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This open access book is a must-read for students of and beginners in soil science. In a well-organized and easy-to-follow manner, it provides basic outlines of soil minerals, new methods and recent developments in the field, with a special focus on visual aids. The chapters on primary minerals, secondary minerals, non-crystalline inorganic constituents and inorganic constituents sensitive to varying redox conditions will help readers understand the basic components of soils. Further, readers are introduced to new analytical methods with the aid of microscopy and recent developments in the field. Uniquely, the book features case studies on the identification and isolation methods for vivianite crystals from paddy field soils, as well as a useful procedure for identifying noncrystalline constituents such as volcanic glasses and plant opals, which can also be applied to other soils depending on the local conditions. Given its focus and coverage, the book will be useful to all readers who are interested in agronomy, plant production science, agricultural chemistry and environmental science. In addition, it can help biogeochemists further expand their research work on the rhizosphere of wetland plant roots, iron and phosphate dynamics, etc.
Sediment dynamics in fluvial systems is of great ecological, economic and human-health-related significance worldwide. Appropriate management strategies are therefore needed to limit maintenance costs as well as minimize potential hazards to the aquatic and adjacent environments. Human intervention, ranging from nutrient/pollutant release to physical modifications, has a large impact on sediment quantity and quality and thus on river morphology as well as on ecological functioning. Truly understanding sediment dynamics requires as a consequence a multidisciplinary approach.River Sedimentation contains the peer-reviewed scientific contributions presented at the 13th International Symposium on River Sedimentation (ISRS 2016, Stuttgart, Germany, 19-22 September 2016), and includes recent accomplishments in theoretical developments, numerical modelling, experimental laboratory work, field investigations and monitoring as well as management methodologies.
Soils of South Africa is the first book in seventy years that provides a comprehensive account of South African soils. The book arranges more than seventy soil forms into fourteen groups and then provides, for each group: * maps showing their distribution and abundance throughout South Africa * descriptions of morphological, chemical and physical properties * a detailed account of classification and its correlation with international systems * a discussion of soil genesis which includes a review of relevant research papers * appraisal of soil quality from a land use perspective as well as for its ecological significance * illustrative examples of soil profiles with analytical data and accompanying interpretations. There is also a fascinating account of the special relationship that exists between South African animals and soil environments. Soils of South Africa should interest students and researchers in the earth, environmental and biological sciences, as well as environmental practitioners, farmers, foresters and civil engineers.
Agriculture is currently facing multi-faceted threats in the form of unpredictable weather variability, frequent droughts and scarcity of irrigation water, together with the degradation of soil resources and declining environmental health. These stresses result in the modification of plant physiology to impart greater resilience to changing abiotic and biotic environments, but only at the cost of declining plant productivity. In light of these facts, assessing the status of natural resource bases, and understanding the mechanisms of soil-plant-environment interactions so as to devise adaptation and mitigation approaches, represent great and imminent challenges for all of us. In this context, it is essential to understand the potential applications of modern tools, existing coping mechanisms and their integration, as this will allow us to develop suitable advanced mitigation strategies. From a broader perspective, the book deals with crop-environment interaction in the context of changing climatic conditions. To do so, it addresses four major aspects: Understanding the mechanism of carbon dynamics in the soil-plant-environment continuum; greenhouse gas fluxes in agricultural systems; and soil properties influenced by climate change and carbon sequestration processes. Mitigation and management of the photo-thermal environment to improve crop productivity; soil health under variable climate; reducing agro-ecosystem evapotranspiration losses through biophysical controls; and heat stress in field crops and its management. Studying the impact of climate change on biotic environments; insect-pest interactions; manifestations of disease; and adaptation strategies for island agro-ecosystems. Innovative approaches to assess stress impacts in crops, such as crop modeling, remote sensing, spectral stress indices etc. The book presents a collection of contributions from authoritative experts in their respective fields. Offering young researchers new perspectives and future research directions, it represents a valuable guide for graduate students and academics alike.
