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This thesis adopts the relative back-projection method to dramatically reduce "swimming" artifacts by identifying the rupture fronts in the time window of a reference station; this led to a faster and more accurate image of the rupture processes of earthquakes. Mitigating the damage caused by earthquakes is one of the primary goals of seismology, and includes saving more people's lives by devising seismological approaches to rapidly analyze an earthquake's rupture process. The back-projection method described in this thesis can make that a reality.
This book documents the rich and spectacular heritage of the Australian continent over the last 4400 million years. Now in its third edition, The Geology of Australia provides a comprehensive overview of Australia's geology, landscapes and Earth resources. Beginning with the Precambrian rocks that hold clues to the origins of life and the development of an oxygenated atmosphere, it goes on to cover the warm seas, volcanism and episodes of mountain building that formed the eastern third of the Australian continent. This illuminating history details the breakup of the supercontinents Rodinia and Gondwana, the times of previous glaciations, the development of climates and landscapes in modern Australia, and the creation of the continental shelves and coastlines. This third edition features two new chapters on geological time and Paleozoic orogenic rock systems and mountain building, and new and updated illustrations and full-colour images.
Approximately 99% of all life that has ever existed is extinct. Fortunately, these long dead species have left traces of their lives and interactions with other species in the rock record that paleoecologists use to understand how species and ecosystems have changed over time. This record of past life allows us to study the dynamic nature of the Earth and gives context to current and future ecological challenges. This book brings together forty-four classic papers published between 1924 and 1999 that trace the origins and development of paleoecology. The articles cross taxonomic groups, habitat types, geographic areas, and time and have made substantial contributions to our knowledge of the evolution of life. Encompassing the full breadth of paleoecology, the book is divided into six parts: community and ecosystem dynamics, community reconstruction, diversity dynamics, paleoenvironmental reconstruction, species interaction, and taphonomy. Each paper is also introduced by a contemporary expert who gives context and explains its importance to ongoing paleoecological research. A comprehensive introduction to the field, Foundations of Paleoecology will be an essential reference for new students and established paleoecologists alike.
This book is one of a popular and exciting series that seeks to tell the story of some of Britain's most beautiful landscapes. Written with the general reader - the walker, the lover of the countryside - firmly in mind, these pages open the door to a fascinating story of ancient oceans, deltas, mineralization and tundra landscapes. Over millions of years the rocks that now form the spectacular terrains of the White Peak and the Dark Peak were laid down on the floors of tropical seas and deformed by plate tectonics before being shaped by streams and rivers. The white limestone was fretted into its own distinctive landscape above hidden cave systems; then generations of miners and farmers modified and contributed to the landscapes we see today. With the help of photographs that are largely his own, geologist Tony Waltham tells the remarkable story of the Peak District, explaining just how the landscapes of limestone plateau, grit moors and river valleys came to look as they do. Including suggestions for walks and places to visit in order to appreciate the best of the National Park's landforms, this accessible and readable book opens up an amazing new perspective for anyone who enjoys this varied and beautiful area.
The most modern, scientific approach to teaching our changing planet, at the most valuable price in the market. Geology is everywhere in our daily lives. We are surrounded by materials and resources extracted from the Earth, our climate is changing at alarming rates, and hazards due to Earth's processes are leading to major catastrophes. We will be reliant upon a population of informed citizens to make and vote for policies that protect our Earth, and change that will keep our planet habitable. Therefore, understanding our Earth has never been more important. Understanding Earth leads the way by fully integrating the study of climate science into the core intro geology curriculum. Through strategic placement of the climate science chapters at the beginning of the geomorphology content, we offer a text that places our changing climate as a key force shaping the rest of our discussion on Earth's surficial processes. Understanding Earth is now supported by Achieve Read & Practice, the most affordable digital solution in the market. It's easy to use and streamlined, with just the ebook and adaptive quizzing engine LearningCurve, which prepares students with core foundational concepts so they arrive prepared for class. Instructors receive performance analytics to identify class strengths, areas for improvement, and competencies.
