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Soilborne microbial plant pathogens including oomycetes, fungi, bacteria and viruses cause several economically important destructive diseases and the symptoms of infection can be recognized only after the pathogen has invaded many tissues primarily vascular tissues of susceptible plants. This condition places formidable challenges in investigating different aspects of host-microbial pathogen interactions. Early detection of infection and precise identification, differentiation, and quantification of the microbial plant pathogens in plants, soil and water sources are essential requirements for development of effective tactics to reduce the incidence and spread of the diseases caused by them. As the microbial plant pathogens differ in their virulence and sensitivity to the environment and chemicals applied, it is imperative to assess the extent of variability in the concerned pathogens. This first volume of a two-volume set introduces disease-causing microorganisms including oomycetes, fungi, bacteria, and viruses found in soils. It focuses on the biology, detection, and identification of soilborne bacterial, fungal, and viral plant pathogens. This volume discusses various techniques based on biological, immunological and genetic properties of the pathogens indicating their advantages and limitations for selecting the appropriate technique to fulfill the requirements. Features: Presents techniques useful for detection, identification, quantification of microbial plant pathogens in plants, soil, and irrigation water from waterbodies. Highlights subversive activities of viruses, resulting in the breakdown of host defense systems. Discusses RNA silencing in infected plants by viruses and posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) functioning as an endogenous mechanism in plants against virus infection. Presents information on methods of assessment of genetic variability and sensitivity of microbial plant pathogens to chemicals and adverse environmental conditions.
Atlas of Material Worlds is a highly designed narrative atlas illustrating the agency of nonliving materials with unique, ubiquitous, and often hidden influence on our daily lives. Employing new materialism as a jumping-off point, it examines the increasingly blurry lines between the organic and inorganic, engaging the following questions: What roles do nonliving materials play? Might a closer examination of those roles reveal an undeniable agency we have long overlooked or disregarded? If so, does this material agency change our understanding of the social structures, ecologies, economies, cosmologies, technologies, and landscapes that surround us? And, perhaps most importantly, why does material agency matter? This is the story of the world's driest nonpolar desert, pink flamingos, and cerulean blue lithium ponds; industrial shipping logistics, pudding-like jiggling substrates, and monuments of mud; galactic bodies, radioactive sheep, and the yellowcake of uranium. Put simply, this book dares readers to see the world anew, from material up. Atlas of Material Worlds offers this new relationship to our host environment in a time of mounting crises-accelerating climate change, ballooning socioeconomic inequality, and rising toxic nationalism-uniquely telling materialist stories for practitioners and students in landscape, architecture, and other built environment disciplines.
Fossils and Strata is an international series of monographs and memoirs in palaeontology and biostratigraphy, owned by, and published on behalf of, The Lethaia Foundation in cooperation between the Scandinavian countries. Fossils and Strata forms part of the same structured publishing programme as the international journal Lethaia and provides a complementary outlet for more comprehensive systematic and regional monographs, including taxonomic descriptions. Fossils and Strata also offers the publication of thematic special issues comprising a series of shorter contributions.
