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Cambridgeshire is rich in Jurassic fossils, with ichthyosaurs having been found at Mepal and Barrington since 2000, and ammonites and belemnites occurring near Grafham Water. In the later nineteenth century, Thomas Roberts, an assistant to the Professor of Geology at Cambridge, was involved in close study of the Jurassic rocks of the district. Despite the complexity arising from troublesome local geologic discontinuities, Roberts correlated the paleontological record in the Jurassic rocks of East Anglia with that of other British and European areas. It was this kind of careful and systematic work that provided the foundation for the modern understanding of the Jurassic period and the mass extinctions at the end of the Mesozoic era. Roberts's essay was originally published posthumously in 1892, and is now reissued for a new generation of geologists and fossil-hunters.
Beneath Cambridgeshire's towns, villages, farmland, hills, fens and waterways lie the rocks that display a variety of geological landscapes. Basement rocks are buried under sandy deposits from ancient tropical seas. The rising and tilting of the land due to large-scale movements permitted water flows that produced gradual alterations. Glaciation, erosion and dramatic variations in climate all wrought more rapid changes. The consequences of these processes are revealed in this scholarly 1897 account of the geology of Cambridgeshire, which integrated the latest research then available. Proceeding from the most ancient to the most recent beds, systematic consideration is given to the features, distribution and modes of formation, as well as the economic implications of the various strata. Discussions of palaeontology, including detailed lists of site-specific fossils, and of water supply are also provided. An appendix, lists, maps, memoirs and other publications of H.M. Geological Survey from 1814 to 1897 are included.
In Situ Testing Methods in Geotechnical Engineering covers the field of applied geotechnical engineering related to the use of in situ testing of soils to determine soil properties and parameters for geotechnical design. It provides an overview of the practical aspects of the most routine and common test methods, as well as test methods that engineers may wish to include on specific projects. It is suited for a graduate-level course on field testing of soils and will also aid practicing engineers. Test procedures for determining in situ lateral stress, strength, and stiffness properties of soils are examined, as is the determination of stress history and rate of consolidation. Readers will be introduced to various approaches to geotechnical design of shallow and deep foundations using in situ tests. Importantly, the text discusses the potential advantages and disadvantages of using in situ tests.
This edited volume is based on the best papers accepted for presentation during the 1st Springer Conference of the Arabian Journal of Geosciences (CAJG-1), Tunisia 2018. The book is of interest to all researchers in the fields of Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Petrology and Volcanology. The Earth's interior is a source of heat, which makes our planet unique. This source regulates the formation and evolution of rocks at larger scales, and of minerals and sediments toward smaller scales. In such context, the exploration of georesources (products) has to be related to petrogenesis (processes). This volume offers an overview of the state-of-the-art petrogenesis and exploration in, but not limited to, the Middle East and Mediterranean regions. It gives new insights into processes and products related to the Earth's interior, and associated georesources by international researchers. Main topics include: 1. Petrogenetic processes: geochemistry, geochronology and geophysical approaches 2. Surficial processes: sedimentation and facies analysis 3. Applied mineralogy and tectonics 4. Geological research applied to mineral deposits
The time-dependent decay of naturally occurring radioactive isotopes or in-growth of their radioactive or stable daughter products form the basis of radiometric dating of several natural processes. Developed in the beginning of the last century mainly to determine the absolute ages of rocks and minerals, radiometric chronology now plays a central role in a broad range of Earth and planetary sciences - from extra-solar-system processes to environmental geoscience. With the prerequisite of only college-level knowledge in physics, chemistry and mathematics, this concise book focuses on the essential principles of radiometric dating in order to enable students and teachers belonging to diverse fields of studies to select, understand and interpret radiometric dating results generated and published by professionals.