Sustainable management of soils is an important global issue of the 21st century. Feeding roughly 8 billion people with an environmentally sustainable production system is a major challenge, especially considering the fact that 10% of the world's population at risk of hunger and 25% at risk of malnutrition. Accordingly, the 68th United Nations (UN) general assembly declared 2016 the "International Year of Pulses" to raise awareness and to celebrate the role of pulses in human nutrition and welfare. Likewise, the assembly declared the year 2015 as the "International Year of Soils" to promote awareness of the role of "healthy soils for a healthy life" and the International Union of Soil Science (IUSS) has declared 2015-2024 as the International Decade of Soils. Including legumes in cropping systems is an important toward advancing soil sustainability, food and nutritional security without compromising soil quality or its production potential. Several textbooks and edited volumes are currently available on general soil fertility or on legumes but' to date' none have been dedicated to the study of "Legumes for Soil Health and Sustainable Management". This is important aspect, as the soil, the epidermis of the Earth (geoderma)' is the major component of the terrestrial biosphere. This book explores the impacts of legumes on soil health and sustainability, structure and functioning of agro-ecosystems, agronomic productivity and food security, BNF, microbial transformation of soil N and P, plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria, biofertilizers, etc. With the advent of fertilizers, legumes have been sidelined since World War II, which has produced serious consequences for soils and the environment alike. Therefore, legume-based rational cropping/soil management practices must support environmentally and economically sustain able agroecosystems based on (sequential) rotation and intercropping considerations to restore soil health and sustainability. All chapters are amply illustrated with appropriately placed data, tables, figures, and photographs, and supported with extensive and cutting-edge references. The editors have provided a roadmap for the sustainable development of legumes for food and nutritional security and soil sustainability in agricultural systems, offering a unique resource for teachers, researchers, and policymakers, as well as undergraduate and graduate students of soil science, agronomy, ecology, and the environmental sciences.
This is a highly illustrated book with each landform being described with the following structure: (1) Main characteristics, including geometric, morphometric and sedimentological features. (2) Genetic processes and controlling factors. (3) Different typologies if applicable. (4) Additional comments related to various relevant aspects such us environmental implications or geographical distribution. Image visualization of landforms is essential for learning geomorphology and stimulating the interest in this field-based subject; a picture is worth a thousand words. Consequently, the book constitutes a valuable educational resource for every university student enrolled in courses related with earth surface processes and landforms (e.g. Geomorphology, Physical Geography, Geology, Geohazards, Environmental Sciences.). The book is also attractive to travellers and people keen on nature who want to know about the terminology and origin of the landforms they encounter in their trips. In many cases, the geomorphological features constitute the main asset of first-class protected areas (e.g., UNESCO World Heritage Sites, National Parks).
This book provides a timely review and summary of the recent advances in state-of-the-art earthquake geotechnics. The earthquake disasters in Japan and New Zealand in 2011 prompted the urgent need for the state-of-the-art earthquake geotechnics to be put into practice for disaster mitigation. By reviewing the developments in earthquake geotechnics over more than half a century, this unique book enables readers to obtain solid grasp of this discipline. It is based on contributions from 18 leading international experts, who met in Kyoto in June 2016 to discuss a range of issues related to the developments of earthquake geotechnics. It comprehensively discusses various areas of earthquake geotechnics, including performance-based seismic design; the evolution of geotechnical seismic response analysis from 1964-2015; countermeasures against liquefaction; solutions for nuclear power plant disasters; the tsunami-caused inundation of the Tokyo metropolitan area; and a series of state-of-the-art effective stress analyses of case histories from the 2011 East Japan Earthquake. The book is of interest to advanced level researchers and practicing engineers in the field of earthquake geotechnics.
