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This volume addresses the multi-disciplinary topic of engineering geology and the environment, one of the fastest growing, most relevant and applied fields of research and study within the geosciences. It covers the fundamentals of geology and engineering where the two fields overlap and, in addition, highlights specialized topics that address principles, concepts and paradigms of the discipline, including operational terms, materials, tools, techniques and methods as well as processes, procedures and implications. A number of well known and respected international experts contributed to this authoritative volume, thereby ensuring proper geographic representation, professional credibility and reliability. This superb volume provides a dependable and ready source of information on approximately 300 topical entries relevant to all aspects of engineering geology. Extensive illustrations, figures, images, tables and detailed bibliographic citations ensure that the comprehensively defined contributions are broadly and clearly explained. The Encyclopedia of Engineering Geology provides a ready source of reference for several fields of study and practice including civil engineers, geologists, physical geographers, architects, hazards specialists, hydrologists, geotechnicians, geophysicists, geomorphologists, planners, resource explorers, and many others. As a key library reference, this book is an essential technical source for undergraduate and graduate students in their research. Teachers/professors can rely on it as the final authority and the first source of reference on engineering geology related studies as it provides an exceptional resource to train and educate the next generation of practitioners.
The principles of stratigraphic paleobiology can be readily applied to the nonmarine fossil record. Consistent spatial and temporal patterns of accommodation and sedimentation in sedimentary basins are an important control on stratigraphic architecture. Temperature and precipitation covary with elevation, causing significant variation in community composition, and changes in base level cause elevation to undergo predictable changes. These principles lead to eight sets of hypotheses about the nonmarine fossil record. Three relate to long-term and cyclical patterns in the preservation of major fossil groups and their taphonomy, as well as the occurrence of fossil concentrations. The remaining hypotheses relate to the widespread occurrence of elevation-correlated gradients in community composition, long-term and cyclical trends in these communities, and the stratigraphic position of abrupt changes in community composition. Testing of these hypotheses makes the stratigraphic paleobiology of nonmarine systems a promising area of investigation.
This volume provides a textbook and reference work on the physical and biotic landscapes of Southern Africa. It examines the links between these environments and the ways in which they have been, are and will likely be subject to change. It covers the geomorphology, soils, vegetation and land use across a range of landscapes, including mountains, coasts, savannah, drylands and wetlands, and identifies the impacts of current and potential climate change and other factors on these environments. The geographical focus is on the region defined by Namibia, South Africa, Botswana, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Lesotho and Swaziland. Illustrated throughout in full colour, the book will serve as a reference volume for researchers and environmental professionals internationally, as well as a textbook for senior undergraduate and graduate-level students of geography, ecology and environmental studies in Southern Africa.
The last 25 years have seen significant advances in our understanding of the mycorrhizal fungi that colonize most of the world's plants, and the mycorrhizal networks that form and extend into the soil beyond plant roots. In addition to a thorough review of recent research on mycorrhizal networks, this book provides readers with alternative perspectives. The book is organized into three sections: Network Structure, Nutrient Dynamics, and the Mutualism-Parasitism Continuum. Chapter 1 addresses the specificity of ectomycorrhizal symbionts and its role in plant communities, and provides an updated list of terms and definitions. Chapter 2 explores interactions between symbionts in mycorrhizal fungi networks, as well as interactions between fungal individuals. The second section of the book begins with the examination in Chapter 3 of extramatrical mycelium (mycelia beyond the root tips) in ectomycorrhizal fungi, focused on carbon and nitrogen. Chapter 4 reviews the influence of mycorrhizal networks on outcomes of plant competition in arbuscular mycorrhizal plant communities. Chapter 5 discusses nutrient movement between plants through networks with a focus on the magnitude, fate and importance of mycorrhiza-derived nutrients in ectomycorrhizal plants. Section 3 opens with a review of research on the role of ectomycorrhizal networks on seedling establishment in a primary successional habitat, in Chapter 6. The focus of Chapter 7 is on facilitation and antagonism in arbuscular mycorrhizal networks. Chapter 8 explores the unique networking dynamic of Alnus, which differs from most ectomycorrhizal plant hosts in forming isolated networks with little direct connections to networks of other host species in a forest. Chapter 9 argues that most experiments have not adequately tested the role of mycorrhizal networks on plant community dynamics, and suggests more tests to rule out alternative hypotheses to carbon movement between plants, especially those that include experimental manipulations of the mycorrhizal networks. Plant ecologists have accumulated a rich body of knowledge regarding nutrient acquisition by plants. The editor proposes that research indicating that mycorrhizal fungi compete for nutrients, which are then delivered to multiple hosts through mycorrhizal networks, represents an important new paradigm for plant ecologists.