San Diego Bay is a shallow estuary surrounded by a large population center. Geological forces and changes in sea levels from the last Ice Age combine to make the Bay and the adjacent highlands and mesas. Human activity has also influenced the Bay. Humans built several major cities and filled significant parts of the Bay. This book describes the natural history and evolution of the San Diego Bay Area over the last 50 million years through the present and into the future. Key Features Summarizes a complex geological, geographical, and ecological history Reviews how the San Diego Bay has changed and will likely change in the future Examines the different roles of various drivers of Bay ecosystem function Includes the role of humans-both first people and modern populations-on the Bay Explores San Diego Bay as an example of general bay ecological and environmental issues Related Titles Howard GC and Kaser MR. Making and Unmaking of the San Francisco Bay (ISBN 9781138596726) Wang Y, ed. Remote Sensing of Coastal Environments (ISBN 978-1-1381-1638-2) Gonenc IE, Wolfin JB, eds. Coastal Lagoons: Ecosystem Processes and Modeling for Sustainable Use and Development (ISBN 978-0-3675-7814-5) Mossop E, ed. Sustainable Coastal Design and Planning (ISBN 978-0-3675-7075-0)
Bioremediation: A Sustainable Approach to Preserving Earth's Water discusses the latest research in green chemistry practices and principles that are involved in water remediation and the quality improvement of water. The presence of heavy metals, dyes, fluoride, dissolved solids and many other pollutants are responsible for water pollution and poor water quality. The removal of these pollutants in water resources is necessary, yet challenging. Water preservation is of great importance globally and researchers are making significant progress in ensuring this precious commodity is safe and potable. This volume illustrates how bioremediation in particular is a promising green technique globally. Features: Addresses bioremediation of all the major water pollutants Approaches the chemistry of water and the concept of water as a renewable resource from a green chemistry aspect Discusses environmental chemistry and the practice of industrial ecology Explains the global concern of adequate high quality water supplies, and how bioremediation can resolve this Explores sustainable development through green engineering
Nature-based solutions (NBS) are essential to ensure a sustainable society and healthy ecosystem over the coming decades. However, the systems to be managed are both broad and complex, requiring an integrated understanding of both bio-physical systems, such as soils and water, and economic and social systems, such as urban development and human behaviour. This edited book joins these domains of knowledge together from an applied perspective and considers how computer science can help. It takes a strategic look at the benefits and barriers to using modelling within environmental management and planning practice. It delves further by providing an in-depth comparative review of a wide range of models from a variety of scientific disciplines of interest with examples of their use for NBS. As such, this illustrated guide is designed to help students, researchers and practitioners navigate the huge range of modelling options available and develop the common understanding to work inter-disciplinarily.
Earth surface processes, landforms and sediment deposits are intimately related - involving erosion of rocks, generation of sediment, and transport and deposition of sediment through various Earth surface environments. These processes, and the landforms and deposits that they generate, have a fundamental bearing on engineering, environmental and public safety issues; on recovery of economic resources; and on our understanding of Earth history. This unique textbook brings together the traditional disciplines of sedimentology and geomorphology to explain Earth surface processes, landforms and sediment deposits in a comprehensive and integrated way. It is the ideal resource for a two-semester course in sedimentology, stratigraphy, geomorphology, and Earth surface processes from the intermediate undergraduate to beginning graduate level. The book is also accompanied by a website hosting illustrations and material on field and laboratory methods for measuring, describing and analyzing Earth surface processes, landforms and sediments.
Biometry for Forestry and Environmental Data with Examples in R focuses on statistical methods that are widely applicable in forestry and environmental sciences, but it also includes material that is of wider interest. Features: * Describes the theory and applications of selected statistical methods and illustrates their use and basic concepts through examples with forestry and environmental data in R. * Rigorous but easily accessible presentation of the linear, nonlinear, generalized linear and multivariate models, and their mixed-effects counterparts. Chapters on tree size, tree taper, measurement errors, and forest experiments are also included. * Necessary statistical theory about random variables, estimation and prediction is included. The wide applicability of the linear prediction theory is emphasized. * The hands-on examples with implementations using R make it easier for non-statisticians to understand the concepts and apply the methods with their own data. Lot of additional material is available at www.biombook.org. The book is aimed at students and researchers in forestry and environmental studies, but it will also be of interest to statisticians and researchers in other fields as well.
The book describes the Ankarana plateau and its cave network in Madagascar, depicting the natural environment of the Plateau as well as the natural processes which created the cave network of more than 100km with many galleries, some are very large and draped with different cave formations and underground rivers are inhabited with crocodiles and giant eels.This place is famous for its surface landscape formed with tsingy, natural needles formed by the weathering of limestone. The Ankarana is surrounded by native Madagascan rain forest inhabited with lemurs and it was a natural shelter for the Ankarana people whose kings were buried in caves. The cave system has been partially explored since the sixties and exploration is still in progress. The book includes several maps (geology, topography, hydrology), the survey of the caves and a brief description of the Ankarana Kingdom.