San Francisco Bay is a shallow estuary surrounded by a large population center. The forces that built it began with plate tectonics and involved the collision of the Pacific and North American plates and the subduction of the Juan de Fuka plate. Changes in the climate resulting from the last ice age yielded lower and then higher sea levels. Human activity influenced the Bay. Gold mining during the California gold rush sent masses of slit into the Bay. Humans have also built several major cities and filled significant parts of the Bay. This book describes the natural history and evolution of the SF Bay Area over the last 50 million years through the present and into the future. Key selling features: Summarizes a complex geological, geographical and ecological history Reviews how the San Francisco Bay has changed and will likely change in the future Examines the different roles and various drivers of Bay ecosystem function Includes the role of humans - both first peoples and modern populations - on the Bay Explores San Francisco Bay as an example of general bay ecolgical and environmental issues
This book introduces the geological concept of the "windfield-source-basin system," based on integrated modern and ancient sedimentology studies. It identifies wind field as a main sedimentation-controlling factor that combines with provenance and basin dynamics to determine the formation and distribution of depositional systems. Using the unary properties of facies, sedimentary models and the duality properties of source-to-sink approaches, the concept of a "wind-source-basin system" introduces the "sedimentary system trinity": wind field, provenance and basin properties. "Wind-source-basin systems" provide more plausible genetic interpretations of depositional systems (including both continental and marine facies, and clastic and carbonate systems), as well as more comprehensive and precise predictions of depositional systems (hydrocarbon reservoirs) in unknown regions. Further, the book proposes a series of methods on paleowind field reconstruction, which fill the gaps in paleo-atmospheric field studies in paleoclimatology, and shows that allocating relationships among source-reservoir-cap in petroliferous basins are limited by the "wind-source-basin system". This trinity system also provides a new perspective on petroleum geology assessment. The book appeals to all those engaged in sedimentology, petroleum geology and climatology studies.
This book presents a comprehensive assessment of clastic sedimentology and its application to reservoir geology. It covers the theoretical foundations of the topic and its use for scientists as well as professionals in the field. Further, it addresses all aspects of reservoir sedimentology, clastic sequence stratigraphy, sedimentation, reservoir diagenesis and heterogeneity, as well as depositional systems (alluvial, fluvial, lacustrine, delta, sandy coast, neritic, deep-water) in detail. The research team responsible for this book has been investigating clastic sedimentology for more than three decades and consists of highly published and cited authors. The Chinese edition of this book has been a great success, and is popular among sedimentologists and petroleum geologists alike.
This book describes the Mesozoic to Cenozoic evolution of the Chilean and Argentinean Andes. The book is structured from a historical perspective concentrating on specific processes explained in each chapter. The chapters cover dynamic subsidence; neotectonics; magmatism; long and short term deformation; spatial development of ancient orogenic processes that control Andean reactivations; relation between ocean bathymetry and deformation. Sources of detritus through Andean construction are discussed by specialists from both sides of the Southern Andes. This book provides up-to-date reviews, maps, evolutionary schemes and extensive reference lists useful for geoscientists and students in Earth Science fields.
The book contributes to understanding the pattern of strain release and the level of seismic hazard imposed by large-great earthquakes in the frontal fold-thrust belts of Kumaun and Garhwal regions of Uttarakhand. The motivation for active fault studies and their characterization have been emphasized. The book presents the compilation of knowledge garnered in multidisciplinary or proxy studies involved in the understanding of seismic hazard in general and Kumaun-Garhwal Himalaya regions in particular with lucid new maps draped on modern Cartosat or SRTM DEM data. It also discusses satellite image calibration, active faults identifications, and map productions with flowchart. The book discusses window-wise active fault elements with attributes together with the tectonic geomorphic map. It also includes active fault scarp with topographic profile along with field photographs. Finally, it reviews all existing seismotectonic models of the Himalaya, its earthquake hazard, and its vulnerability, specifically for Kumaun and Garhwal regions.
This book explores basic and applied aspects of microorganisms, which have a unique ability to cope with abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity and changing climate, as well as biodegrader microorganisms and their functional roles. Further, readers will find detailed information on all aspects that are required to make a microbe "agriculturally beneficial." The book's primary focus is on microbes that are essentially "hidden miniature packages of nature" that influence agro-ecosystems. Inviting papers by prominent national and international scientists working in the field of agricultural microbiology, it addresses the biogdegrader group of microbial inoculants. Each chapter covers the respective mechanism of action and recent advances in agricultural microbiology. In addition, the book especially highlights innovations involving agriculturally beneficial microorganisms, including strategies for coping with a changing climate, and methods for developing microbial inoculants and promoting climate-smart agriculture. The information presented here is based on the authors' extensive experience in the subject area, gathered in the course of their careers in the field of agricultural microbiology. The book offers a valuable resource for all readers who are actively involved in research on agriculturally beneficial microorganisms. In addition, it will help prepare readers for the future challenges that climate change will pose for agriculture and will help to bridge the current gaps between different scientific communities.