This book aims to serve as an essential reference to facilitate civil engineers involved in the design of new conventional (ordinary) reinforced concrete (R/C) buildings regulatedby the current European EC8 (EN 1998-1:2004) and EC2 (EN 1992-1-1:2004) codesof practice. The book provides unique step-by-step flowcharts which take the readerthrough all the required operations, calculations, and verification checks prescribed bythe EC8 provisions. These flowcharts are complemented by comprehensive discussionsand practical explanatory comments on critical aspects of the EC8 code-regulatedprocedure for the earthquake resistant design of R/C buildings. Further, detailedanalysis and design examples of typical multi-storey three-dimensional R/C buildingsare included to illustrate the required steps for achieving designs of real-life structures which comply with the current EC8 provisions. These examples can be readily used as verification tutorials to check the reliability of custom-made computer programs and of commercial Finite Element software developed/used for the design of earthquakeresistant R/C buildings complying with the EC8 (EN 1998-1:2004) code.This book will be of interest to practitioners working in consulting and designingengineering companies and to advanced undergraduate and postgraduate level civilengineering students attending courses and curricula in the earthquake resistant designof structures and/or undertaking pertinent design projects.
The main objective of this research is to investigate the governing processes and characteristics that drive morphodynamic evolution in alluvial estuaries by application of a process-based numerical model (Delft3D). It is of utmost importance to understand estuarine processes so that impact of human interference (like dredging and land reclamation) and long-term changes (like sea level rise) can be evaluated. The research addresses a number of cases ranging from an rectangular basins to real estuaries like the Western Scheldt in the Netherlands or San Pablo Bay in California. The more schematized approach allow to study morphodynamic evolution over several millennia under constant forcing and answers more fundamental questions related to conditions of equilibrium and related time scales. The more realistic cases give insight into the skill of the approach in predicting decadal morphodynamic developments. More processes are included to mimic realistic conditions and model results are compared to bathymetric measurements over the last century. The research shows that the modeling approach is good capable of describing stable morphodynamic calculations over a timescale of millennia with patterns similar to patterns observed in reality. Additionally, the approach shows that it is possible to predict decadal morphodynamic developments in real estuaries with significant skill.
This book focuses on the opening and exploration of more than 350 previously undiscovered caves of the Slovenian Karst, discovered during motorway construction work. The summarizes the planning of traffic roads and presents the new findings obtained during construction, as well as studies on newly-discovered karst phenomena and karst waters and their protection. Earthmoving work during construction has revealed a cross-section of the surface of the Classical Karst, covered karst with famous underground stone forests and unique karst in breccia. Research conducted in these caves has yielded a number of new findings on how the karst surface and underground were formed, on the flow of water through karst aquifers, and on the evolution of karst on various types of rock and under various conditions. The work was written by researchers from the ZRC SAZU Karst Research Institute and the Institute of Geology AS CR. The reader will benefit from the authors' collaboration with planners and builders, which offers valuable insights for the planning and execution of their own activities in karst regions.
Geomaterials are of enormous economic importance to the global construction industry. This is the first comprehensive guide to the petrography of geomaterials, making the petrographers specialist knowledge available to practitioners, educators and students worldwide interested in modern and historic construction materials, be they microscopists or in the fields of geology, architecture, surveying, engineering, construction, archaeology, conservation, materials science and forensic science. The book provides some 365 superb quality colour photomicrographs of geomaterials plus concise explanations of their petrographic properties and how to interpret them. An introductory chapter provides an overview of geomaterials practice and a state-of-the-art review of petrographic techniques. Each of the subsequent chapters covers a different group of construction materials and includes an explanation of their history, manufacture and use in construction. The text draws upon diverse published references to provide a unique summary of the properties and classification of construction materials. Comprehensive lists of further reading are provided for each materials type. Readership: Practitioners, educators and students in Petrography, Microscopy, Geology, Surveying, Engineering, Archaeology, Conservation, Architecture, Materials science and Forensic science.
From the sandstone ridges and shale valleys of western Maryland to
the sand dunes and tidal estuaries on Delaware's coast, the
geologic features of the Mid-Atlantic region include a diverse
array of rocks and landforms assembled during more than 1 billion
years of geologic history.
The book's introduction presents an overview of the geologic history of Maryland, Delaware, and Washington, D.C., and 35 road guides discuss the landforms and rocks visible from a car window, along bike paths, and at nearby waysides and parks, including Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Historic Park, Assateague Island National Seashore, Rock Creek Park, and Cape Henlopen State Park.