The report presents the results of the measurements of grain size, total organic carbon (TOC),hydrocarbons and metals in surface sediments (greater than 100 samples) collected from 40 locations off the coast of northern Mozambique during an environmental survey in March-April 2018. The survey was carried out from the R/V Dr Fridtjof Nansen in the following areas: (i) Pemba - planned gas industry logistic base, (ii) Ibo Island (Quirimbas National Protected Area) to St. Lazarus Bank - the reference area, and(iii) Palma - gas exploration area. The contents of fine-grained fraction (les than 63 um) of the sediment varied strongly in all areas from coarse sediment to high mud contents, whereas TOC levels were generally low and correlated poorly with fine-grained fraction. Background levels of hydrocarbons and metals were found in most of the samples. Anthropogenic contamination was found at one site in Pemba harbour. No oil-related contamination was demonstrated, including the Palma area where gas exploration is concentrated. Elevated concentrations of barium and total hydrocarbon content at some locations in the Palma area are attributed to drilling activities but are not considered to be of environmental concern. Based on the measured concentrations of chemicals, background concentrations for the studied areas are proposed
Uranium Deposits of the World, in three volumes, comprises an unprecedented compilation of data and descriptions of the uranium regions in Asia, USA, Latin America and Europe structured by countries. With this third, the Europe volume, Uranium Deposits of the World presents the most extensive data collection of the set. It covers about 140 uranium regions in more than 20 European countries with nearly 1000 mentioned uranium deposits. Each country and region receives an analytical overview followed by the geologically- and economically-relevant synopsis of the individual regions and fields. The presentations are structured in three major sections: (a) location and magnitude of uranium regions, districts, and deposits, (b) principal features of regions and districts, and (c) detailed characteristics of selected ore fields and deposits. This includes sections on geology, alteration, mineralization, shape and dimensions of deposits, isotopes data, ore control and recognition criteria, and metallogenesis. Beside the main European uranium regions, for example in the Czech Republic, Eastern Germany, France, the Iberian Peninsula or Ukraine, also small regions an districts to the point of singular occurrences of interest are considered. This by far the most comprehensive presentation of European uranium geology and mining would not be possible without the author's access to extensive information covering the countries of the former Eastern Bloc states, which was partly not previously available. Abundantly illustrated with information-laden maps and charts throughout, this reference work is an indispensable tool for geologists, mining companies, government agencies, and others with an interest in European key natural resources. A great help for the reader's orientation are the substantial bibliography of uranium-related publications and the indices, latter containing about 3900 entries in the geographical part alone. The three volumes of Uranium Deposits of the World are available as a set or individually. Also accessible (as a set and separate volumes) as an eReference on SpringerLink.com. The originally planned fourth volume with Australia, Oceania, and Africa will not be published after the author suddenly deceased.
This book, the only one of its kind on ravine lands, reflects the significant advances made over the past two decades in our understanding of gully erosion, its controlling factors, and various aspects of gully erosion. It also addresses central research gaps and unanswered questions, which include historical studies on gully erosion to better understand the different stages of their formation; appropriate measuring techniques for monitoring or assessing the geological and hydrological parameters and processes involved in gully development; interaction of hydrological and other soil degradation processes; ecology and biodiversity of fragile ravines; impact of climate and environmental changes on soil erosion processes; development of effective and reliable gully erosion models; effective gully prevention and control measures; watershed-based management options; and ravine rehabilitation policies. The present book is a highly timely publication and deals with various aspects of ravine ecology and rehabilitation of degraded lands, particularly with the aid of biological approaches. As such, it offers a valuable guide for all scientists working in the fields of soil conservation / rehabilitation and agroforestry, students, environmentalists, educationists, and policymakers. More importantly, it focuses on the rehabilitation of one of the world's most degraded and fragile ecosystems, ensuring the livelihoods of resource-poor farmers and landless families living in harsh ecologies that are more vulnerable to climate change.
How are mountains formed? Why are there old and young mountains? Why do the shapes of South America and Africa fit so well together? Why is the Pacific surrounded by a ring of volcanoes and earthquake prone areas while the edges of the Atlantic are relatively peaceful?
Frisch, Meschede, and Blakey answer all these questions and more through the presentation and explanation of the geo-dynamic processes upon which the theory of continental drift is based and which have lead to the concept of plate tectonics.
This GeoGuide provides an overview of the geology of Alnoe, combined with an up-to-date field itinerary. Covering all major geological aspects, it offers an essential summary of Alnoe and its intriguing magmatic rocks in a compact form suitable for field excursions and home study alike. As one of the type localities for carbonatite, the late Proterozoic Alnoe ring complex has been a crucial site for carbonatite-related research (next to the Fen complex in Norway), and provided one of the earliest test beds for this unique group of igneous rocks. Five geological excursions introduce the visitor to the most rewarding outcrops, including detailed descriptions and a wealth of high-quality colour photographs. The excursions are complemented by a detailed review of the history of scientific investigation on Alnoe and, in particular, a catalogue of exotic and common minerals associated with the complex's carbonatitic and alkaline silicate rocks. Finally, a summary of its trace element and isotope geochemistry as well as a brief outlook on Alnoe's potential as a future source of Rare Earth Elements (REEs) completes the book.
Trace metals play key roles in life - all are toxic above a threshold bioavailability, yet many are essential to metabolism at lower doses. It is important to appreciate the natural history of an organism in order to understand the interaction between its biology and trace metals. The countryside and indeed the natural history of the British Isles are littered with the effects of metals, mostly via historical mining and subsequent industrial development. This fascinating story encompasses history, economics, geography, geology, chemistry, biochemistry, physiology, ecology, ecotoxicology and above all natural history. Examples abound of interactions between organisms and metals in the terrestrial, freshwater, estuarine, coastal and oceanic environments in and around the British Isles. Many of these interactions have nothing to do with metal pollution. All organisms are affected from bacteria, plants and invertebrates to charismatic species such as seals, dolphins, whales and seabirds. All have a tale to tell.
