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A concise introduction to geophysical data processing - many of the techniques associated with the general field of time series analysis - for advanced students, researchers, and professionals. The textbook begins with calculus before transitioning to discrete time series via the sampling theorem, aliasing, use of complex sinusoids, development of the discrete Fourier transform from the Fourier series, and an overview of linear digital filter types and descriptions. Aimed at senior undergraduate and graduate students in geophysics, environmental science, and engineering with no previous background in linear algebra, probability, or statistics, this textbook draws scenarios and datasets from across the world of geophysics, and shows how data processing techniques can be applied to real-world problems using detailed examples, illustrations, and exercises (using MATLAB or similar computing environment). Online supplementary resources include datasets for students, and a solutions manual and all the figures from the book as PowerPoints for course instructors.
Rock physics encompasses practically all aspects of solid and fluid state physics. This book provides a unified presentation of the underlying physical principles of rock physics, covering elements of mineral physics, petrology and rock mechanics. After a short introduction on rocks and minerals, the subsequent chapters cover rock density, porosity, stress and strain relationships, permeability, poroelasticity, acoustics, conductivity, polarizability, magnetism, thermal properties and natural radioactivity. Each chapter includes problem sets and focus boxes with in-depth explanations of the physical and mathematical aspects of underlying processes. The book is also supplemented by online MATLAB exercises to help students apply their knowledge to numerically solve rock physics problems. Covering laboratory and field-based measurement methods, as well as theoretical models, this textbook is ideal for upper-level undergraduate and graduate courses in rock physics. It will also make a useful reference for researchers and professional scientists working in geoscience and petroleum engineering.
The most utilized technique for exploring the Earth's subsurface for petroleum is reflection seismology. However, a sole focus on reflection seismology often misses opportunities to integrate other geophysical techniques such as gravity, magnetic, resistivity, and other seismicity techniques, which have tended to be used in isolation and by specialist teams. There is now growing appreciation that these technologies used in combination with reflection seismology can produce more accurate images of the subsurface. This book describes how these different field techniques can be used individually and in combination with each other and with seismic reflection data. World leading experts present chapters covering different techniques and describe when, where, and how to apply them to improve petroleum exploration and production. It also explores the use of such techniques in monitoring CO2 storage reservoirs. Including case studies throughout, it will be an invaluable resource for petroleum industry professionals, advanced students, and researchers.
Volcanoes are capable of acts of pyrotechnical prowess verging on magic: they spout black magma more fluid than water, create shimmering cities of glass at the bottom of the ocean and frozen lakes of lava on the moon and can even tip entire planets over. Despite their reputation for destruction, volcanoes are inseparable from the creation of our planet. Super Volcanoes revels in the incomparable power of volcanic eruptions past and present, Earth-bound and otherwise, it explores how these eruptions reveal secrets about the worlds to which they belong. Science journalist and volcanologist Robin George Andrews describes the stunning ways in which volcanoes can sculpt the sea, land and sky, and even influence the machinery that makes or breaks the existence of life. Travelling from Hawaii, Tanzania, Yellowstone and the ocean floor to the moon, Venus and Mars, Andrews explores cutting-edge discoveries and lingering scientific mysteries surrounding these phenomenal forces of nature.
Geopressure, or pore pressure in subsurface rock formations impacts hydrocarbon resource estimation, drilling, and drilling safety in operations. This book provides a comprehensive overview of geopressure analysis bringing together rock physics, seismic technology, quantitative basin modeling and geomechanics. It provides a fundamental physical and geological basis for understanding geopressure by explaining the coupled mechanical and thermal processes. It also brings together state-of-the-art tools and technologies for analysis and detection of geopressure, along with the associated uncertainty. Prediction and detection of shallow geohazards and gas hydrates is also discussed and field examples are used to illustrate how models can be practically applied. With supplementary MATLAB (R) codes and exercises available online, this is an ideal resource for students, researchers and industry professionals in geoscience and petroleum engineering looking to understand and analyse subsurface formation pressure.