Anthropogenic activity has clearly altered the N cycle contributing (among other factors) to climate change. This book aims to provide new biotechnological approach representing innovative strategies to solve specific problems related to the imbalance originating in the N cycle. Aspects such as new conceptions in agriculture, wastewater treatment, and greenhouse gas emissions are discussed in this book with a multidisciplinary vision. A team of international authors with wide experience have contributed up-to-date reviews, highlighting scientific principles and their environmental importance and integrating different biotechnological processes in environmental technology.
Vanadium isotope ratios (51V/50V) have potential to provide information about changes in past ocean oxygen contents. In particular, V isotopes may find utility in tracing variations at non-zero oxygen concentrations because the redox couple that controls V elemental and isotopic abundances in seawater (vanadate-vanadyl) appears to operate around 10M O2. This characteristic sets V isotopes apart from many other metal isotope redox proxies that require more reducing conditions to register significant changes in their isotope budgets. The oxygen abundance sensitivity range of V isotopes suggests that this paleoproxy could be particularly useful in tracing marine oxygenation changes throughout the Phanerozoic and potentially beyond.
This thesis presents the implementation of fully three-dimensional sediment transport and morphological updating formulations within a proven three-dimensional hydrodynamic flow solver. The thesis briefly discusses the formulations used to model both suspended and bed-load transport of non-cohesive sediment, and describes the implementation of a morphological updating scheme which incorporates novel approaches to morphological acceleration and dry bank erosion. Approaches used to model the three-dimensional effects of waves on coastal hydrodynamics and of three-dimensional currents on waves are also discussed. Results of several validation studies are presented and the model is shown to perform well in a series of simplified theoretical, laboratory, and full scale test cases. Application of the model and acceleration techniques to the complex and dynamic entrance to Willapa Bay, WA, USA is also discussed. Model processes are validated against the results of an extensive field measurement campaign, and diagnostic morphological model simulations are performed for two historical periods of contrasting morphological development. Input reduction and morphological acceleration techniques used to perform 5-year simulations of Willapa Bay are critically analysed and a new generic method to select a representative morphological tide for coastal environments containing significant diurnal tidal energy is presented.
This comprehensive textbook presents an overview of petroleum geoscience for geologists active in the petroleum industry, while also offering a useful guide for students interested in environmental geology, engineering geology and other aspects of sedimentary geology. In this second edition, new chapters have been added and others expanded, covering geophysical methods in general and electromagnetic exploration methods in particular, as well as reservoir modeling and production, unconventional resources and practical petroleum exploration.
This Routledge Revivals set makes available for the first time
as a collection the first three volumes of The History of the Study
of Landforms or the Development of Geomorphology, the
groundbreaking and definitive study in geomorphology compiled by
Richard J. Chorley, Robert P. Beckinsale and Antony J. Dunn.
Volume 1 (1964) dealt with contributions to the field up to 1890. Volume 2 (1973) dealt with the concepts and seminal contributions of William Morris Davis and Volume 3 (1991) treats historical and regional themes during the 'classic' period of geomorphology, between 1890 and 1950.
This re-issue, first published in 1964, is the first of a seminal series analysing the development of the study of landforms, from both the geographical and geological point of view, with especial emphasis upon fluvial geomorphology. Volume 1 treats the subject up to the first important statement of the cycle of erosion by W. M. Davis in 1889, and attempts to identify the most significant currents of geomorphic thought, integrating them into the broader contemporary intellectual frameworks with which they were associated. As well as dealing with such key figures as Werner, De Saussure, Hutton, Playfair, Buckland, lyell, Agassiz, Ramsay, Dana, Peschel, Powell, Gilbert and Davis, attention is also given to many less important contributions by American, British and continental workers. A spirited biographical treatment, attractively set off by contemporary portraits, diagrams and sketches, will make this book of great interest to the historian of science, and indeed to the general reader, as well as to the student and scholar in geomorphology, hydrology and any other earth science.
Reconstruction of ocean paleoproductivity and paleochemistry is paramount to understanding global biogeochemical cycles such as the carbon, oxygen and sulfur cycles and the responses of these cycles to changes in climate and tectonics. Paleo-reconstruction involves the application of various tracers that record seawater compositions, which in turn may be used to infer oceanic processes. Several important tracers are incorporated into pelagic barite, an authigenic mineral that forms in the water column. Here we summarize the utility of pelagic barite for the reconstruction of export production and as a recorder of seawater S, O, Sr, Ca and Ba.
A practical guide to the latest remote and in situ techniques used to measure sediments, quantify seabed characteristics, and understand physical properties of water and sediments and transport mechanisms in estuaries and coastal waters. Covering a broad range of topics from global reference frames and bathymetric surveying methods to the use of remote sensing for determining surface-water variables, enough background is included to explain how each technology functions. The advantages and disadvantages of each technology are explained, and a review of recent fieldwork experiments demonstrates how modern methods apply in real-life estuarine and coastal campaigns. Clear explanations of physical processes show links between different disciplines, making the book ideal for students and researchers in the environmental sciences, marine biology, chemistry and geology, whose work relies on an understanding of the physical environment and the way it is changing as a result of climate change, engineering and other influences.
