biology, detection, and identification of soilborne bacterial, fungal, and viral plant pathogens. This volume discusses various techniques based on biological, immunological and genetic properties of the pathogens indicating their advantages and limitations for selecting the appropriate technique to fulfill the requirements. Features: Presents techniques useful for detection, identification, quantification of microbial plant pathogens in plants, soil, and irrigation water from waterbodies. Highlights subversive activities of viruses, resulting in the breakdown of host defense systems. Discusses RNA silencing in infected plants by viruses and posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) functioning as an endogenous mechanism in plants against virus infection. Presents information on methods of assessment of genetic variability and sensitivity of microbial plant pathogens to chemicals and adverse environmental conditions.
This textbook for senior undergraduate and graduate students outlines and provides links between classical mechanics and geophysical fluid dynamics. It is particularly suitable for the mechanics and fluids dynamics courses of geophysics, meteorology, or oceanography students as well as serving as a general textbook for a course on geophysical fluid dynamics. It describes the motions of rigid bodies and shows how classical mechanics has important applications to geophysics, as in the precession of the earth, oceanic tide, and the retreat of the moon from the earth owing to the tidal friction. Unlike the more general mechanics textbooks this gives a unique presentation of these applications
This inter-disciplinary book provides the latest advanced knowledge of plant effects on vegetated soil properties such as water retention capability, water permeability function, shear strength, slope hydrology, movements and failure mechanisms, and applies this knowledge to the solution of slope stability problems. It is the first book to cover in detail not only the mechanical effects of root reinforcement but more importantly the hydrological effects of plant transpiration on soil suction, soil shear strength, and water permeability. The book also offers a fundamental understanding of soil-plant-water interaction. Analytical equations are provided for predicting the combined hydrological and mechanical effects of plant roots on slope stability. A novel method is also given for simulating transpiration-induced suction in a geotechnical centrifuge. Application of this method to the study of the failure mechanisms of vegetated slopes reinforced by roots with different architectures is discussed. This book is essential reading for senior undergraduate and postgraduate students as well as researchers in civil engineering, geo-environmental engineering, plant ecology, agricultural science, hydrology and water resources. It also provides advanced knowledge for civil engineers seeking "green" engineering solutions to combat the negative impact of climate change on the long-term engineering sustainability of infrastructure slopes. Professionals other than civil engineers, such as ecologists, agriculturists, botanists, environmentalists, and hydrologists, would also find the book relevant and useful.
Soil degradation is a widespread problem in Africa resulting in decreased agricultural productivity while demand for food continues to increase. Degradation is caused by accelerated erosion, acidification, contamination, depletion of soil organic matter and plant nutrients, and salinization. The major cause of soil degradation in Africa is uncontrolled and excessive grazing in the savanna regions followed by deforestation and the use of inappropriate and extractive farming practices. Perpetual neglect of the health of soils in Africa can exacerbate the already serious problems of food and nutritional insecurity and environmental degradation. Food and nutritional security of the growing population of Africa can only be achieved if degraded soils are restored and soils of agroecosystems are managed prudently and sustainably. Ignoring soils and taking the fragile, finite and precious soil resources for granted is the principal cause of poverty, hunger, and environmental degradation. The downward spiral must be reversed through soil restoration measures based on translating science into action. This book describes the soils of Africa, processes of soil degradation, extent and severity of soil degradation, and the impacts of degradation processes on food and nutritional security. Features: Explores the extent and severity of soil degradation in Africa Analyzes the cause-effect relationship between anthropogenic activities and soil degradation Reviews processes of soil degradation in Africa including erosion, salinization, nutrient depletion, and decline of soil organic matter Addresses the effect of climate change on soil degradation in Africa. Explains how soil degradation causes food and nutritional insecurity Part of the Advances in Soil Sciences series, this volume is specifically devoted to the processes and factors that cause soil degradation and the challenges and potential for remediation and restoration of soil health in Africa.
