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Nearly all major planets and moons in our Solar System have been visited by spacecraft and the data they have returned has revealed the incredible diversity of planetary surfaces. Featuring a wealth of images, this textbook explores the geological evolution of the planets and moons. Introductory chapters discuss how information gathered from spacecraft is used to unravel the geological complexities of our Solar System. Subsequent chapters focus on current understandings of planetary systems. The textbook shows how planetary images and remote sensing data are analyzed through the application of fundamental geological principles. It draws on results from spacecraft sent throughout the Solar System by NASA and other space agencies. Aimed at undergraduate students in planetary geology, geoscience, astronomy and solar system science, it highlights the differences and similarities of the surfaces at a level that can be readily understood by non-specialists.
Worldwide demand for sand and gravel is increasing daily, as the need for these materials continues to rise, for example in the construction sector, in land filling and for transportation sector based infrastructural projects. This results in over-extraction of sand from channel beds, and hampers the natural renewal of sediment, geological setup and morphological processes of the riverine system. In India, illegal sand mining (of alluvial channels) and gravel mining (of perennial channels) are two anthropogenic issues that negatively affect the sustainable drainage system. Along the Kangsabati River in India, the consequences of sand mining are very serious. The construction of Mukutmonipur Dam (1958) on the river causes huge sediment deposition along the middle and downstream areas, these same areas are also intensely mined for sand (instream and on the flood plain). Geospatial models are applied in order to better understand the state and the resilience of stream hydraulics, morphological and river ecosystem variables during pre-mining and post-mining stages, using micro-level datasets of the Kangsabati River. The book also includes practicable measures to minimize the environmental consequences of instream mining in respect to optimum sand mining. It discusses the threshold limits of each variable in stream hydraulics, morphological and river ecological regime, and also discusses the most affected variables. Consequently, all outputs will be very useful for students, researchers, academicians, decision makers and practitioners and will facilitate applying these techniques to create models for other river basins.
A brief explanation of the geology shown on the relevant 1: 50 000 scale geological map(s).
This is the first textbook to address all the components of the Earth's cryosphere - all forms of snow and ice, both terrestrial and marine. It provides a concise but comprehensive summary of snow cover, glaciers, ice sheets, lake and river ice, permafrost, sea ice and icebergs - their past history and projected future state. It is designed for courses at upper undergraduate and graduate level in environmental science, geography, geology, glaciology, hydrology, water resource engineering and ocean sciences. It also provides a superb up-to-date summary for researchers of the cryosphere. The book includes an extensive bibliography, numerous figures and color plates, thematic boxes on selected topics and a glossary. The book builds on courses taught by the authors for many decades at the University of Colorado and the University of Alberta. Whilst there are many existing texts on individual components of the cryosphere, no other textbook covers the whole cryosphere.
This image atlas and reference book is written in simple language that can be understood by a broad audience. The work comprehensively explains the geomorphological forms of high mountains using many examples like glacial erosion forms and deposits such as moraines and gravel terraces, which are illustrated with numerous photographs. Landslide landscapes, volcanoes, weathering, and erosion are other examples discussed. These examples are from across the world, including the Himalayas, the Alps, the Andes, and the Southern Alps of New Zealand. This work is useful for laymen who are interested in geosciences, especially high-mountain landforms, as well as for students and teachers of earth sciences.
A SUNDAY TIMES BOOK OF THE YEAR 2017
A rich and exuberant group biography of the first geologists, the people who were first to excavate from the layers of the world its buried history.
These first geologists were made up primarily, and inevitably, of gentlemen with the necessary wealth to support their interests, yet boosting their numbers, expanding their learning and increasing their findings were clergymen, academics - and women. This lively and eclectic collection of characters brought passion, eccentricity and towering intellect to geology and Brenda Maddox in Reading the Rocks does them full justice, bringing them to vivid life.
The new science of geology was pursued by this assorted band because it opened a window on Earth's ancient past. They showed great courage in facing the conflict between geology and Genesis that immediately presented itself: for the rocks and fossils being dug up showed that the Earth was immeasurably old, rather than springing from a creation made in the six days that the Bible claimed. It is no coincidence that Charles Darwin was a keen geologist.
The individual stories of these first geologists, their hope and fears, triumphs and disappointments, the theological, philosophical and scientific debates their findings provoked, and the way that as a group, they were to change irrevocably and dramatically our understanding of the world is told by Brenda Maddox with a storyteller's skill and a fellow scientist's understanding. The effect is absorbing, revelatory and strikingly original.