As the growth of the world's population requires the continued search for residential space, the urbanization of natural lands is an inevitable process, but that process does not have to be one that is accomplished without regard for environmental quality. This book presents the unique perspective of naturbanization, the urbanization of protected and highly valued natural spaces that are geographically removed from current urban centers. It discusses the search and selection of new residential spaces, economic planning and policy in such areas, environmentally sensitive construction, and public investment in infrastructure to make the areas more accessible and habitable.
Specifically, the book analyzes naturbanization as it is occurring in National Parks located along the European Union borders. Recent declarations have made the parks more accessible to development and consequently they are serving as models for ways to reach workable solutions and encourage the sort of economic development that will satisfy both developers and environmentalists
What happens when a distant colonial power tries to tame an unfamiliar terrain in the world's largest tidal delta? This history of dramatic ecological changes in the Bengal Delta from 1760 to 1920 involves land, water and humans, tracing the stories and struggles that link them together. Pushing beyond narratives of environmental decline, Bhattacharyya argues that 'property-thinking', a governing tool critical in making land and water discrete categories of bureaucratic and legal management, was at the heart of colonial urbanization and the technologies behind the draining of Calcutta. The story of ecological change is narrated alongside emergent practices of land speculation and transformation in colonial law. Bhattacharyya demonstrates how this history continues to shape our built environments with devastating consequences, as shown in the Bay of Bengal's receding coastline.
Sharply focused, up-to-date information on microbial biofertilizers--including emerging options such as "Piriformospora indica" and "Matsutake" The Handbook of Microbial Biofertilizers provides in-depth coverage of all major microbial biofertilizers (rhizobia, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and cyanobacteriaas well as new and emerging growth promoters (endophytes). It examines the role of microbes in growth promotion, bioprotectors, and bioremidiators, and presents protocols and practical strategies for using microbes in sustainable agriculture. An abundance of helpful charts, tables, and figures make complex information easy to access and understand.In this first-of-its-kind volume, contributors from 11 countries and several continents address important issues surrounding microbial biofertilizers, including: the rhizobium-host-arbuscular mycorrhizal" tripartite relationship mycorrhiza as a disease suppresser and stress reducer mycorrhiza helping bacteria the impact of functional groups of soil microorganisms on nutrient turnover PBPRs as biofertilizers and biopesticides the potential of wild-legume rhizobia for use as a biofertilizers the expanding role of blue-green algae in sustainable agriculture the role of microbial fertilizers in sustainable plant production new and emerging endophytes the commercial potential of biofertilizersIn this young century, the use of biofertilizers is already growing rapidly. It has been recognized that these environment-friendly bioprotectors, growth boosters, and remediators are essential for soil/plant health. The Handbook of Microbial Biofertilizers is designed to fit the expanding information needs of current and future biotechnologists, microbiologists, botanists, agronomists, environmentalists, and others whose work involves sustained agriculture.
The use of the trace element content of sedimentary pyrite as a proxy for the trace element composition of past oceans has recently emerged. The pyrite proxy has several potential advantages over bulk sample analysis: preservation through metamorphism; little dilution during analysis (samples are ablated not dissolved, allowing for the less abundant elements commonly held in the sulfide fraction to be investigated as proxies); accurate measurement of several elements simultaneously; the ability to screen sediments for hydrothermal overprint; and the technique can give information regarding trace element availably at multiple stages of diagenesis. Because of these multiple strengths, the pyrite trace element proxy is a valuable potential addition to the paleo-ocean chemistry tool kit.
Informative travel companions about roadside terrain and geology with photos, diagrams, and glossary.
Originally published in this form in 1971, the content of this book was originally part of a larger composite volume 'Water, Earth and Man' (1969) which provided a synthesis of hydrology, geomorphology and socio-economic geography. This volume brings together the systematic theme of geomorphology while maintaining a link with the original book which emphasised the benefit of the study of water being considered in the widest sense within the physical and social environments.
This classic textbook is now in its fourth edition and Steven Stanley has teamed up with John Luczaj, an award winning field geologist. Written from a truly integrated earth systems perspective this updated edition includes new coverage on mass extinction, the hot topic of climate change and Proterozoic history. There is a wide range of interactive studying and teaching tools available with this text, because of LaunchPad access. Earth System History is available with LaunchPad. LaunchPad combines an interactive ebook with high-quality multimedia content and ready-made assessment options, including LearningCurve adaptive quizzing. See `Instructor Resources' and `Student Resources' for further information.
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