Climate is a soil-forming factor and soil can mitigate climate change through a reduction in the emissions of greenhouse gases and sequestration of atmospheric CO2. Thus, there is a growing interest in soil management practices capable of mitigating climate change and enhancing environmental quality. Soil and Climate addresses global issues through soil management and outlines strategies for advancing Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This volume in the Advances in Soil Science series is specifically devoted to describe state-of-the-knowledge regarding the climate-soil nexus in relation to: Soil Processes: weathering, decomposition of organic matter, erosion, leaching, salinization, biochemical, transformations, gaseous flux, and elemental cycling, Soil Properties: physical, chemical, biological, and ecological, Atmospheric Chemistry: gaseous concentrations of (CO2, CH4, N2O), water vapors, soot, dust, and particulate matter, Mitigation and Adaptation: source and sink of GHGs (CO2, CH4, N2O), land use and soil management, soil C sink capacity, permafrost, Soil Management: sequestration of organic and inorganic C, nutrient requirements, water demands, coupled cycling of H2O, N, P, S, and Policy and Outreach: carbon farming, payments for ecosystem services, COP21, SDGs, land degradation neutrality Special topics on soil as a source or sink of CO2, silicate weathering and carbon sequestration, nutrients required for carbon sequestration, physical protection and the mean resident time, and predicting soil carbon stocks are discussed in detail throughout the book.
The second edition of a bestseller, Soil and Water Chemistry: An Integrative Approach maintains the balanced perspective that made the first edition a hugely popular textbook. The second edition includes new figures and tables, new chapters, and expanded exercises in each chapter. It covers topics including soil chemical environment, soil minerals, soil organic matter, cation exchange, oxidation-reduction, mineral weathering and solubility, surface chemistry and adsorption reactions, acidity and salinity in soil materials, and chemical thermodynamics applied to soil systems. See What's New in the Second Edition: Extensive section that details the sources, speciation, and the general behavior of elements in soils Expanded section on crystal structure, updated phyllosillcates classifications scheme, inclusion of sepiolite-palygorskite group, and expanded x-ray diffraction section Discussion of surface runoff losses of phosphorus from soil and description of the inductivity coupled argon plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analytical technique for determining elemental concentrations in soil solution Coverage of the influence of redox processes on the soil chemistry of nonelectroactive elements Description of the electrokinetic phenomenon and investigation of the influence of temperature on adsorption Expanded discussion on the application of chemical thermodynamics to soil systems A solutions manual is available upon qualifying course adoption. Still one of the only texts on this subject, this book provides a comprehensive, modern, and balanced coverage of the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of soils and their chemical processes. It contains more information and topic coverage than required for an average, single-semester course. This extensive coverage is by design, giving you the latitude to pick your own essential topics while providing additional information or a more advanced treatment when needed. Figures and tables make the information accessible and each problem has been tested and is relevant and doable, but asks more of students than to simply generate a number. This format allows students to understand the concepts and recognize that their computations have physical meaning.
Geologists must be able to "read" a geological map. That means interpreting the vertical dimension through the 2D view represented on the map and at different scales. The main objective of this book is to help students during this difficult learning process. Based on an abundant iconography (field photos, maps, cross-sections) and on basics in mathematics and mechanics, the book dissects the geometry of emblematic geological structures and objects in order to build 3 D models, printable in 3D. The book is dedicated to structural geology with a particular emphasis on kinematics of faulting and folding and on salt tectonics (chapters III, IV and V). The origin of continental great unconformities and oceanic break-up unconformities is also discussed (chapter II). The audience of the book is broad and includes (under)graduate students in Earth Sciences, professors of Natural Sciences, and professional or amateur geologists.
This book explores basic and applied aspects of microorganisms, which have a unique ability to cope with abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity and changing climate, as well as biodegrader microorganisms and their functional roles. Further, readers will find detailed information on all aspects that are required to make a microbe "agriculturally beneficial." The book's primary focus is on microbes that are essentially "hidden miniature packages of nature" that influence agro-ecosystems. Inviting papers by prominent national and international scientists working in the field of agricultural microbiology, it addresses the biogdegrader group of microbial inoculants. Each chapter covers the respective mechanism of action and recent advances in agricultural microbiology. In addition, the book especially highlights innovations involving agriculturally beneficial microorganisms, including strategies for coping with a changing climate, and methods for developing microbial inoculants and promoting climate-smart agriculture. The information presented here is based on the authors' extensive experience in the subject area, gathered in the course of their careers in the field of agricultural microbiology. The book offers a valuable resource for all readers who are actively involved in research on agriculturally beneficial microorganisms. In addition, it will help prepare readers for the future challenges that climate change will pose for agriculture and will help to bridge the current gaps between different scientific communities.
