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Petroleum Science and Technology: Petroleum Generation, Accumulation and Prospecting describes natural hydrocarbon geology along with applicable aspects of physics, chemistry, biology, environmental science, mathematics, and engineering/technology. It starts off with a brief coverage of the origin and evolution of the universe, petroleum origin and generation in subsurface condition, source rock, oil/gas migration path and reservoir rock. Geological, geophysical, and geochemical petroleum surveys are also included. This book covers both theory and applied information. Aimed at graduate students, researchers, and professionals in petroleum engineering and chemical engineering, it: Covers petroleum geology and technology including petroleum generation, migration, and reservoir formation Introduces the nature and formation of petroleum and its exploration Describes oil/gas prospecting using geophysico-chemical methods under subsurface condition Includes a detailed geochemical survey along with an analysis of kerogen and bitumen Explains petroleum migration and accumulation using two-dimensional graphs MA Quddus PhD, has served in the petroleum sector and R&D organization, both national and multinational, for more than 40 years and has worked in various capacities including in the laboratory, office, field, and plant, and has also engaged in teaching petroleum technology as a visiting professor for 17 years. He earned BSc (Hons) and MSc degrees along with a PhD with thesis titled "Oxidation of Asphalt." As a result of his constant research, he has published nine international and 12 national papers, obtained one patent, presented five papers in conferences and prepared six technical reports. He has also visited the USA, Canada, and Indonesia for short courses in petroleum technology and teacher training.
The practical application of geomorphological science now forms a regular part of any project involving flood protection, fisheries, conservation, recreation, environmental protection and river restoration. In this book the authors use their extensive experience gained through fieldwork, analysis, and input to the design process to provide a thorough understanding of geomorphology in the river environment and describe effective ways to incorporate geomorphological science into river engineering and management.
Geologists must be able to "read" a geological map. That means interpreting the vertical dimension through the 2D view represented on the map and at different scales. The main objective of this book is to help students during this difficult learning process. Based on an abundant iconography (field photos, maps, cross-sections) and on basics in mathematics and mechanics, the book dissects the geometry of emblematic geological structures and objects in order to build 3 D models, printable in 3D. The book is dedicated to structural geology with a particular emphasis on kinematics of faulting and folding and on salt tectonics (chapters III, IV and V). The origin of continental great unconformities and oceanic break-up unconformities is also discussed (chapter II). The audience of the book is broad and includes (under)graduate students in Earth Sciences, professors of Natural Sciences, and professional or amateur geologists.
Bedrock ('Solid') geology map of the British Islands, covering England, Wales, Scotland and the Scottish Islands, The Isle of Man, Northern Ireland and Ireland.
This book focuses on the links between deep earth (mantle) and shallow processes in areas of active tectonics in the Arabian Plate and Surrounding Areas. It also provides key information for energy resources in these areas. The book is a compilation of selected papers from the Task Force of the International Lithosphere Program (ILP). It comprises a set of research studies from the Middle East, North Africa and the Mediterranean domain focusing on (1) the architecture, geodynamic evolution and modelling of the Red Sea rift system and its surroundings, and tectonics and sedimentation in the Gulf of Corinth, (2) the crustal architecture and georesources of the North Algerian Offshore, (3) Reservoirs, aquifers and fluid transfers in Saudi Basins, Petroleum systems and salt tectonics in Yemen and (4) Cretaceous-Eocene foreland inversions in Saudi Arabia.
This volume presents selected papers presented during the 4th International Conference on Transportation Geotechnics. The papers address the geotechnical challenges in design, construction, maintenance, monitoring, and upgrading of roads, railways, airfields, and harbor facilities and other ground transportation infrastructure with the goal of providing safe, economic, environmental, reliable and sustainable infrastructures. This volume will be of interest to postgraduate students, academics, researchers, and consultants working in the field of civil and transport infrastructure.
This book introduces the reader to the unique geology of Greece. This country is a natural geology laboratory that can help us understand the present-day active geodynamic processes in the Hellenic orogenic arc, including earthquakes, volcanoes, coastline changes and other processes of uplift and subsidence, as well as the intense erosion, transport and deposition of sediments. Additionally, Greece offers a remarkable geological museum, reflecting the complex history of the area over the last 300 million years. By studying the rocks of Greece, one can discover old oceanic basins, e.g. in the Northern Pindos and Othrys mountains, crystalline rocks of Palaeozoic age, old granitic and volcanic rocks, as well as other sedimentary rocks including fossils from the shallow neritic facies to pelagic and abyssal facies. The younger sediments demonstrate the continuously changing palaeogeography of Greece, with areas of lakes, high plateaus and gulfs that are transformed into new forms of islands, peninsulas or high mountains, etc. All the above subjects are included in the book, which describes the tectonic structure of the geological strata, together with the evolutionary stages of the palaeogeography and geodynamics within the broader Mediterranean context. A special characteristic of the book is the development of the orogenic model of the Hellenides with the application of the tectono-stratigraphic terrane concept in the Tethyan system.