Written for anyone interested in coastal geomorphology, this is the complete guide to the processes at work on our coastlines and the resulting features seen in coastal systems across the world. Accessible to students from a range of disciplines, the quantitative approach of this book helps to build a solid understanding of wave and current processes that shape coastlines. From sandy beaches to coral reefs, the major coastal features are related to contemporary processes and to sea-level changes over the past 25,000 years. Key equations describing these processes and standard methods and instrumentation used to collect measurements are all presented in this wide-ranging overview. Designed to support a one- or two-semester course and grounded in current research, this second edition has been substantially updated and rewritten - featuring cutting-edge new topics, insights from new models and technologies, additional global examples and an enhanced package of online teaching materials.
This university-level reference work covers a range of remote sensing techniques that are useful for mapping and visualizing benthic environments on continental shelves. Chapters focus on overviews of the history and future of seafloor mapping techniques, cartographical visualisation and communication of seafloor mapping, and practical applications of new technologies. Seabed mapping is referenced by high-resolution seismic methods, sidescan sonar, multibeam bathymetry, satellite imagery, LiDAR, acoustic backscatter techniques, and soundscape ecology monitoring, use of autonomous underwater vehicles, among other methods. The wide breadth of subjects in this volume provides diversified coverage of seafloor imaging. This collection of modern seafloor mapping techniques summarizes the state of the art methods for mapping continental shelves.
Wicander/Monroe's Geology: Earth in Perspective, 3rd edition, brings geology to life while accommodating your busy lifestyle--and at a value-based price. It provides a complete overview of introductory geology in a succinct, engaging format. Online videos, animations, interactive mapping, and other learning tools further your understanding of physical geology and its relevance to everyday life. The revised text incorporates the latest examples, case studies, and data, including natural disasters, renewable energy, new insight on paleoseismology, sustainability, and updated dating techniques that more accurately identify historic climate change periods. GEO-FOCUS boxes spotlight issues straight from the headlines, and economic and environmental geology topics are integrated throughout.
Environmental Geology, 4e focuses on the fascinating interaction between humans and the geologic processes that shape the Earth's environment. This text emphasizes how human survival is highly dependent on the natural environment and students should find the topics to be quite relevant to their own lives and, therefore, more interesting.
The oil and gas industry is one of the richest and most powerful industries in the world. In recent years, company avowals in support of diversity, much-touted programs for "women in STEM," and, most importantly, a tight labor market with near parity in women pursuing geoscience credentials might lead us to expect progress for women in this industry's corporate ranks. Yet, for all the talk of "the great crew change," the industry remains overwhelmingly white and male. Sociologist Christine L. Williams asks, where are the women? To answer this question, Williams embarked on a decade-long investigation-one involving one hundred in-depth interviews, a longitudinal survey, and ethnographic research-that allowed her to observe the industry in times of boom and bust. She found that when the industry expands, women may be able to walk through the door, but when the industry contracts, the door becomes a revolving one, whirling ever faster, as companies retreat to their white male core. These gendered outcomes are obscured by firms' stated commitments to diversity in hiring and the language of merit. The result is organizational gaslighting, a radical dissonance between language and practice that Williams exposes for all.
This book describes the multitude of interactions between plant, soil, and micro-organisms. It emphasizes on how growth and development in plants, starting from seed germination, is heavily influenced by the soil type. It describes the interactions established by plants with soil and inhabitant microbial community. The chapters describe how plants selectively promote certain microorganisms in the rhizospheric ecozone to derive multifarious benefits such as nutrient acquisition and protection from diseases. The diversity of these rhizospheric microbes and their interactions with plants largely depend on plant genotype, soils attributes, and several abiotic and biotic factors. Most of the studies concerned with plant-microbe interaction are focused on temperate regions, even though the tropical ecosystems are more diverse and need more attention. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how soil type and climatic conditions influence the plant-soil-microbes interaction in the tropics. Considering the significance of the subject, the present volume is designed to cover the most relevant aspects of rhizospheric microbial interactions in tropical ecosystems. Chapters include aspects related to the diversity of rhizospheric microbes, as well as modern tools and techniques to assess the rhizospheric microbiomes and their functional roles. The book also covers applications of rhizospheric microbes and evaluation of prospects improving agricultural practice and productivity through the use of microbiome technologies. This book will be extremely interesting to microbiologists, plant biologists, and ecologists.