This edited volume discusses scientific and technological aspects of the history of the oil and gas industry in national and international contexts. The search for oil for industrial uses began in the nineteenth century, the first drills made in Azerbaijan and the United States. This intense search for a substance to become one of the most important energy sources was, many times, based on skill as well as luck, resulting in knowledge and the development of prospecting and exploration technologies. The demand for oil improved expertise in geological science, in areas such as micropaleontology, stratigraphy or sedimentology and informed different disciplines such as geophysics. These contributions made possible not only the discovery of new oil fields but also new applications and methods of exploration. Beyond the scientific and technological aspects, an industry that grew to such considerable size also impacted the political, economic, social, cultural, environmental and diplomatic issues in history. The book approaches these changes in different scales, countries, areas, and perspectives. This edited book appeals to researchers, student, practitioners in various fields from geology and geophysics to history. It is also an important resource for professionals in the oil and gas industry.
This book explores the sustainability aspect of organic and conventional farming systems, which is commonly categorized into three sub-aspects: social, environmental and economic. The social structure of a given area, organic friendly technologies, soil properties, crop diversification and income are the elements chosen for comparison, and are analyzed using descriptive and statistical methods. In addition, the book assesses the current status of the local organic market in Nepal and field experiments involving the use of various organic means to achieve better production for selected vegetables. Determining the benefits and/or challenges of organic and conventional farming is important to determining the most viable type of farming in the long term, but can be greatly impacted by a given area's specific characteristics (social, environmental, political, etc.), which is why this study focuses on a specific location: the Chitwan district of Nepal, where group conversion to organic farming has existed alongside conventional farming for years. This book offers a useful guide for both practitioners and academic researchers who are interested in organic farming and food security, particularly in developing countries.
This book describes new theoretical advances concerning analytical solutions of the Rotating Shallow Water Equations, which will make it of great interest to graduate students and scientists in the fields of Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Physical Oceanography, Dynamical Meteorology and Applied Mathematics. The new dispersion relations and meridional amplitude variations of waves derived in this book can be applied to observations in the atmosphere and ocean and also provide alternatives to the Spherical Harmonics basis of global-scale spectral numerical models.
This edited volume is based on the best papers accepted for presentation during the 1st Springer Conference of the Arabian Journal of Geosciences (CAJG-1), Tunisia 2018. The book is of interest to all researchers in the fields of petroleum engineering, reservoir engineering and petroleum geochemistry. The MENA region accounts for more than 50 percent of the world's hydrocarbon reserves. Despite being the largest oil and gas producer of the world, the MENA countries face routine problems regarding petroleum engineering, reservoir modelling and production optimization. This volume offers an overview of the latest information and ideas regarding reservoir engineering, petrophysical engineering, petroleum system modelling, non-conventional energy resources and environmental impact of oil production. Main topics include: 1. Advances in petrophysical characterization of reservoir rocks2. Enhanced oil recovery methods 3. Advances in petroleum exploration and management 4. Evaluation of hydrocarbon source potential and petroleum system modeling5. Non-conventional energy resources
This edited volume is based on the best papers accepted for presentation during the 1st Springer Conference of the Arabian Journal of Geosciences (CAJG-1), Tunisia 2018. The book is of interest to all researchers in the fields of Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Petrology and Volcanology. The Earth's interior is a source of heat, which makes our planet unique. This source regulates the formation and evolution of rocks at larger scales, and of minerals and sediments toward smaller scales. In such context, the exploration of georesources (products) has to be related to petrogenesis (processes). This volume offers an overview of the state-of-the-art petrogenesis and exploration in, but not limited to, the Middle East and Mediterranean regions. It gives new insights into processes and products related to the Earth's interior, and associated georesources by international researchers. Main topics include: 1. Petrogenetic processes: geochemistry, geochronology and geophysical approaches 2. Surficial processes: sedimentation and facies analysis 3. Applied mineralogy and tectonics 4. Geological research applied to mineral deposits
The crash of the Indian plate into Asia is the biggest known collision in geological history, and it continues today. The result is the Himalaya and Karakoram - one of the largest mountain ranges on Earth. The Karakoram has half of the world's highest mountains and a reputation as being one of the most remote and savage ranges of all. In this beautifully illustrated book, Mike Searle, a geologist at the University of Oxford and one of the most experienced field geologists of our time, presents a rich account of the geological forces that were involved in creating these mountain ranges. Using his personal accounts of extreme mountaineering and research in the region, he pieces together the geological processes that formed such impressive peaks.
The practical application of geomorphological science now forms a regular part of any project involving flood protection, fisheries, conservation, recreation, environmental protection and river restoration. In this book the authors use their extensive experience gained through fieldwork, analysis, and input to the design process to provide a thorough understanding of geomorphology in the river environment and describe effective ways to incorporate geomorphological science into river engineering and management.