This book gives the most detailed and comprehensive insights into the morphology, morphometry and dynamics of glaciers in the Georgian Caucasus region up to date. It examines the variability of valley glaciers after the Little Ice Age maximum and identifies glacial dynamics during historical periods. The reconstruction of glaciation in the Late Pleistocene and Holocene was conducted based on long lasting detailed glacial-geomorphological observations by the author. It further analyses moraine structures, river terraces, geodynamics of the relief, and snow and firn line locations derived from field surveys in most glacier basins in the southern and northern slopes of the Georgian Caucasus. A whole set of methodological approaches was applied including remote sensing and GIS, glacio-geomorphological, cartographical, aerial image processing and petrographic methods, unveiling accurate information about glaciers difficult to access, e.g. in the Abkhazeti and Tskhinvali regions. The book provides a full database of Georgia's modern glaciation and displays a set of compiled maps of the distribution of the Late Pleistocene glaciation of the Georgian Caucasus.
This open access book discusses biogeochemical processes relevant to carbon and aims to provide readers, graduate students and researchers, with insight into the functioning of marine ecosystems. A carbon centric approach has been adopted, but other elements are included where relevant or needed. The book focuses on concepts and quantitative understanding of primary production, organic matter mineralization and sediment biogeochemistry. The impact of biogeochemical processes on inorganic carbon dynamics and organic matter transformation are also discussed.
This book presents most recent research studies on mapping and spatial analysis of socio-economic and environmental indicators used by various national and international contributors to regional development projects. It gathers the best contributions to the 1st International Conference on Mapping and Spatial Analysis of Socio-Economic and Environmental Indicators for the Local and Regional Sustainable Development. The conference was held in southern Tunisia, Tataouine in March 2015.The research studies focused on generating and analyzing indicators in various domains of Agriculture, Energy, Industry, Tourism, Transport, Urban Planning, Exploitation of Natural Resources, Infrastructure, Health, Environment, Education, Information and Communication Technologies, Social Affairs and Employability, and Culture and Sport. Socio-economic and environmental indicators are important in regional development plans and strategies as they allow to observe and analyze changes in the economic growth and to measure their impact on the environment and on social networks/daily life of citizens. On the basis of well-defined geomatic approaches, and particularly, through sophisticated digital mapping and spatio-temporal analyses, authors focused on retrieving indicators to evaluate the exploitation rate of natural resources, intensity of the energy consumption in various economic sector, net migratory flows, quality checking of the air in urban areas, adaptation to climate change, and vulnerability of the coastal domain and risk of marine submersion due to sea-level rise. The book is of interest not only to investors and contributors to regional development projects, but also to all relevant policy makers.
Shows the solid and drift geology together as the 'underfoot geology'.
Carbon is one of the most important elements of our planet, and ninety percent of it resides inside Earth's interior. This book summarizes ten years of research by scientists involved in the Deep Carbon Observatory, a global community of 1200 scientists. It is a comprehensive guide to carbon inside Earth, including its quantities, movements, forms, origins, changes over time, and impact on planetary processes. Leading experts from a variety of fields, including geoscience, biology, chemistry, and physics, provide exciting new insights into the interconnected nature of the global carbon cycle, and explain why it matters to the past, present, and future of our planet. With end-of-chapter problems, illustrative infographics, full-color images, and access to online models and datasets, it is a valuable reference for graduate students, researchers, and professional scientists interested in carbon cycling and Earth system science. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
A "must-have" for materials engineers, chemists, physicists, and geologists, this is one of the first "coffee-table" books in the field of glass science.
Containing over fifty beautiful micrographs, the book reflects 35 years of original research by a highly regarded authority in the field. It contains 50 slides culled from tens of thousands of images on glass crystal nucleation, growth, and crystallization. The images represent glass crystallization mechanisms, including internal, surface, homogeneous, heterogeneous, and eutectic, crystal nucleation and growth.
This book provides the reader with a comprehensive overview of the soils of Spain gathered by a variety of Spanish experts in the field. It presents soils in this country as particularly conditioned by the naturally diverse and drastic distribution of the Spanish landscape, characterized by mountainous ranges in the North, and arid areas in the South and the East. The first chapter sets the agricultural scenario in Spain as influenced by the Arabic culture and American agricultural products; the second chapter provides a classification and distribution of Spanish soils; the third chapter approaches the topic of soils in the characteristically humid Northern Iberia area as prone to diversity and soil evolution; the fourth focuses on the soils of the South and East of Spain as affected by lack of rainfall and abundance in calcic soil horizons; the fifth chapter deals with Mediterranean soils, having as a particular characteristic the dominance of red colors; and the last chapter discusses the challenges and future issues of Spanish soils.