This textbook introduces methods of geoscientific data acquisition using MATLAB in combination with inexpensive data acquisition hardware such as sensors in smartphones, sensors that come with the LEGO MINDSTORMS set, webcams with stereo microphones, and affordable spectral and thermal cameras. The text includes 35 exercises in data acquisition, such as using a smartphone to acquire stereo images of rock specimens from which to calculate point clouds, using visible and near-infrared spectral cameras to classify the minerals in rocks, using thermal cameras to differentiate between different types of surface such as between soil and vegetation, localizing a sound source using travel time differences between pairs of microphones to localize a sound source, quantifying the total harmonic distortion and signal-to-noise ratio of acoustic and elastic signals, acquiring and streaming meteorological data using application programming interfaces, wireless networks, and internet of things platforms, determining the spatial resolution of ultrasonic and optical sensors, and detecting magnetic anomalies using a smartphone magnetometer mounted on a LEGO MINDSTORMS scanner. The book's electronic supplementary material (available online through Springer Link) contains recipes that include all the MATLAB commands featured in the book, the example data, the LEGO construction plans, photos and videos of the measurement procedures.
Bioleaching of chalcopyrite is always a challenge and research hotspot. The low copper extraction and dissolution kinetics restricted the industrial application of chalcopyrite bioleaching. To solve this problem, the dissolution process and passivation mechanism of chalcopyrite in bioleaching should be first studied, then the rate-limiting steps should be analysed explicitly, and finally the intensifying method can be put forward. Many scholars have made efforts to investigate the dissolution mechanism of chalcopyrite in bioleaching. However, there is no congruence of opinion as yet. Biohydrometallurgy of Chalcopyrite summarizes and discusses the reported research findings. In addition, this book publishes the related results found by the authors' research. Then, the dissolution mechanism of chalcopyrite in bioleaching is interpreted. Finally, the process intensification techniques of chalcopyrite bioleaching are provided and discussed. Hence, this book provides useful reference and guidance in both laboratory research and industrial production.
Computational models are invaluable in understanding the complex effects of physical processes and environmental factors which interact to influence landform evolution of geologic time scales. This book provides a holistic guide to the construction of numerical models to explain the co-evolution of landforms, soil, vegetation and tectonics, and describes how the geomorphology observable today has been formed. It explains the science of the physical processes and the mechanics of how to solve them, providing a useful resource for graduates studying geomorphology and sedimentary and erosion processes. It also emphasises the methods for assessing the relative importance of different factors at field sites, enabling researchers to select the appropriate processes to model. Integrating a discussion of the fundamental processes with mathematical formulations, it guides the reader in understanding which processes are important and why; and creates a framework through which to study the interaction of soils, vegetation and landforms over time.
The series is designed to meet the needs of students and lecturers of the National Certificate Vocational. To facilitate students' learning, the following features are used in the series: Content is written in easy-to-understand language, key terms are carefully explained, using everyday English, case studies show how to apply the theory in the work environment, the study skills sections help students make the most of their learning in class and prepare for the exams, there are many practice activities and questions with model answers at the back of the title, checklists assist students to make sure that they have covered all the skills and content in each chapter, and summaries at the end of each chapter are useful for exam revision. Lecturers using the series can teach with confidence because content is comprehensive, up-to-date, and meets all the curriculum requirements for the subject, outcomes and assessment standards are clearly identified, and assessment tasks and activities are aligned to the outcomes and assessment standards. Prescribing lecturers have access to comprehensive lecturer support material on CD including model answers to assessments in the textbook, additional assessments with model answers, rubrics for assessments, and general reference material on teaching outcomes-based education. The series is available for all programmes, all fundamental and compulsory subjects, and all elective and optional subjects.
One of the most influential, most controversial books in science, the classic statement for continental drift. Full 1966 translation. 64 illus.
Campbell's Atlas of Oil and Gas Depletion, Second Edition, is the product of a half-century of critical analysis and updating of data on the status of oil and gas depletion by country, region and the world as a whole. Separate analyses of conventional and non-conventional oil and gas, which are depleting at different rates and costs, show when these critical energy sources peak and decline. The Atlas also summarizes the history and political circumstances of each country to assess the impact on oil and gas production and reserves. It contrasts the First Half of the Oil Age, which saw the rapid expansion of the world economy, allowing the population to grow six-fold, with the Second Half, which will witness a general contraction as these easy, high-density energy supplies dwindle. The transition threatens to be a time of great economic, financial and political tensions. The Atlas, which has been compiled and updated by prominent geologist, former oil company executive, and oil analyst Colin Campbell since the 1960s, addresses the need for a reliable and comprehensive database on a subject essential to governments, industry, academia, and the population as a whole as we attempt to adapt to these critically changing circumstances.