There's a reason we pay top dollar for Champagne and that bottles of wine from prestige vineyards cost as much as a car: a place's distinct geographical attributes, known as terroir to wine buffs, determine the unique profile of a wine--and some rarer locales produce wines that are particularly coveted. In Volcanoes and Wine, geologist Charles Frankel introduces us to the volcanoes that are among the most dramatic and ideal landscapes for wine making. Traveling across regions well-known to wine lovers like Sicily, Oregon, and California, as well as the less familiar Canary Islands, Frankel gives an in-depth account of famous volcanoes and the wines that spring from their idiosyncratic soils. From Santorini's vineyards of rocky pumice dating back to a four-thousand-year-old eruption to grapes growing in craters dug in the earth of the Canary Islands, from Vesuvius's famous Lacryma Christi to the ambitious new generation of wine growers reviving the traditional grapes of Mount Etna, Frankel takes us across the stunning and dangerous world of volcanic wines. He details each volcano's most famous eruptions, the grapes that grow in its soils, and the people who make their homes on its slopes, adapting to an ever-menacing landscape. In addition to introducing the history and geology of these volcanoes, Frankel serves as a travel guide, offering a host of tips ranging from prominent vineyards to visit to scenic hikes in each location. This illuminating guide will be indispensable for wine lovers looking to learn more about volcanic terroirs, as well as anyone curious about how cultural heritage can survive and thrive in the shadow of geological danger.
The resources race is on. Powering our digital lives and green technologies are some of the Earth’s most precious metals ― but they are running out. And what will happen when they do?
The green-tech revolution will reduce our dependency on nuclear power, coal, and oil, heralding a new era free of pollution, fossil-fuel shortages, and crossborder tensions. But there is a hidden dark side to this seemingly utopian vision.
In this international bestseller, award-winning journalist and documentary-maker Guillaume Pitron reveals that, by breaking free of fossil fuels, we are in fact setting ourselves up for a new dependence ― on rare metals such as cobalt, gold, and palladium.
These are essential to electric vehicles, wind turbines, and solar panels, as well as our smartphones, computers, tablets, and other technologies. But we know very little about how rare metals are mined and traded, or their environmental, economic, and geopolitical costs; meanwhile, China has captured the lion’s share of the market and is using it to consolidate its position as a leading global power.
Drawing on six years of research across a dozen countries, The Rare Metals War is a vital exposť of the ticking time-bomb that lies beneath our new technological order.
The book reviews and summarizes the Indian Mesozoic geological evolution in an innovative alternative perspective of sequence stratigraphy. It mainly focuses on the Jurassic interval, but also concisely discusses the preceding Triassic and Cretaceous geological records. The key to the study is primarily held in the recently developed ammonoid based high resolution scales in the Triassic and Jurassic period. The Indian Jurassic record is thus elevated to a high resolution pedestal. The large intra-Jurassic stratigraphic gap in Kachchh, with increase in duration from margin to basin, has been precised in different sections, along with radical revision of its long held interpretation from sub-aerial to sub-marine all over from Arabia to Australia. Other significant gaps are also differentiated into sub-aerial and sub-marine. The Indian Late Precambrian - Neogene record is organized into five mega-sequences. Among these, the fourth - also the most important one - includes the intra-Permian to Early Eocene interval from the origin to the closure of the Neotethys. Based on multidisciplinary integration of the Indian Mesozoic geological record and comparison with hydrocarbon producing basins on east and west of India, a highly positive scenario of the hydrocarbon source/reservoir sediment perspective is outlined in the book in sequence stratigraphic backdrop as an edifice for future elaborate evaluation.
This book focuses on the links between deep earth (mantle) and shallow processes in areas of active tectonics in the Arabian Plate and Surrounding Areas. It also provides key information for energy resources in these areas. The book is a compilation of selected papers from the Task Force of the International Lithosphere Program (ILP). It comprises a set of research studies from the Middle East, North Africa and the Mediterranean domain focusing on (1) the architecture, geodynamic evolution and modelling of the Red Sea rift system and its surroundings, and tectonics and sedimentation in the Gulf of Corinth, (2) the crustal architecture and georesources of the North Algerian Offshore, (3) Reservoirs, aquifers and fluid transfers in Saudi Basins, Petroleum systems and salt tectonics in Yemen and (4) Cretaceous-Eocene foreland inversions in Saudi Arabia.
This book contains selected contributions presented at the 10th International Geostatistics Congress held in Valencia from 5 to 9 September, 2016. This is a quadrennial congress that serves as the meeting point for any engineer, professional, practitioner or scientist working in geostatistics. The book contains carefully reviewed papers on geostatistical theory and applications in fields such as mining engineering, petroleum engineering, environmental science, hydrology, ecology, and other fields.