This book presents a comprehensive and detailed description of remediation techniques for metal-contaminated soils derived from both natural processes and anthropogenic activities. Using a methodical, step-by-step presentation, the book starts by overviewing the origin of toxicants and the correlated comparative extent of contamination to the environment. The legal provisions as proposed or applied in different countries are then discussed to explain the global regulatory situation regarding soil contamination and the extent of consequent concern. The core part of this publication describes the major techniques for in situ or ex situ treatment of the contaminated soil to meet the regulatory limits. Finally, risk evaluation is incorporated, giving special attention to possible impacts during or after implementation of the remediation strategies. The intrusion of metals in soils mostly occurs from various anthropogenic activities, e.g., agricultural practices, industrial activities, and municipal waste disposal. The volumes of metal-contaminated soil are becoming greater than before and are ever-increasing due to rapid urbanization, intensified industrialization, and/or population booms in certain parts of the world. Hence, the options previously proposed, such as isolation of the contaminated site or movement of the contaminated mass to a secure disposal site after excavation, are becoming unsuitable from the economic point of view, and instead, decontamination alternatives are preferred. This book will help readers such as scientists and regulators to understand the details of the remediation techniques available to deal with the soils contaminated by toxic metals.
Build healthy soil and grow better plants Robert Pavlis, a gardener for over four decades, debunks common soil myths, explores the rhizosphere, and provides a personalized soil fertility improvement program in this three-part popular science guidebook. Healthy soil means thriving plants. Yet untangling the soil food web and optimizing your soil health is beyond most gardeners, many of whom lack an in-depth knowledge of the soil ecosystem. Soil Science for Gardeners is an accessible, science-based guide to understanding soil fertility and, in particular, the rhizosphere - the thin layer of liquid and soil surrounding plant roots, so vital to plant health. Coverage includes: Soil biology and chemistry and how plants and soil interact Common soil health problems, including analyzing soil's fertility and plant nutrients The creation of a personalized plan for improving your soil fertility, including setting priorities and goals in a cost-effective, realistic time frame. Creating the optimal conditions for nature to do the heavy lifting of building soil fertility Written for the home gardener, market gardener, and micro-farmer, Soil Science for Gardeners is packed with information to help you grow thriving plants.
This edited volume brings together a collection of works that comprehensively address both the myriad geomorphological landscapes of the Maltese Islands and how their evolution has been shaped over various time-scales by different sets of processes. Additionally, the work highlights how the small geographical setting of the Maltese Islands helped to closely connect these landscapes with Maltese society and as a result, they have evolved from stand-alone examples of geomorphology to important backdrops of Maltese cultural identity. Most of the contributing authors are academics - both local and foreign - with a research focus on the geomorphology of the Maltese Islands. However, the editors have also (and purposefully) chosen other contributors from governmental institutions and research agencies, who complement the geomorphological research with their proactive work in selected case studies on Maltese landscapes.
In 1980, the science world was stunned when a maverick team of researchers proposed that a massive meteor strike had wiped the dinosaurs and other fauna from the Earth 66 million years ago. Scientists found evidence for this theory in a "crater of doom"on the Yucatan Peninsula that showed our planet has been the target in a galactic shooting gallery. Seeking to develop "neocatastrophism" even further, Michael R. Rampino adds to this exciting field in Cataclysms, building on the latest findings from leading geoscientists. Rampino recounts his conversion to the impact hypothesis, describing his visits to meteor-strike sites and his review of the existing geological record. His story enables a richer understanding of the science behind major planetary upheavals and extinction events. The new geology he outlines explicitly rejects nineteenth-century "uniformitarianism," which casts planetary change as gradual and driven by processes we can see at work today. Rampino's new geology offers a cosmic context for Earth's geologic evolution, in which cataclysms from above in the form of comets and asteroid impacts and from below in the form of huge outpourings of lava in flood-basalt eruptions have led to severe changes in the Earth's surface. The new geology sees Earth's position in our solar system and galaxy as the keys to understanding our planet's geology and history of life. The author concludes with a fascinating take on dark matter's potential as a triggering mechanism, considering its role in heating Earth's core and spurring massive volcanism throughout geologic time.