This hands-on introduction to numerical geodynamic modelling provides a solid grounding in the necessary mathematical theory and techniques, including continuum mechanics and partial differential equations, before introducing key numerical modelling methods and applications. Fully updated, this second edition includes four completely new chapters covering the most recent advances in modelling inertial processes, seismic cycles and fluid-solid interactions, and the development of adaptive mesh refinement algorithms. Many well-documented, state-of-the-art visco-elasto-plastic 2D models are presented, which allow robust modelling of key geodynamic processes. Requiring only minimal prerequisite mathematical training, and featuring over sixty practical exercises and ninety MATLAB (R) examples, this user-friendly resource encourages experimentation with geodynamic models. It is an ideal introduction for advanced courses and can be used as a self-study aid for graduates seeking to master geodynamic modelling for their own research projects.
Time-series analysis is used to identify and quantify periodic features in datasets and has many applications across the geosciences, from analysing weather data, to solid-Earth geophysical modelling. This intuitive introduction provides a practical 'how-to' guide to basic Fourier theory, with a particular focus on Earth system applications. The book starts with a discussion of statistical correlation, before introducing Fourier series and building to the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and related periodogram techniques. The theory is illustrated with numerous worked examples using R datasets, from Milankovitch orbital-forcing cycles to tidal harmonics and exoplanet orbital periods. These examples highlight the key concepts and encourage readers to investigate more advanced time-series techniques. The book concludes with a consideration of statistical effect size and significance. This useful book is ideal for graduate students and researchers in the Earth system sciences who are looking for an accessible introduction to time-series analysis.
Exploiting Seismic Waveforms introduces a range of recent developments in seismology including the application of correlation techniques, understanding of multi-scale heterogeneity and the extraction of structure and source information by seismic waveform inversion. It provides a full treatment of correlation methods for seismic noise and event signals, and develops inverse methods for both sources and structure. Higher frequency components of seismograms are frequently neglected, or removed by filtering, but they contain information about seismic structure on scales that cannot be revealed by seismic tomography. Sufficient computational resources are now available for waveform inversion for 3-D structure to be a practical procedure and this book describes suitable algorithms and examples reflecting current best practice. Intended for students and researchers in seismology, this book provides a physical understanding of seismic waveforms and the way that different aspects of the seismic wavefield are revealed by the way that seismic data are handled.
Seismic Risk Analysis of Nuclear Power Plants addresses the needs of graduate students in engineering, practicing engineers in industry, and regulators in government agencies, presenting the entire process of seismic risk analysis in a clear, logical, and concise manner. It offers a systematic and comprehensive introduction to seismic risk analysis of critical engineering structures focusing on nuclear power plants, with a balance between theory and applications, and includes the latest advances in research. It is suitable as a graduate-level textbook, for self-study, or as a reference book. Various aspects of seismic risk analysis - from seismic hazard, demand, and fragility analyses to seismic risk quantification, are discussed, with detailed step-by-step analysis of specific engineering examples. It presents a wide range of topics essential for understanding and performing seismic risk analysis, including engineering seismology, probability theory and random processes, digital signal processing, structural dynamics, random vibration, and engineering risk and reliability.
This book focuses on the specific mission planning for lunar sample collection, the equipment used, and the analysis and findings concerning the samples at the Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Texas. Anthony Young documents the collection of Apollo samples for the first time for readers of all backgrounds, and includes interviews with many of those involved in planning and analyzing the samples. NASA contracted with the U.S. Geologic Survey to perform classroom and field training of the Apollo astronauts. NASA's Geology Group within the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, Texas, helped to establish the goals of sample collection, as well as the design of sample collection tools, bags, and storage containers. In this book, detailed descriptions are given on the design of the lunar sampling tools, the Modular Experiment Transporter used on Apollo 14, and the specific areas of the Lunar Rover vehicle used for the Apollo 15, 16, and 17 missions, which carried the sampling tools, bags, and other related equipment used in sample collection. The Lunar Receiving Laboratory, which was designed and built at the Manned Spacecraft Center in Texas for analysis and storage of the lunar samples returned from the Apollo lunar landing missions is also described in detail. There are also descriptions of astronaut mission training for sample collecting, with the focus on the specific portions of the mission EVAs devoted to this activity.