This book presents extensive and new information on the Cenozoic marine and continental systems of one of the most important World Heritage sites of Southern South America: The Peninsula Valdes. Using an interdisciplinary approach, that includes geological, biological and archeological perspectives of more than 30 specialists, an integrated description and analysis of the Cenozoic environments of the study region is presented. The volume brings together an update of the geology, climate, geomorphology, soils, biodiversity, archeology and human impact of the Peninsula Valdes. The scope of this book extends to any natural science researcher of the world interested on the Cenozoic history of the Peninsula Valdes.
There's a reason we pay top dollar for Champagne and that bottles of wine from prestige vineyards cost as much as a car: a place's distinct geographical attributes, known as terroir to wine buffs, determine the unique profile of a wine--and some rarer locales produce wines that are particularly coveted. In Volcanoes and Wine, geologist Charles Frankel introduces us to the volcanoes that are among the most dramatic and ideal landscapes for wine making. Traveling across regions well-known to wine lovers like Sicily, Oregon, and California, as well as the less familiar Canary Islands, Frankel gives an in-depth account of famous volcanoes and the wines that spring from their idiosyncratic soils. From Santorini's vineyards of rocky pumice dating back to a four-thousand-year-old eruption to grapes growing in craters dug in the earth of the Canary Islands, from Vesuvius's famous Lacryma Christi to the ambitious new generation of wine growers reviving the traditional grapes of Mount Etna, Frankel takes us across the stunning and dangerous world of volcanic wines. He details each volcano's most famous eruptions, the grapes that grow in its soils, and the people who make their homes on its slopes, adapting to an ever-menacing landscape. In addition to introducing the history and geology of these volcanoes, Frankel serves as a travel guide, offering a host of tips ranging from prominent vineyards to visit to scenic hikes in each location. This illuminating guide will be indispensable for wine lovers looking to learn more about volcanic terroirs, as well as anyone curious about how cultural heritage can survive and thrive in the shadow of geological danger.
The book reviews and summarizes the Indian Mesozoic geological evolution in an innovative alternative perspective of sequence stratigraphy. It mainly focuses on the Jurassic interval, but also concisely discusses the preceding Triassic and Cretaceous geological records. The key to the study is primarily held in the recently developed ammonoid based high resolution scales in the Triassic and Jurassic period. The Indian Jurassic record is thus elevated to a high resolution pedestal. The large intra-Jurassic stratigraphic gap in Kachchh, with increase in duration from margin to basin, has been precised in different sections, along with radical revision of its long held interpretation from sub-aerial to sub-marine all over from Arabia to Australia. Other significant gaps are also differentiated into sub-aerial and sub-marine. The Indian Late Precambrian - Neogene record is organized into five mega-sequences. Among these, the fourth - also the most important one - includes the intra-Permian to Early Eocene interval from the origin to the closure of the Neotethys. Based on multidisciplinary integration of the Indian Mesozoic geological record and comparison with hydrocarbon producing basins on east and west of India, a highly positive scenario of the hydrocarbon source/reservoir sediment perspective is outlined in the book in sequence stratigraphic backdrop as an edifice for future elaborate evaluation.
This book contains selected contributions presented at the 10th International Geostatistics Congress held in Valencia from 5 to 9 September, 2016. This is a quadrennial congress that serves as the meeting point for any engineer, professional, practitioner or scientist working in geostatistics. The book contains carefully reviewed papers on geostatistical theory and applications in fields such as mining engineering, petroleum engineering, environmental science, hydrology, ecology, and other fields.
In one form or another, iron speciation has had a long history as a paleoredox proxy. The technique has been refined considerably over the years, and the most recent scheme is unique in its potential to distinguish three major oceanic redox states - oxygenated, ferruginous and euxinic. This Element covers the theory behind the proxy, methods involved in applying the technique, and potential complications in interpreting Fe speciation data. A series of case studies are also provided, which highlight how more advanced consideration of the data, often in concert with other techniques, can provide unprecedented insight into the redox state of ancient oceans.
Paleosols formed in direct contact with the Earth's atmosphere, so they can record the composition of the atmosphere through weathering processes and products. Herein we critically review a variety of different approaches for reconstructing atmospheric O2 and CO2 over the past three billion years. Paleosols indicate relatively low CO2 over that time, requiring additional greenhouse forcing to overcome the 'faint young Sun' paradox in the Archean and Mesoproterozoic, as well as low O2 levels until the Neoproterozoic. Emerging techniques will revise the history of Earth's atmosphere further and may provide a window into atmospheric evolution on other planets.