A new edition of a unique textbook that provides an exhaustive treatment of the world's different coasts--with focus on climate change sea-level rise Coastlines of the world are as diverse and complex as any geological setting on Earth, and understanding them is extremely important. Beaches and Coasts, Second Edition is an exciting and unique textbook that covers the world's different coasts and details the highly varied processes that have shaped them. This new edition emphasizes the future susceptibility of coast to climate driven stresses and decreasing sediment supplies, and considers various aspects of coastal management that are and/or that need to be undertaken. Seeking to better educate students and readers about the sustainability of coast and coastal environments, this exciting and unique book offers enlightening coverage of: the Earth's mobile crust; sediments of coastal environments; impacts of sea level change; weather systems and the effects of storms; the influence of wave energy and different tidal regimes; river deltas; coastal bays; estuaries and lagoons; tidal flats; coastal wetlands; beach and nearshore areas; coastal barriers; tidal inlets; glaciated coasts; and rocky coasts. Takes an extensive look at the world's varied coasts and covers the many processes that have shaped them over time Shows how coastal processes and landform evolution are expected to be impacted by climate change Includes new coverage of Hurricane Katrina and the 2005 flooding of New Orleans, Hurricane Sandy and its affect on New York and the earthquake and tsunami in the Indian Ocean and Tohoku Lavishly illustrated with over 400 color photographs and figures Draws on a wealth of author experience that broadens the content of chapters and provides for numerous and varied examples Beaches and Coasts, Second Edition is an excellent text for undergraduate and graduate students of coastal geology, coastal processes and coastal environments.
Mass Transport, Gravity Flows, and Bottom Currents: Downslope and Alongslope Processes and Deposits focuses solely on important downslope and alongslope processes. The book provides clear definitions and characteristics based on soil mechanics, fluid mechanics and sediment concentration by volume. It addresses Slides, Slumps, and Debris Flows, Grain Flows, Liquefied/Fluidized Flows, and Turbidity Currents, Density plumes, Hyperpycnal Flows, the Triggering Mechanisms of Downslope Processes, Bottom Currents, and Soft-Sediment Deformation Structures. The mechanics of each process are described in detail and used to provide empirically-driven categories to help recognize these deposits it the rock record. Case studies clearly illustrate of the problems inherent in recognizing these processes in the rock record, and potential solutions are provided alongside future avenues of research. An appendix also provides step-by-step guidance in describing and interpreting sediments.
This book presents a compilation of findings, review and original works, on the tectonic evolution and structural detail of several terrains in India. It captures the tectonic diversity of the Indian terrain, including tectonics of India's coastal areas, the tectonic evolution of Gondwana and Proterozoic (Purana) basins. It also describes the research results of the Indian craton's geo-history, Tertiary Bengal basin, and also the Himalayan collisional zone. Thus the book covers the deformation history of Indian terrain involving strike slip, compressional and extensional tectonics, and ductile and brittle shear deformations.
This book describes a major method in modelling the flow of water and transport of solutes in the subsurface, a subject of considerable interest in the exploitation and preservation of water resources. The stochastic approach allows the uncertainty which affects various properties and parameters to be incorporated in models of subsurface flow and transport. These much more realistic models are of greater use in, for example, modelling the transport and build-up of contaminants in groundwater. The volume is based on the second Kovacs Colloquium organised by the International Hydrological Programme (UNESCO) and the International Association of Hydrological Sciences. Fifteen leading scientists with international reputations review the latest developments in this area. The book is a valuable reference work for graduate students, research workers and professionals in government and public institutions, interested in hydrology, environmental issues, soil physics, petroleum engineering, geological engineering and applied mathematics.
Model-based Geostatistics for Global Public Health: Methods and Applications provides an introductory account of model-based geostatistics, its implementation in open-source software and its application in public health research. In the public health problems that are the focus of this book, the authors describe and explain the pattern of spatial variation in a health outcome or exposure measurement of interest. Model-based geostatistics uses explicit probability models and established principles of statistical inference to address questions of this kind. Features: Presents state-of-the-art methods in model-based geostatistics. Discusses the application these methods some of the most challenging global public health problems including disease mapping, exposure mapping and environmental epidemiology. Describes exploratory methods for analysing geostatistical data, including: diagnostic checking of residuals standard linear and generalized linear models; variogram analysis; Gaussian process models and geostatistical design issues. Includes a range of more complex geostatistical problems where research is ongoing. All of the results in the book are reproducible using publicly available R code and data-sets, as well as a dedicated R package. This book has been written to be accessible not only to statisticians but also to students and researchers in the public health sciences. The Authors Peter Diggle is Distinguished University Professor of Statistics in the Faculty of Health and Medicine, Lancaster University. He also holds honorary positions at the Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, Columbia University International Research Institute for Climate and Society, and Yale University School of Public Health. His research involves the development of statistical methods for analyzing spatial and longitudinal data and their applications in the biomedical and health sciences. Dr Emanuele Giorgi is a Lecturer in Biostatistics and member of the CHICAS research group at Lancaster University, where he formerly obtained a PhD in Statistics and Epidemiology in 2015. His research interests involve the development of novel geostatistical methods for disease mapping, with a special focus on malaria and other tropical diseases. In 2018, Dr Giorgi was awarded the Royal Statistical Society Research Prize "for outstanding published contribution at the interface of statistics and epidemiology." He is also the lead developer of PrevMap, an R package where all the methodology found in this book has been implemented.