Exploration seismology uses seismic imaging to form detailed images of the Earth's interior, enabling the location of likely petroleum targets. Due to the size of seismic datasets, sophisticated numerical algorithms are required. This book provides a technical guide to the essential algorithms and computational aspects of data processing, covering the theory and methods of seismic imaging. The first part introduces an extensive online library of MATLAB (R) seismic data processing codes maintained by the CREWES project at the University of Calgary. Later chapters then focus on digital signal theory and relevant aspects of wave propagation and seismic modelling, followed by deconvolution and seismic migration methods. Presenting a rigorous explanation of how to construct seismic images, it provides readers with practical tools and codes to pursue research projects and analyses. It is ideal for advanced students and researchers in applied geophysics, and for practicing exploration geoscientists in the oil and gas industry.
Glacially triggered faulting describes movement of pre-existing faults caused by a combination of tectonic and glacially induced isostatic stresses. The most impressive fault-scarps are found in northern Europe, assumed to be reactivated at the end of the deglaciation. This view has been challenged as new faults have been discovered globally with advanced techniques such as LiDAR, and fault activity dating has shown several phases of reactivation thousands of years after deglaciation ended. This book summarizes the current state-of-the-art research in glacially triggered faulting, discussing the theoretical aspects that explain the presence of glacially induced structures and reviews the geological, geophysical, geodetic and geomorphological investigation methods. Written by a team of international experts, it provides the first global overview of confirmed and proposed glacially induced faults, and provides an outline for modelling these stresses and features. It is a go-to reference for geoscientists and engineers interested in ice sheet-solid Earth interaction.
An authoritative interdisciplinary account of the historic discovery of gravitational waves In 1915, Albert Einstein predicted the existence of gravitational waves-ripples in the fabric of spacetime caused by the movement of large masses-as part of the theory of general relativity. A century later, researchers with the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) confirmed Einstein's prediction, detecting gravitational waves generated by the collision of two black holes. Shedding new light on the hundred-year history of this momentous achievement, Einstein Was Right brings together essays by two of the physicists who won the Nobel Prize for their instrumental roles in the discovery, along with contributions by leading scholars who offer unparalleled insights into one of the most significant scientific breakthroughs of our time. This illuminating book features an introduction by Tilman Sauer and invaluable firsthand perspectives on the history and significance of the LIGO consortium by physicists Barry Barish and Kip Thorne. Theoretical physicist Alessandra Buonanno discusses the new possibilities opened by gravitational wave astronomy, and sociologist of science Harry Collins and historians of science Diana Kormos Buchwald, Daniel Kennefick, and Jurgen Renn provide further insights into the history of relativity and LIGO. The book closes with a reflection by philosopher Don Howard on the significance of Einstein's theory for the philosophy of science. Edited by Jed Buchwald, Einstein Was Right is a compelling and thought-provoking account of one of the most thrilling scientific discoveries of the modern age.
This book shows the deformation characteristics of coseismic surface ruptures produced by the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake and the relationship between the Aso volcano and active faults. In particular, the rupturing mechanisms and processes involved in the seismogenic faults related to the crustal structure under the Aso volcano caldera are covered. The book is intended to help bridge the gaps between seismology, seismic disaster prevention, volcanology, seismotectonics, and geology and to encourage further studies of earthquake mechanisms and seismic faulting processes.