The manufacture of plastic as well as its indiscriminate disposal and destruction by incineration pollutes atmospheric, terrestrial, and aquatic ecosystems. Synthetic plastics do not break down; they accumulate in the environment as macro-, micro-, and nanoplastics. These particulate plastics are a major source of pollutants in soil and marine ecosystems. Particulate Plastics in Terrestrial and Aquatic Environments provides a fundamental understanding of the sources of these plastics and the threats they pose to the environment. The book demonstrates the ecotoxicity of particulate plastics using case studies and offers management practices to mitigate particulate plastic contamination in the environment. Features * Describes physical and chemical properties of particulate plastics in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems * Presents information on characteristics of particulate plastics as impacted by weathering processes * Provides numerous approaches for managing particulate plastic contamination * Identifies sources of particulate plastics in the environment; distribution and characteristics of particulate plastics; and management strategies of particulate plastics Written by a global team of scientists, this book is for researchers in the fields of environmental safety and waste management or individuals interested in the impact of particulate plastics on environmental health.
This book introduces the reader to the unique geology of Greece. This country is a natural geology laboratory that can help us understand the present-day active geodynamic processes in the Hellenic orogenic arc, including earthquakes, volcanoes, coastline changes and other processes of uplift and subsidence, as well as the intense erosion, transport and deposition of sediments. Additionally, Greece offers a remarkable geological museum, reflecting the complex history of the area over the last 300 million years. By studying the rocks of Greece, one can discover old oceanic basins, e.g. in the Northern Pindos and Othrys mountains, crystalline rocks of Palaeozoic age, old granitic and volcanic rocks, as well as other sedimentary rocks including fossils from the shallow neritic facies to pelagic and abyssal facies. The younger sediments demonstrate the continuously changing palaeogeography of Greece, with areas of lakes, high plateaus and gulfs that are transformed into new forms of islands, peninsulas or high mountains, etc. All the above subjects are included in the book, which describes the tectonic structure of the geological strata, together with the evolutionary stages of the palaeogeography and geodynamics within the broader Mediterranean context. A special characteristic of the book is the development of the orogenic model of the Hellenides with the application of the tectono-stratigraphic terrane concept in the Tethyan system.
This book is the first comprehensive review of the subsurface monitoring theory and practice. It presents all aspects of a subsurface monitoring system SM-NI to be organized in impacted areas of nuclear industry enterprises. The content of the book covers the whole set of the SM-NI projecting and implementation issues - from the theoretical and regulatory framework, through the description of the sources of impact on geological environment to examples of use the SM-NI to solve environmental problems on the main types of environmentally significant nuclear industry enterprises. Development of the SM-NI was based on long-term research studies including modeling of pollutants transport in the geological environment. The book is intended for a wide range of nuclear industry employees and specialists in environment protection and radiation safety of nuclear industry enterprises. It might be useful for ecologists, students and postgraduates concerned about environment protection in the field of nuclear technology
This book presents extensive and new information on the Cenozoic marine and continental systems of one of the most important World Heritage sites of Southern South America: The Peninsula Valdes. Using an interdisciplinary approach, that includes geological, biological and archeological perspectives of more than 30 specialists, an integrated description and analysis of the Cenozoic environments of the study region is presented. The volume brings together an update of the geology, climate, geomorphology, soils, biodiversity, archeology and human impact of the Peninsula Valdes. The scope of this book extends to any natural science researcher of the world interested on the Cenozoic history of the Peninsula Valdes.
Written by leading experts in their respective fields, Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology 3e, provides a comprehensive, balanced introduction to soil microbiology, and captures the rapid advances in the field such as recent discoveries regarding habitats and organisms, microbially mediated transformations, and applied environmental topics. Carefully edited for ease of reading, it aids users by providing an excellent multi-authored reference, the type of book that is continually used in the field. Background information is provided in the first part of the book for ease of comprehension. The following chapters then describe such fundamental topics as soil environment and microbial processes, microbial groups and their interactions, and thoroughly addresses critical nutrient cycles and important environmental and agricultural applications. An excellent textbook and desk reference, Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology, 3e, provides readers with broad, foundational coverage of the vast array of microorganisms that live in soil and the major biogeochemical processes they control. Soil scientists, environmental scientists, and others, including soil health and conservation specialists, will find this material invaluable for understanding the amazingly diverse world of soil microbiology, managing agricultural and environmental systems, and formulating environmental policy.
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