This book describes new theoretical advances concerning analytical solutions of the Rotating Shallow Water Equations, which will make it of great interest to graduate students and scientists in the fields of Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Physical Oceanography, Dynamical Meteorology and Applied Mathematics. The new dispersion relations and meridional amplitude variations of waves derived in this book can be applied to observations in the atmosphere and ocean and also provide alternatives to the Spherical Harmonics basis of global-scale spectral numerical models.
This book explores the sustainability aspect of organic and conventional farming systems, which is commonly categorized into three sub-aspects: social, environmental and economic. The social structure of a given area, organic friendly technologies, soil properties, crop diversification and income are the elements chosen for comparison, and are analyzed using descriptive and statistical methods. In addition, the book assesses the current status of the local organic market in Nepal and field experiments involving the use of various organic means to achieve better production for selected vegetables. Determining the benefits and/or challenges of organic and conventional farming is important to determining the most viable type of farming in the long term, but can be greatly impacted by a given area's specific characteristics (social, environmental, political, etc.), which is why this study focuses on a specific location: the Chitwan district of Nepal, where group conversion to organic farming has existed alongside conventional farming for years. This book offers a useful guide for both practitioners and academic researchers who are interested in organic farming and food security, particularly in developing countries.
The quality of agricultural soils are always under threat from chemical contaminants, which ultimately affect the productivity and safety of crops. Besides agrochemicals, a new generation of substances invades the soil through irrigation with reclaimed wastewater and pollutants of organic origin such as sewage sludge or cattle manure. Emerging pollutants such as pharmaceuticals, nanomaterials and microplastics are now present in agricultural soils, but the understanding of their impact on soil quality is still limited. With focus on in situ bioremediation, this book provides an exhaustive analysis of the current biological methodologies for recovering polluted agricultural soils as well as monitoring the effectiveness of bioremediation.
Petroleum Science and Technology: Petroleum Generation, Accumulation and Prospecting describes natural hydrocarbon geology along with applicable aspects of physics, chemistry, biology, environmental science, mathematics, and engineering/technology. It starts off with a brief coverage of the origin and evolution of the universe, petroleum origin and generation in subsurface condition, source rock, oil/gas migration path and reservoir rock. Geological, geophysical, and geochemical petroleum surveys are also included. This book covers both theory and applied information. Aimed at graduate students, researchers, and professionals in petroleum engineering and chemical engineering, it: Covers petroleum geology and technology including petroleum generation, migration, and reservoir formation Introduces the nature and formation of petroleum and its exploration Describes oil/gas prospecting using geophysico-chemical methods under subsurface condition Includes a detailed geochemical survey along with an analysis of kerogen and bitumen Explains petroleum migration and accumulation using two-dimensional graphs MA Quddus PhD, has served in the petroleum sector and R&D organization, both national and multinational, for more than 40 years and has worked in various capacities including in the laboratory, office, field, and plant, and has also engaged in teaching petroleum technology as a visiting professor for 17 years. He earned BSc (Hons) and MSc degrees along with a PhD with thesis titled "Oxidation of Asphalt." As a result of his constant research, he has published nine international and 12 national papers, obtained one patent, presented five papers in conferences and prepared six technical reports. He has also visited the USA, Canada, and Indonesia for short courses in petroleum technology and teacher training.
The practical application of geomorphological science now forms a regular part of any project involving flood protection, fisheries, conservation, recreation, environmental protection and river restoration. In this book the authors use their extensive experience gained through fieldwork, analysis, and input to the design process to provide a thorough understanding of geomorphology in the river environment and describe effective ways to incorporate geomorphological science into river engineering and management.