This RILEM AAR 1.2 Atlas is complementary to the petrographic method described in RILEM AAR 1.1. It is designed and intended to assist in the identification of alkali-reactive rock types in concrete aggregate by thin-section petrography. Additional issues include: * optical thin-section petrography conforming to RILEM AAR 1.1 is considered the prime assessment method for aggregate materials, being effective regarding cost and time. Unequivocal identification of minerals in very-fine grained rock types may however require use of supplementary methods. * the atlas adheres to internationally adopted schemes for rock classification and nomenclature, as recommended in AAR 1.1. Thus, rock types are classified as igneous, sedimentary or metamorphic based upon mineral content, microstructure and texture/fabric. * in addition, the atlas identifies known alkali-reactive silica types in each rock type presented. It also identifies consistent coincidence between certain lithologies and silica types; however, it refrains from attributing alkali-reactivity to a specific silica property or quality. * operator skill and experience remain essential for reliable assessment by thin-section petrography. * aggregate materials must be classified according to local criteria, based on regional experiences with ASR-damaged field structures and geology. Access to additional data may be relevant for the assessment of imported materials. * mere application of rock nomenclature does not provide any sort of warranty to the development of deleterious alkali-reaction. Such may result in either rejection of a suitable aggregate material, thus wasting a valuable resource, or acceptance of an unsuitable material leading to concrete damage, both of which are undesirable.
The proposal that the impact of humanity on the planet has left a distinct footprint, even on the scale of geological time, has recently gained much ground. Global climate change, shifting global cycles of the weather, widespread pollution, radioactive fallout, plastic accumulation, species invasions, the mass extinction of species - these are just some of the many indicators that we will leave a lasting record in rock, the scientific basis for recognizing new time intervals in Earth's history. The Anthropocene, as the proposed new epoch has been named, is regularly in the news. Even with such robust evidence, the proposal to formally recognize our current time as the Anthropocene remains controversial both inside and outside the scholarly world, kindling intense debates. The reason is clear. The Anthropocene represents far more than just another interval of geologic time. Instead, the Anthropocene has emerged as a powerful new narrative, a concept through which age-old questions about the meaning of nature and even the nature of humanity are being revisited and radically revised. This Very Short Introduction explains the science behind the Anthropocene and the many proposals about when to mark its beginning: the nuclear tests of the 1950s? The beginnings of agriculture? The origins of humans as a species? Erle Ellis considers the many ways that the Anthropocene's "evolving paradigm" is reshaping the sciences, stimulating the humanities, and foregrounding the politics of life on a planet transformed by humans. The Anthropocene remains a work in progress. Is this the story of an unprecedented planetary disaster? Or of newfound wisdom and redemption? Ellis offers an insightful discussion of our role in shaping the planet, and how this will influence our future on many fronts. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
This book conceptualizes a revolutionary idea based on a mechanistic-mathematical model in which the "Buffer Power" of the principal and problematic nutrients like phosphorus, potassium and zinc is quantified. This is achieved by using either a very sophisticated technique, electro-ultra-filtration, or a simple adsorption-desorption equilibrium technique, and by integrating the "Buffer Power" of the nutrient in question into the computations, accurate fertilizer recommendations are made. This technique was field tested across Europe, (Germany and Belgium), Africa (The Republic of Cameroon), and Asia (both Central Asia- Turkey and South Asia-India), during a period of three decades in test crops, such as, summer rye (Secale cereale), maize (Zea mays), wheat (Triticum aestivum), white clover (Trifolium repens), a highly nutritious and palatable fodder crop for Africa, black pepper (Piper nigrum) and cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum). Remarkable precision in predictability of plant uptake of phosphorus, potassium and zinc was obtained employing the technique. "The Nutrient Buffer Power Concept" project was shortlisted for the very prestigious U.S. $1 Million Rolex Awards For Enterprise of The Rolex Foundation, Geneva, Switzerland, for its outstanding originality and quality from more than 3500 nominations worldwide and is the only project chosen for this very coveted distinction from the Asian continent.