Analysis of Chemical Residues in Agriculture presents a focused, yet comprehensive guide on how to identify, evaluate and analyze the wide range of chemicals that impact our food production system. The book presents a variety of analytical technologies and methods in order to help professionals, researchers, and graduate and undergraduate students understand chemical residues in agriculture and apply them to applications for the detection and quantification of chemical residues - both organic and inorganic - in several agricultural matrices, including crops, fruits, meat, food, feed, soil and water. Agriculture remains one of the most strategic sectors for the global economy and well-being. However, it is seen as a source of environmental and health concerns mainly due to the high amount of pesticides and fertilizers used in production systems around the world; moreover, a thorough understanding of the topic is necessary when we consider livestock production systems also apply large amounts of veterinary drugs to treat illness and promote increases in productivity.
"Stars Above, Earth Below" uses photographs and sky charts to form a connection between what is seen on the ground and in the sky, and looks at the deeper scientific meaning behind these sights. Nordgren describes other objects in the Solar System with features similar to those on Earth and links the geological features seen in the national parks to the very latest NASA spacecraft discoveries on other planets and their moons. Additionally, historical context is discussed to show why we humans (who have lived in and around our national parts for tens of thousands of years) have always been astronomers.
The first book to make direct connections between astronomy and the landscapes, processes and cultures one experiences in the US National ParksEach chapter ties a specific astronomical phenomenon to a particular National Park or type of park and concludes with a See for yourself section that shows you how to see the planets, stars, nebulae, moons, etc. that are described within that chapterA personal guide showing the reader the astronomical phenomena that you can see for yourself when visiting the U.S. National Parks"
The first soil survey in the Philippines was done by Mr. Clarence Dorsey, an American soil scientist in the province of Batangas in 1903. "The Soils of the Philippines, "however," " is the first comprehensive summary of more than a century of soil-survey work in this country. It integrates the soil concepts of the reconnaissance soil-survey results, which commenced as early as 1934 and continued until the mid 1960s, with the semi-detailed soil surveys that continue to this day.The result is the first-ever genetic key for classifying Philippine soils at soil series level; thus, making it possible for any newcomers to the soil survey field to confidently produce their own soil map, at a more detailed map scale, to suit the project requirements.
This book brings together discussions on soils and soil mapping units and up-to-date international techniques and technologies. It makes soils relevant to current political realities and national issues. As soil survey moves from a reductionist agricultural-development planning tool to a more holistic and integrated approach, to enable us to understand our dynamic and complex environment, The Soils of the Philippines will be the only source of authoritative and updated data on soil resources for macro-level resource management planning for decades to come.
With a vanishing breed of experienced soil surveyors, not only in the Philippines but also worldwide, it may remain the only book on Philippine soils for the next hundred years or more. Since soils follow a geological and not a human time frame, the contents of this volume will stay relevant for soil surveyors even in a fast changing world.
As the country leaps from an agricultural economy towards modernization and a more diversified economic base, some of the soil series in the Philippines, for example the Guadalupe series underlying the skyscrapers of Makati City, arebecoming extinct as a result of urban development. Therefore, this book serves as the repository for the soils that we possess, the soils that have been lost through decades of urbanization while, at the same time, it creates a soil classification system for the soils we are yet to discover."
The "1st International Congress on Stratigraphy" (STRATI 2013), hold in Lisbon, 1 7 July 2013, follows the decision to internationalize the conferences previously organized by the "French Committee of Stratigraphy "(STRATI), the last one of which was held in Paris in 2010. Thus, the congress possesses both the momentum gained from an established conference event and the excitement of being the first International Congress on Stratigraphy. It is held under the auspices of the" International Commission on Stratigraphy" (IUGS) and it is envisaged that this first congress will lead to others being held in the future.
This book includes all papers accepted for oral or poster presentation at the 1st International Congress on Stratigraphy. Papers include a short abstract, main text, figures, tables and references. Each paper has been reviewed by two internationally renowned scientists."
The Landscapes and Landforms of Spain provides an informative and inviting overview of the geology and geomorphology of Spain. It incorporates a diverse range of topics, ranging from the fiery landscapes of the Canary Islands and its volcanic formations to the glacial scenery of the Pyrenees. The book devotes attention to granite landforms, karst terrains, coastal dunes and marshes, as well as to heritage and conservation, with the objective of offering the reader a comprehensive insight into the Spanish geological setting. The book presents readers with the opportunity to explore Spanish landforms in detail through its highly illustrated pages and maps, making this an appealing text on the subject field.
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