Geologists must be able to "read" a geological map. That means interpreting the vertical dimension through the 2D view represented on the map and at different scales. The main objective of this book is to help students during this difficult learning process. Based on an abundant iconography (field photos, maps, cross-sections) and on basics in mathematics and mechanics, the book dissects the geometry of emblematic geological structures and objects in order to build 3 D models, printable in 3D. The book is dedicated to structural geology with a particular emphasis on kinematics of faulting and folding and on salt tectonics (chapters III, IV and V). The origin of continental great unconformities and oceanic break-up unconformities is also discussed (chapter II). The audience of the book is broad and includes (under)graduate students in Earth Sciences, professors of Natural Sciences, and professional or amateur geologists.
The tenth and final volume in the series Research Advances in Sustainable Micro Irrigation, this valuable book focuses on new and recent innovations in technology, methods, and applications for micro irrigation. The book covers a wide variety of topics, including successes in micro irrigation in India, how new methods have helped the local economies in several areas, ways to enhance crop yield through new building programs, and new technology and systems. It looks at different aspects of these new innovations in micro irrigation, including economic impact, evaluation methods, bubbler systems, success with particular crops, scheduling, and more.
This book focuses on the links between deep earth (mantle) and shallow processes in areas of active tectonics in the Arabian Plate and Surrounding Areas. It also provides key information for energy resources in these areas. The book is a compilation of selected papers from the Task Force of the International Lithosphere Program (ILP). It comprises a set of research studies from the Middle East, North Africa and the Mediterranean domain focusing on (1) the architecture, geodynamic evolution and modelling of the Red Sea rift system and its surroundings, and tectonics and sedimentation in the Gulf of Corinth, (2) the crustal architecture and georesources of the North Algerian Offshore, (3) Reservoirs, aquifers and fluid transfers in Saudi Basins, Petroleum systems and salt tectonics in Yemen and (4) Cretaceous-Eocene foreland inversions in Saudi Arabia.
This volume presents selected papers presented during the 4th International Conference on Transportation Geotechnics. The papers address the geotechnical challenges in design, construction, maintenance, monitoring, and upgrading of roads, railways, airfields, and harbor facilities and other ground transportation infrastructure with the goal of providing safe, economic, environmental, reliable and sustainable infrastructures. This volume will be of interest to postgraduate students, academics, researchers, and consultants working in the field of civil and transport infrastructure.
This book presents extensive and new information on the Cenozoic marine and continental systems of one of the most important World Heritage sites of Southern South America: The Peninsula Valdes. Using an interdisciplinary approach, that includes geological, biological and archeological perspectives of more than 30 specialists, an integrated description and analysis of the Cenozoic environments of the study region is presented. The volume brings together an update of the geology, climate, geomorphology, soils, biodiversity, archeology and human impact of the Peninsula Valdes. The scope of this book extends to any natural science researcher of the world interested on the Cenozoic history of the Peninsula Valdes.
The book reviews and summarizes the Indian Mesozoic geological evolution in an innovative alternative perspective of sequence stratigraphy. It mainly focuses on the Jurassic interval, but also concisely discusses the preceding Triassic and Cretaceous geological records. The key to the study is primarily held in the recently developed ammonoid based high resolution scales in the Triassic and Jurassic period. The Indian Jurassic record is thus elevated to a high resolution pedestal. The large intra-Jurassic stratigraphic gap in Kachchh, with increase in duration from margin to basin, has been precised in different sections, along with radical revision of its long held interpretation from sub-aerial to sub-marine all over from Arabia to Australia. Other significant gaps are also differentiated into sub-aerial and sub-marine. The Indian Late Precambrian - Neogene record is organized into five mega-sequences. Among these, the fourth - also the most important one - includes the intra-Permian to Early Eocene interval from the origin to the closure of the Neotethys. Based on multidisciplinary integration of the Indian Mesozoic geological record and comparison with hydrocarbon producing basins on east and west of India, a highly positive scenario of the hydrocarbon source/reservoir sediment perspective is outlined in the book in sequence stratigraphic backdrop as an edifice for future elaborate evaluation.