Cross-Scale Coupling and Energy Transfer in the Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Thermosphere System provides a systematic understanding of Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Thermosphere dynamics. Cross-scale coupling has become increasingly important in the Space Physics community. Although large-scale processes can specify the averaged state of the system reasonably well, they cannot accurately describe localized and rapidly varying structures in space in actual events. Such localized and variable structures can be as intense as the large-scale features. This book covers observations on quantifying coupling and energetics and simulation on evaluating impacts of cross-scale processes. It includes an in-depth review and summary of the current status of multi-scale coupling processes, fundamental physics, and concise illustrations and plots that are usable in tutorial presentations and classrooms. Organized by physical quantities in the system, Cross-Scale Coupling and Energy Transfer in the Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Thermosphere System reviews recent advances in cross-scale coupling and energy transfer processes, making it an important resource for space physicists and researchers working on the magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere.
Engineers and geologists in the petroleum industry will find Petroleum Related Rock Mechanics, Third Edition, to be a powerful resource in providing a basis for rock mechanical knowledge, which can greatly assist in the understanding of field behavior, design of test programs, and the design of field operations. Not only does this text provide specific applications of rock mechanics used within the petroleum industry, it has a strong focus on basics like drilling, production, and reservoir engineering. Assessment of rock mechanical parameters is covered in depth, as is acoustic wave propagation in rocks, with possible link to 4D seismic as well as log interpretation. Petroleum Related Rock Mechanics, 3e, is updated to include new topics such as formation barriers around cased wells, finite element analysis, multicomponent models, acoustic emissions and elliptical holes. It also includes updated and expanded coverage of shale reservoirs, hydraulic fracturing, and carbon capture and sequestration.
European Glacial Landscapes: Maximum Extent of Glaciations brings together relevant experts on the history of glaciers and their impact on the landscape of the main regions of Europe. In some regions the largest recorded glaciations occurred before the Last Glacial Cycle, in one of the major glacial cycles of the Middle Pleistocene. However, the best-preserved evidence of glaciation in the landscape is from the Last Glacial Cycle (Late Pleistocene). The book also analyses these older glacial landforms that can sometimes still be seen in the landscape today. This analysis provides a better understanding of the succession of Pleistocene glaciations and the intervening interglacial periods, examining their possible continental synchrony or asynchrony of past glacier behaviour. The result of this analysis gives important new insights and information on the origin and effects of climatic and geomorphological variability across Europe. European Glacial Landscapes: Maximum Extent of Glaciations examines the landscapes produced by glaciers throughout Europe, the geomorphological effects of glaciations, as well as the chronology and evolution of the past glaciers, with the aim of understanding the interrelationship between glacial expansion and climate changes on this continent. This book is a valuable tool for geographers, geologist, environmental scientists, researchers in physics and earth sciences.
This volume contains peer-reviewed papers from the Third World Landslide Forum organized by the International Consortium on Landslides (ICL) in June 2014. The complete collection of papers from the Forumis published in three full-color volumes and one mono-color volume. "
This volume contains peer-reviewed papers from the Third World Landslide Forum organized by the International Consortium on Landslides (ICL) in June 2014. The complete collection of papers from the Forumis published in three full-color volumes and one mono-color volume. "
This book publishes consolidated information on the soils of Nepal from all possible sources. The Survey Department, Government of Nepal, conducted two national scale soil survey projects to classify soils of Nepal (Land Resource Mapping Project ended in 1985, and National Land Use Planning Project ended in 2021). Both projects adopted the United States Department of Agriculture system of soil classification. Besides, National Soil Science Research Center (previously known as Soil Science Division) of Nepal Agricultural Research Council and Soil Management Directorate, Department of Agriculture, also worked on soils of Nepal. To date, the information on the soils of Nepal is not published in well-documented form but has been reported widely as gray literature (project report or government report) or peer-review articles. 'The Soils of Nepal' is a part of 'World Soils Book Series' which constitutes twelve chapters-covering broad aspects such as soil research history, climate, geology, soil classification and mapping, and soil fertility. Furthermore, information about soil properties and relation between soil constituents of the dominant soil types of Nepal and their scope of use in the context of land use are described. This book also tries to simplify the intricate relationship among soil, culture, and people. Each chapter contains a comprehensive, richly illustrated, and up-to-date overview of the soils of Nepal. We believe it fulfils a quest for a global audience including students, educators, extension workers, and soil scientists, who are interested to know the young soils of Nepal.
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