This book focusses on the thermodynamics of soil nutrient bioavailability, and in particular the most important plant nutrients such as, phosphorus and potassium, among major nutrients, and zinc among micronutrients. It proposes a paradigm shift in the approach to global soil testing procedures. Historically, soil testing has been used to quantify availability of essential plant nutrients to field-grown crops. However, contemporary soil tests are based on philosophies and procedures developed several decades ago, without significant changes in their general approach. For a soil test to be accurate, one needs to clearly understand the physico-chemico-physiological processes at the soil-root interface and, an understanding of soils and plant root systems as polycationic systems is essential. It is this knowledge that leads to sound prescriptive soil nutrient management inasmuch as soil nutrient bioavailability vis-a-vis fertilizer application is concerned, because, of all the factors which govern sustainability in crop production, the nutrient factor is the most important, yet, it is also least resilient to management. This book provides a clear scientific basis of the thermodynamics of soil nutrient bio availability, which routine soil testing does not provide
This second edition provides extensive information on the attributes of the Natural Gas Hydrate (NGH) system, highlighting opportunities for the innovative use and modification of existing technologies, as well as new approaches and technologies that have the potential to dramatically lower the cost of NGH exploration and production. Above all, the book compares the physical, environmental, and commercial aspects of the NGH system with those of other gas resources. It subsequently argues and demonstrates that natural gas can provide the least expensive energy during the transition to, and possibly within, a renewable energy future, and that NGH poses the lowest environmental risk of all gas resources. Intended as a non-mathematical, descriptive text that should be understandable to non-specialists as well as to engineers concerned with the physical characteristics of NGH reservoirs and their production, the book is written for readers at the university graduate level. It offers a valuable reference guide for environmentalists and the energy community, and includes discussions that will be of great interest to energy industry professionals, legislators, administrators, regulators, and all those concerned with energy options and their respective advantages and disadvantages.
This publication shows the three-dimensional configuration of the gigantic tectonic sag of the Osaka Bay sedimentary basin on the eastern Eurasian margin based on reflection seismic data never before published. The basin has developed relatively quickly since the dawn of the Quaternary. High-resolution subsurface images on the profiles provide highly valuable information about the architecture of active faults, paleoenvironmental changes, and mass balance on the convergent margin. The book presents an excellent case study of a tectonically controlled basin because morphologies and evolutionary processes of such basins show an enormous diversity, reflecting spatiotemporal variation in tectonic stress. Furthermore, this volume provides insight into the general mechanism of sedimentary basin formation. The quantitative analyses contained here will be thought-provoking for industry experts, academics, and graduate and undergraduate students engaged in geologic survey and civil engineering. The contents will be especially useful to professionals in the fields of Quaternary geology, neotectonics, and active fault research.
This book discusses many aspects of plant-nutrient-induced abiotic stress tolerance. It consists of 22 informative chapters on the basic role of plant nutrients and the latest research advances in the field of plant nutrients in abiotic stress tolerance as well as their practical applications. Today, plant nutrients are not only considered as food for plants, but also as regulators of numerous physiological processes including stress tolerance. They also interact with a number of biological molecules and signaling cascades. Although research work and review articles on the role of plant nutrients in abiotic stress tolerance have been published in a range of journals, annual reviews and book chapters, to date there has been no comprehensive book on this topic. As such, this timely book is a valuable resource for a wide audience, including plant scientists, agronomists, soil scientists, botanists, molecular biologists and environmental scientists.
This edited book presents a novel collection of field-based empirical studies on the Quaternary geomorphology of the Lower Ganga Basin. The book covers a wide range of topics discussing various geomorphological facets of the Lower Ganga and its subsidiary rivers focussing on laterites, palaeoenvironment and palaeogeomorphology, palaeo-coastal landforms, neo-tectonism, tidal-fluvial dynamics, extra-channel geomorphology and channel-pattern adjustment among others. Various methodologies were applied ranging from historical records and religious texts to state-of-the-art remote sensing and GIS techniques. The book appeals to all scientists and post-graduate students of geomorphology and related areas who want to acquire detailed knowledge of the geology and geomorphology of the Lower Ganga Basin or are in search of new methodologies for studying the feedback mechanisms between forms and processes.