This richly illustrated book reviews the geology, tectonics and mineralization of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) in 27 chapters. It starts with an examination of the ANS lithospheric scale features, explores Mesoproterozoic units and deals with the ANS oceanic stage. Arc volcanism and plutonism, post-collision basins and volcanics are discussed, as well as the younger granitoid magmatism and the deformation history of the ANS. The book provides information on ANS glacial stages and late magmatism. Chapters are devoted to review the transition between ANS and the reworked continent to its south. Finally, it discusses how ANS structures influenced the overall East African Rift System.
Clay minerals are one of the most important groups of minerals that
destroy permeability in sandstones. However, they also react with
drilling and completion fluids and induce fines migration during
hydrocarbon production. They are a very complex family of minerals
that are routinely intergrown with each other, contain a wide range
of solid solutions and form by a variety of processes under a wide
range temperatures and rock and fluid compositions.
In this volume, clay minerals in sandstones are reviewed in
terms of their mineralogy and general occurrence, their stable and
radiogenic isotope geochemistry, XRD quantification, their effects
on the petrophysical properties of sandstones and their
relationships to sequence stratigraphy and palaeoclimate. The
controls on various clay minerals are addressed and a variety of
geochemical issues, including the importance of mass flux, links to
carbonate mineral diagenesis and linked clay mineral diagenesis in
interbedded mudstone-sandstone are explored. A number of case
studies are included for kaolin, illite and chlorite cements, and
the occurrence of smectite in sandstone is reviewed. Experimental
rate data for clay cements in sandstones are reviewed and there are
two model-based case studies that address the rates of growth of
kaolinite and illite.
The readership of this volume will include sedimentologists and petrographers who deal with the occurrence, spatial and temporal distribution patterns and importance of clay mineral cements in sandstones, geochemists involved in unraveling the factors that control clay mineral cement formation in sandstones and petroleum geoscientists involved in predicting clay mineral distribution in sandstones. The book will also be of interest to geologists involved in palaeoclimate studies basin analysis.Latest geochemical data on clays in sandstonesProvides important information for geologists involved in basin analysis, sandstone petrology and petroleum geology
If you are a member of the International Association of Sedimentologists (IAS), for purchasing details, please see: http: //www.iasnet.org/publications/details.asp?code=SP34
When stresses are applied to saturated soil, deformation will occur as water in voids is squeezed out. Consolidation Analyses of Soils focuses on the consolidation of fully saturated soils. The book follows a classic approach by beginning with one-dimensional constitutive relations of soils and one-dimensional consolidation. It then moves on to analytical solutions to several one-dimensional consolidation problems and one-dimensional finite strain consolidation. The authors also present a finite element method for consolidation analysis of one-dimensional problems, analytical solutions to consolidation of soil with vertical drains, and a finite difference method for consolidation analysis of one-dimensional problems. Simplified methods for consolidation analysis of soils exhibiting creep are introduced and applied to different cases. Three-dimensional consolidation equations and solutions of typical three-dimensional consolidation problems are covered, as well as simplified finite element consolidation analysis of soils with vertical drain and finite element method for three-dimensional consolidation problems. The book is unique in that it covers both classic solutions and state-of-the-art work in consolidation analyses of soils. Authors Jian-Hua Yin is Chair Professor of Soil Mechanics in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. Guofu Zhu is a Professor in the Department of Engineering Structures and Mechanics at Wuhan University of Technology, China.
This book is a brief summary of the course of lectures in Geochemistry for undergraduate and graduate students from other than Geological Departments (chemists, biologists, ecologists and naturalists). It describes the Earth's structure and some geological processes. The modern geochemical concepts take proper account of global geological processes and the influence of Cosmos. They are based on the laws and approaches of equilibrium and non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The cycles of energy and chemical elements within the Earth are interrelated with the global geochemical cycle. In addition to the traditional Geochemistry course, this book offers Geochemistry of microorganisms, Geochemistry of dispersed systems, Geochemistry of cryogenesis, and Geochemistry of cryptobiosphere. Features: Provides the reader with a general idea of the Earth's chemical life and its related global geological events Offers a concise and clear description of the modern concepts in Geochemistry, including new directions such as Geochemistry of Cryogenesis, Geochemistry of Disperse Systems, Geochemistry of Microorganisms, and Geochemistry of Cryptobiosphere Implies a wide application of the thermodynamic approach. Useful for students who, though lacking in geology basics, are experienced in chemistry and biology
The monograph offers a comprehensive discussion of the role of evaporites in hydrocarbon generation and trapping, and new information on low temperature and high temperature ores. It also provides a wealth of information on exploitable salts, in a comprehensive volume has been assembled and organized to provide quick access to relevant information on all matters related to evaporites and associated brines. In addition, there are summaries of evaporite karst hazards, exploitative methods and problems that can arise in dealing with evaporites in conventional and solution mining. This second edition has been revised and extended, with three new chapters focusing on ore minerals in different temperature settings and a chapter on meta-evaporites. Written by a field specialist in research and exploration, the book presents a comprehensive overview of the realms of low- and high-temperature evaporite evolution. It is aimed at earth science professionals, sedimentologists, oil and gas explorers, mining geologists as well as environmental geologists.