This book contains selected contributions presented at the 10th International Geostatistics Congress held in Valencia from 5 to 9 September, 2016. This is a quadrennial congress that serves as the meeting point for any engineer, professional, practitioner or scientist working in geostatistics. The book contains carefully reviewed papers on geostatistical theory and applications in fields such as mining engineering, petroleum engineering, environmental science, hydrology, ecology, and other fields.
There's a reason we pay top dollar for Champagne and that bottles of wine from prestige vineyards cost as much as a car: a place's distinct geographical attributes, known as terroir to wine buffs, determine the unique profile of a wine--and some rarer locales produce wines that are particularly coveted. In Volcanoes and Wine, geologist Charles Frankel introduces us to the volcanoes that are among the most dramatic and ideal landscapes for wine making. Traveling across regions well-known to wine lovers like Sicily, Oregon, and California, as well as the less familiar Canary Islands, Frankel gives an in-depth account of famous volcanoes and the wines that spring from their idiosyncratic soils. From Santorini's vineyards of rocky pumice dating back to a four-thousand-year-old eruption to grapes growing in craters dug in the earth of the Canary Islands, from Vesuvius's famous Lacryma Christi to the ambitious new generation of wine growers reviving the traditional grapes of Mount Etna, Frankel takes us across the stunning and dangerous world of volcanic wines. He details each volcano's most famous eruptions, the grapes that grow in its soils, and the people who make their homes on its slopes, adapting to an ever-menacing landscape. In addition to introducing the history and geology of these volcanoes, Frankel serves as a travel guide, offering a host of tips ranging from prominent vineyards to visit to scenic hikes in each location. This illuminating guide will be indispensable for wine lovers looking to learn more about volcanic terroirs, as well as anyone curious about how cultural heritage can survive and thrive in the shadow of geological danger.
Tackling structural geology problems today requires a quantitative understanding of the underlying physical principles, and the ability to apply mathematical models to deformation processes within the Earth. Accessible yet rigorous, this unique textbook demonstrates how to approach structural geology quantitatively using calculus and mechanics, and prepares students to interface with professional geophysicists and engineers who appreciate and utilize the same tools and computational methods to solve multidisciplinary problems. Clearly explained methods are used throughout the book to quantify field data, set up mathematical models for the formation of structures, and compare model results to field observations. An extensive online package of coordinated laboratory exercises enables students to consolidate their learning and put it into practice by analyzing structural data and building insightful models. Designed for single-semester undergraduate courses, this pioneering text prepares students for graduates studies and careers as professional geoscientists.
Satellite images acquired at night provide a visually arresting perspective of the Earth and the human activities that light up the otherwise mostly dark Earth. These night-time light satellite images can be compiled into a geospatial time series that represent an invaluable source of information for both the natural and social sciences. Night-time light remote sensing has been shown to be particularly useful for a range of natural science and social science applications, including studies relating to urban development, demography, sociology, fishing activity, light pollution and the consequences of civil war. Key sensors for these time-series include the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) and the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership Satellite's Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite Day/Night Band (Suomi NPP/VIIRS DNB). An increasing number of alternative sources are also available, including high spatial resolution and multispectral sensors. This book captures key methodological issues associated with pre-processing night-time light data, documents state of the art analysis methods, and explores a wide range of applications. Major sections focus on NPP/VIIRS DNB processing; inter-calibration between NPP/VIIRS and DMPS/OLS; applications associated with socio-economic activities, applications in monitoring urbanization; and fishing activity monitoring. The chapters in this book were originally published as a special issue of the International Journal of Remote Sensing.
In one form or another, iron speciation has had a long history as a paleoredox proxy. The technique has been refined considerably over the years, and the most recent scheme is unique in its potential to distinguish three major oceanic redox states - oxygenated, ferruginous and euxinic. This Element covers the theory behind the proxy, methods involved in applying the technique, and potential complications in interpreting Fe speciation data. A series of case studies are also provided, which highlight how more advanced consideration of the data, often in concert with other techniques, can provide unprecedented insight into the redox state of ancient oceans.
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