This book describes famous geosites and historical localities in national parks and conservation areas from North America, East Africa, and Europe. The geosites include iconic landforms associated with active volcanoes, canyons, glaciated landscapes, natural rock monoliths, and rifts. The potential for geotourism in historical localities such as the famous Greco-Roman antiquities of Greece, Italy, and Turkey, is emphasised. Some of the geosites and historical localities provide evidence that previous civilizations coped with active geology and major climatic cycles, whilst others reveal evidence of famous geological events recognized in history and ancient mythology that helped shape our current civilization. The book assists tour guides and visitors (both geologists and non-specialists) interested in geotourism by providing an understanding of geological processes in the national parks and historical locations with the assistance of photographs and simplified geological maps.
Understanding Soils in Urban Environments is a concise book explaining how urban soils develop, change and erode. Soils provide the foundation for buildings and infrastructure, and the medium for plant growth in fields, parks and gardens. They can act as a sink for waste, and can be contaminated in urban areas by heavy metals, organic chemicals and other contaminants. Soil properties such as water retention, salinity and acidity can cause environmental and structural problems for buildings and other engineering works. This text recognises and draws attention to the particular nature of soils in urban environments and discusses their distinctive management needs. Since the first edition was published in 2011, it has been used across a wide range of disciplines, many of which require an understanding of urban soil and specific soil properties that cause environmental concern. Urban soils are now recognised as much more important now than they were ten years ago, when they were seen as a poor relation to agriculture. The need for better understanding of all aspects of this topic has become evident especially at conferences in the last 5 years in Australia and internationally, where urban soils are now included as specific sections, not just as subsets such as contamination. This new edition updates and expands on the original text, including a specific chapter on the use of manufactured soil for rehabilitation and recreation, and additional case studies in other chapters, particularly contamination. The text is updated throughout to address the increasing importance of soil health for seed banks and parklands, and its implications for planning developments, the legal determination of bioregions, and addressing environmental issues that can arise from mismanagement of urban soils.
Atlas of Material Worlds is a highly designed narrative atlas illustrating the agency of nonliving materials with unique, ubiquitous, and often hidden influence on our daily lives. Employing new materialism as a jumping-off point, it examines the increasingly blurry lines between the organic and inorganic, engaging the following questions: What roles do nonliving materials play? Might a closer examination of those roles reveal an undeniable agency we have long overlooked or disregarded? If so, does this material agency change our understanding of the social structures, ecologies, economies, cosmologies, technologies, and landscapes that surround us? And, perhaps most importantly, why does material agency matter? This is the story of the world's driest nonpolar desert, pink flamingos, and cerulean blue lithium ponds; industrial shipping logistics, pudding-like jiggling substrates, and monuments of mud; galactic bodies, radioactive sheep, and the yellowcake of uranium. Put simply, this book dares readers to see the world anew, from material up. Atlas of Material Worlds offers this new relationship to our host environment in a time of mounting crises-accelerating climate change, ballooning socioeconomic inequality, and rising toxic nationalism-uniquely telling materialist stories for practitioners and students in landscape, architecture, and other built environment disciplines.
Soilborne microbial plant pathogens including oomycetes, fungi, bacteria and viruses cause several economically important destructive diseases and the symptoms of infection can be recognized only after the pathogen has invaded many tissues primarily vascular tissues of susceptible plants. This condition places formidable challenges in investigating different aspects of host-microbial pathogen interactions. Early detection of infection and precise identification, differentiation, and quantification of the microbial plant pathogens in plants, soil and water sources are essential requirements for development of effective tactics to reduce the incidence and spread of the diseases caused by them. As the microbial plant pathogens differ in their virulence and sensitivity to the environment and chemicals applied, it is imperative to assess the extent of variability in the concerned pathogens. This first volume of a two-volume set introduces disease-causing microorganisms including oomycetes, fungi, bacteria, and viruses found in soils. It focuses on the biology, detection, and identification of soilborne bacterial, fungal, and viral plant pathogens. This volume discusses various techniques based on biological, immunological and genetic properties of the pathogens indicating their advantages and limitations for selecting the appropriate technique to fulfill the requirements. Features: Presents techniques useful for detection, identification, quantification of microbial plant pathogens in plants, soil, and irrigation water from waterbodies. Highlights subversive activities of viruses, resulting in the breakdown of host defense systems. Discusses RNA silencing in infected plants by viruses and posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) functioning as an endogenous mechanism in plants against virus infection. Presents information on methods of assessment of genetic variability and sensitivity of microbial plant pathogens to chemicals and adverse environmental conditions.
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