These proceedings contain 23 papers, which are the peer-reviewed versions of presentations made at the Joint Scientific Assembly of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) and the International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth's Interior (IASPEI). The assembly was held from 30 July to 4 August 2017 in Kobe, Japan. The scientific assembly included seven symposia organized by IAG, and nine joint symposia, along with additional symposia organized by IASPEI. The IAG symposia were structured according to the four IAG Commissions and the three GGOS Focus Areas, and included reference frames, static and time-variable gravity field, Earth rotation and geodynamics, multi-signal positioning, geodetic remote sensing, and GGOS. The joint symposia included monitoring of the cryosphere, studies of earthquakes, earthquake source processes, and other types of fault slip, geohazard warning systems, deformation of the lithosphere, and seafloor geodesy. Together, the IAG and joint symposia spanned a broad range of work in geodesy and its applications.
This book develops the theory of electromagnetic (EM) precursors to seaquakes (i.e. underwater earthquakes) and tsunamis, including the sequential stages of the transformation of a weak seismic mechanical excitation of the sea bottom into EM signals in the atmosphere. It further examines the relationship between geophysics and biophysics, using appropriate mathematical support, and a new model of the magnetic location of the epicenter of a possible land earthquake is described, as well as a block-scheme of the multidisciplinary multilevel seaquake monitoring complex. Also discussed are measured changes of brain bioelectric activity and heart functioning under the influence of moderate geomagnetic storms. Written for researchers and specialists (e.g. upper level undergraduates, postgraduates, scientists) in mathematical, computational, geophysical, biophysical, geodynamical, seismological and prognostic disciplines, this book provides multidisciplinary data and analytical tools supporting the theory and practice of seismic prognosis, promoting further understanding of novel marine and land monitoring systems.
This book provides a comprehensive overview of the evolution of one of the oldest and best-exposed Archaean cratons on this planet. There is currently a renewed interest in the early Earth, and the Kaapvaal craton has long served as a model for early crustal evolution. This unique multidisciplinary resource features information on geology, tectonics, geochemistry, and geochronology. It offers a wealth of new data on various aspects of the craton as well as contributions on the various crustal units by international specialists.
In the twenty-first century, we take the means to measure time for granted, without contemplating the sophisticated concepts on which our time scales are based. This volume presents the evolution of concepts of time and methods of time keeping up to the present day. It outlines the progression of time based on sundials, water clocks, and the Earth's rotation, to time measurement using pendulum clocks, quartz crystal clocks, and atomic frequency standards. Time scales created as a result of these improvements in technology and the development of general and special relativity are explained. This second edition has been updated throughout to describe twentieth- and twenty-first-century advances and discusses the redefinition of SI units and the future of UTC. A new chapter on time and cosmology has been added. This broad-ranging reference benefits a diverse readership, including historians, scientists, engineers, educators, and it is accessible to general readers.
This edited volume discusses scientific and technological aspects of the history of the oil and gas industry in national and international contexts. The search for oil for industrial uses began in the nineteenth century, the first drills made in Azerbaijan and the United States. This intense search for a substance to become one of the most important energy sources was, many times, based on skill as well as luck, resulting in knowledge and the development of prospecting and exploration technologies. The demand for oil improved expertise in geological science, in areas such as micropaleontology, stratigraphy or sedimentology and informed different disciplines such as geophysics. These contributions made possible not only the discovery of new oil fields but also new applications and methods of exploration. Beyond the scientific and technological aspects, an industry that grew to such considerable size also impacted the political, economic, social, cultural, environmental and diplomatic issues in history. The book approaches these changes in different scales, countries, areas, and perspectives. This edited book appeals to researchers, student, practitioners in various fields from geology and geophysics to history. It is also an important resource for professionals in the oil and gas industry.