With contributions from a broad range of experts in the field, this volume, Microbiology for Sustainable Agriculture, Soil Health, and Environmental Protection, focuses on important areas of microbiology related to soil and environmental microbiology associated with agricultural importance. The information and research on soil and environmental microbiology presented here seeks to act as a gateway to sustaining and improving agriculture and environmental security. Part I focuses on soil microbiology, dealing extensively with studies on the isolation, culture, and use of Rhizobium spp. and mycorrhizae to improve soil fertility, plant growth, and yield. This includes research progress on biogeochemical cycles, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), microbial interactions in soil and other soil activities, microbial diversity in soil, biological control and bioremediation, and improvement of beneficial microorganisms (N2 fixers, phosphate solubilizers, etc.). Part 2 goes on to focus on microbiology for crop disease management and pathogenic control in sustainable environment, with chapters on disease management of agricultural and horticultural crop plants through microbial control and how microbial control may a be a potential solution for a sustainability in agriculture. Part 3, Microbiology for Soil Health and Crop Productivity Improvement, features a chapter on the activity and mechanism of nitrogenase enzyme in soil, which is very important for soil health and crop production and productivity. Part 4 presents two chapters entirely devoted to the environmental pollution and its control, looking at the interaction of microbes in aqueous environments and eco-friendly approaches. There is an urgent need to explore and investigate the current shortcomings and challenges of the current innovations and challenges in agricultural microbiology. This book helps to fill that need. This volume will be valuable to those involved with agricultural microbiology, including students, instructors, and researchers.
Organic farming is not only a philosophy; it is also a well-researched science. The second edition of The Science and Technology of Organic Farming presents the scientific basis of organic farming and the methods of application needed to achieve adequate yields through plant nutrition and protection. Organic farming is a scientifically derived method of improving soil fertility to increase agricultural yields with limited chemical inputs. As such, it can meet public demand for reduced chemical inputs in agriculture and play a key role in meeting the needs of a growing world population. The new edition of this highly regarded book gives clear and comprehensive details on how soil fertility can be maintained and how plants can be nourished in organic agriculture. Chapters on soil fertility and plant nutrition explain the chemistry of the plant, the soil, and the soil solution and outline the importance of plant macronutrients and micronutrients. The book offers practical information on using of green manures, composts and lime to maintain soil fertility; introduces methods of tillage of land; provides organic methods of controlling weeds, insects, and diseases; and suggests how food produce can be stored without refrigeration. The text provides information on how to assess and govern the nutritional status of crops and the fertility and condition of soil and presents guidelines, recommendations, and procedures for determining the best fertility recommendations for individual situations. This edition includes an entirely new chapter on hydroponics that explains organic approaches to hydroponic crop production. With a full bibliography of references, this text is a practical guide for anyone interested in organic farming, from farmers and agricultural advisers to teachers, soil scientists, plant scientist, entomologists and students of other biological and environmental sciences.
Southern California is sandwiched between two tectonic plates with an ever-shifting boundary. Over the last several million years, movements of these plates have dramatically reshuffled the Earth's crust to create rugged landscapes and seascapes riven with active faults. Movement along these faults triggers earthquakes and tsunamis, pushes up mountains, and lifts sections of coastline. Over geologic time, beaches come and go, coastal bluffs retreat, and the sea rises and falls. Nothing about Southern California's coast is stable. Surf, Sand, and Stone tells the scientific story of the Southern California coast: its mountains, islands, beaches, bluffs, surfing waves, earthquakes, and related phenomena. It takes readers from San Diego to Santa Barbara, revealing the evidence for how the coast's features came to be and how they are continually changing. With a compelling narrative and clear illustrations, Surf, Sand, and Stone outlines how the coast will be altered in the future and how we can best prepare for it.
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