How do planetary scientists analyze and interpret data from laboratory, telescopic, and spacecraft observations of planetary surfaces? What elements, minerals, and volatiles are found on the surfaces of our Solar System's planets, moons, asteroids, and comets? This comprehensive volume answers these topical questions by providing an overview of the theory and techniques of remote compositional analysis of planetary surfaces. Bringing together eminent researchers in Solar System exploration, it describes state-of-the-art results from spectroscopic, mineralogical, and geochemical techniques used to analyze the surfaces of planets, moons, and small bodies. The book introduces the methodology and theoretical background of each technique, and presents the latest advances in space exploration, telescopic and laboratory instrumentation, and major new work in theoretical studies. This engaging volume provides a comprehensive reference on planetary surface composition and mineralogy for advanced students, researchers, and professional scientists.
The evolution of geological cartography in Cuba in its more than 135 years of history has been possible through the consultation of numerous archival reports, publications, maps and personal interviews with different authors and geologists of vast experience. A brief critical analysis is made of the increase in the degree of geological knowledge of the country since the elaboration of the Geological Sketch of the Cuban Island at a scale of 1: 2 000 000 (Fernandez de Castro, 1883), first of Cuba and of Ibero-America, until the most recent Digital Geological Map of Cuba at scale 1: 100 000 (Perez Aragon, 2016). Cuba and its surroundings are a geological mosaic in the southeast corner of the North American plate with rocks from many different origins, from Proterozoic to Quaternary, extended along the southern border of the plate. From the Eocene, this belt has been dissected by several great faults, related to the development of some great oceanic depressions (Cayman trough and Yucatan basin). The fossil record of Cuba, which covers approximately the last 200 million years of life on Earth, is rich in very varied fossils, witnessing a wide diversity of organisms, both animals and plants, that inhabited the Antillean and Caribbean region; and that constitute the inheritance of the biological diversity that the current Cuban archipelago exhibits. As a result of the preparation of the Cuban Metallogenic Map at scale 1: 250 000, forty-one models and eight sub-models of metallic mineral deposits were identified. These models, of descriptive-genetic type, together with the analysis of their spatial distribution and their relationship with geology, allowed the identification and mapping of ten mineral systems, linked to the geodynamic environments present in the Cuban territory. Cuba has large deposits of limestone, loam, dolomite, kaolin, gypsum and anhydrite, rock salt, marbles, sands and clays of different types, zeolites, peat, therapeutic peloids and many more. There are manifestations of decorative and precious rocks such as jasper, jadeite, different varieties of quartz and even xylopals. A compilation of geochemical data of oceanic basalt samples from previous works, together with data of analyzed samples during this study in order to discuss geochemical criteria based on immobile element (proxies for fractionation indices, alkalinity, mantle flow and subduction addition), provide a comprehensive ophiolite classification according to their tectonic setting. This book addresses different facets of the geological knowledge of Cuba: history of its cartography, marine geology, fossil record, stratigraphy, tectonics, classification of its ophiolites, quaternary deposits, metallogeny and minerageny.
This book provides a succinct but comprehensive presentation of key geomorphological locations and topics including information about geomorphological heritage and maps to visit the most important sites. Apart from often being remarkably scenic, landscapes reveal stories that often can be traced back in time tens of million years and include unique events. This is particularly true for Ethiopia where spectacular examples of different landforms are present. Its geomorphology varies from highlands, marked by high volcanoes and incised by deep river gorges, to the rift valley lakes endorheic systems and the below sea level lowlands with characteristic landscapes which are unique in the world. Landscapes and Landforms of Ethiopia highlights all these topics including essential information about geology and tectonic framework, past and present climate, hydrology, geographical regions and long-term geomorphological history. It is a highly informative book, providing insight for readers with an interest in geography and geomorphology.
Presenting a coherent synthesis of lithosphere studies, this book covers a range of geophysical methods (seismic reflection, refraction, and receiver function methods; elastic and anelastic seismic tomography; electromagnetic and magnetotelluric methods; thermal, gravity and rheological models), complemented by petrologic and laboratory data on rock properties. It also provides a critical discussion of the uncertainties, assumptions, and resolution issues that are inherent in the different methods and models of the lithosphere. Multidisciplinary in scope, global in geographical extent, and covering a wide variety of tectonics settings across 3.5 billion years of Earth history, this book presents a comprehensive overview of lithospheric structure and evolution. It is a core reference for researchers and advanced students in geophysics, geodynamics, tectonics, petrology, and geochemistry, and for petroleum and mining industry professionals.