This book serves as a guide to discovering the most interesting volcano sites in Italy. Accompanied by some extraordinary contemporary images of active Neapolitan volcanoes, it explains the main volcanic processes that have been shaping the landscape of the Campania region and influencing human settlements in this area since Greek and Roman times and that have prompted leading international scientists to visit and study this natural volcanology laboratory. While volcanology is the central topic, the book also addresses other aspects related to the area's volcanism and is divided into three sections: 1) Neapolitan volcanic activity and processes (with a general introduction to volcanology and its development around Naples together with descriptions of the landscape and the main sites worth visiting); 2) Volcanoes and their interactions with local human settlements since the Bronze Age, recent population growth and the transformation of the territory; 3) The risks posed by Neapolitan Volcanoes, their recent activity and the problem of forecasting any future eruption.
The past few decades have witnessed remarkable growth in the application of passive seismic monitoring to address a range of problems in geoscience and engineering, from large-scale tectonic studies to environmental investigations. Passive seismic methods are increasingly being used for surveillance of massive, multi-stage hydraulic fracturing and development of enhanced geothermal systems. The theoretical framework and techniques used in this emerging area draw on various established fields, such as earthquake seismology, exploration geophysics and rock mechanics. Based on university and industry courses developed by the author, this book reviews all the relevant research and technology to provide an introduction to the principles and applications of passive seismic monitoring. It integrates up-to-date case studies and interactive online exercises, making it a comprehensive and accessible resource for advanced students and researchers in geophysics and engineering, as well as industry practitioners.
This book offers readers a comprehensive overview, and an in-depth understanding, of suitable methods for quantifying and characterizing saline aquifers for the geological storage of CO2. It begins with a general overview of the methodology and the processes that take place when CO2 is injected and stored in deep saline-water-containing formations. It subsequently presents mathematical and numerical models used for predicting the consequences of CO2 injection. This book provides descriptions of relevant experimental methods, from laboratory experiments to field scale site characterization and techniques for monitoring spreading of the injected CO2 within the formation. Experiences from a number of important field injection projects are reviewed, as are those from CO2 natural analog sites. Lastly, the book presents relevant risk management methods. Geological storage of CO2 is widely considered to be a key technology capable of substantially reducing the amount of CO2 released into the atmosphere, thereby reducing the negative impacts of such releases on the global climate. Around the world, projects are already in full swing, while others are now being initiated and executed to demonstrate the technology. Deep saline formations are the geological formations considered to hold the highest storage potential, due to their abundance worldwide. To date, however, these formations have been relatively poorly characterized, due to their low economic value. Accordingly, the processes involved in injecting and storing CO2 in such formations still need to be better quantified and methods for characterizing, modeling and monitoring this type of CO2 storage in such formations must be rapidly developed and refined.
This is the first undergraduate textbook to fully integrate results from geophysics, geochemistry, and petrology to describe the structure, composition, and dynamic processes that operate throughout the solid Earth. It presents an Earth system science approach to studies of the Earth's interior and develops a global view of solid Earth cycles to explain geodynamic and plate tectonic processes. This book initially explores the formation and evolution of the early Earth, then considers the operative forces for plate tectonic movements at the Earth's surface, and finally discusses global cycles within the deep Earth and their effect on the surface environment. Interactions between the geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere, and their influence at and beneath the Earth's surface are examined in detail. This textbook thus provides a concise yet extensive coverage of the solid Earth. Written for intermediate undergraduates, it includes a wealth of features to support student learning at this level.
Perfect for senior undergraduates and first-year graduate students in geophysics, physics, mathematics, geology and engineering, this book is devoted exclusively to seismic wave theory. The result is an invaluable teaching tool, with its detailed derivations of formulas, clear explanations of topics, exercises along with selected answers, and an additional set of exercises with derived answers on the book's website. Some highlights of the text include: a review of vector calculus and Fourier transforms and an introduction to tensors, which prepare readers for the chapters to come; and a detailed discussion on computing reflection and transmission coefficients, a topic of wide interest in the field; a discussion in later chapters of plane waves in anisotropic and anelastic media, which serves as a useful introduction to these two areas of current research in geophysics. Students will learn to understand seismic wave theory through the book's clear and concise pedagogy.
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