This volume provides a textbook and reference work on the physical and biotic landscapes of Southern Africa. It examines the links between these environments and the ways in which they have been, are and will likely be subject to change. It covers the geomorphology, soils, vegetation and land use across a range of landscapes, including mountains, coasts, savannah, drylands and wetlands, and identifies the impacts of current and potential climate change and other factors on these environments. The geographical focus is on the region defined by Namibia, South Africa, Botswana, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Lesotho and Swaziland. Illustrated throughout in full colour, the book will serve as a reference volume for researchers and environmental professionals internationally, as well as a textbook for senior undergraduate and graduate-level students of geography, ecology and environmental studies in Southern Africa.
This book describes the latest research on the geological, geochemical, geochronological, biological, and geomorphic evolution of the unique and relatively pristine landscape of the Cape Mountains and the Karoo Basin, a region in South Africa that is currently being targeted for shale gas exploration and development. With up-to-date graphics, maps, drill-core and seismic data, it offers the latest observations and synthesis, and highlights areas of ongoing research. The work presented also considers a wider connection of the Cape-Karoo system to other basins in Central Gondwana, including South America, thus following in the footsteps of A. L. du Toit. Clearly, there is still much to be learned before shale gas development can be considered, and this book provides some timely perspectives.
State-of-the-art analysis of geological structures has become increasingly quantitative but traditionally, graphical methods are used in teaching. This innovative lab book provides a unified methodology for problem-solving in structural geology using linear algebra and computation. Assuming only limited mathematical training, the book begins with classic orientation problems and progresses to more fundamental topics of stress, strain and error propagation. It introduces linear algebra methods as the foundation for understanding vectors and tensors, and demonstrates the application of geometry and kinematics in geoscience without requiring students to take a supplementary mathematics course. All algorithms are illustrated with a suite of online MATLAB functions, allowing users to modify the code to solve their own structural problems. Containing 20 worked examples and over 60 exercises, this is the ideal lab book for advanced undergraduates or beginning graduate students. It will also provide professional structural geologists with a valuable reference and refresher for calculations.
Ce anomalies track changes in oxygen availability due to the anomalous redox-sensitivity of Ce compared with the other rare earth elements. The proxy systematics have been calibrated experimentally as well as in modern anoxic water bodies. Ce anomalies are unique because they track intermediate manganous conditions, rather than fully anoxic conditions. In addition, they are sensitive to local-regional redox conditions, and can be analysed in chemical sediments such as carbonate rocks. This makes them especially useful as a tool to track local oxygen distribution in shallow shelf environments, where biodiversity is highest. This review focusses on the systematics of the Ce anomaly proxy, the preservation and extraction of the signal in sedimentary rocks, and the potential applications of the proxy.
The stable chromium (Cr) isotope system has emerged over the past decade as a new tool to track changes in the amount of oxygen in earth's ocean-atmosphere system. Much of the initial foundation for using Cr isotopes ( 53Cr) as a paleoredox proxy has required recent revision. However, the basic idea behind using Cr isotopes as redox tracers is straightforward-the largest isotope fractionations are redox-dependent and occur during partial reduction of Cr(VI). As such, Cr isotopic signatures can provide novel insights into Cr redox cycling in both marine and terrestrial settings. Critically, the Cr isotope system-unlike many other trace metal proxies-can respond to short-term redox perturbations (e.g., on timescales characteristic of Pleistocene glacial-interglacial cycles). The Cr isotope system can also be used to probe the earth's long-term atmospheric oxygenation, pointing towards low but likely dynamic oxygen levels for the majority of Earth's history.
Remote Sensing Data Analysis in R is a guide book containing codes for most of the operations which are being performed for analysing any satellite data for deriving meaningful information. The goal of this book is to provide hands on experience in performing all the activities from the loading of raster and vector data, mapping or visualisation of data, pre-processing, calculation of indices, classification and advanced machine learning algorithms on remote sensing data in R. The reader will be able to acquire skills to carry out most of the operations of raster data analysis - more flexibly - in open-source freely available software i.e. R which are generally available in the paid digital image processing software. Note: T& F does not sell or distribute the Hardback in India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. The title is co-published with New India Publishing Agency.
This book deals with the relationship between geomorphology and society. This topic has had rather scant treatment in the literature except to some extent under the label "applied geomorphology". In this text the authors aim to bring together conceptual issues and case studies of how geomorphology influences society and, indeed, how society is in turn influenced by geomorphology. In an age in which the influence of human activities on global environments has become so paramount that it is increasingly common to refer to it geologically as the "anthropocene", the book aims to reflect on the geomorphological significance of widespread and diverse forms of human impact in a range of environmental settings.
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