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This informative survey chronicles the process of abstraction that
ultimately led to the axiomatic formulation of the abstract notion
of group. Hans Wussing, former Director of the Karl Sudhoff
Institute for the History of Medicine and Science at Leipzig
University, contradicts the conventional thinking that the roots of
the abstract notion of group lie strictly in the theory of
algebraic equations. Wussing declares their presence in the
geometry and number theory of the late eighteenth and early
The most effective way to study any branch of mathematics is to tackle its problems. This wide-ranging anthology offers a straightforward approach, with 431 challenging problems in all phases of group theory, from elementary to the most advanced. The problems are arranged in eleven chapters: subgroups, permutation groups, automorphisms and finitely generated Abelian groups, normal series, commutators and derived series, solvable and nilpotent groups, the group ring and monomial representations, Frattini subgroup, factorization, linear groups, and representations and characters. Each chapter features a preface of pertinent definitions and theorems, and full solutions appear in a separate section. Most of these problems are derived from research papers published since 1950 (a listing of 102 references is supplied). This compilation makes them readily accessible as a supplement to courses in group theory. The presentation places equal emphasis on techniques and results, encouraging the development of both skill and comprehension.
Excellent text approaches characters via rings (or algebras). In addition to techniques for applying characters to "pure" group theory, much of the book focuses on properties of the characters themselves and how these properties reflect and are reflected in the structure of the group. Problems follow each chapter. Prerequisite a first-year graduate algebra course. "A pleasure to read."-American Mathematical Society. 1976 edition.
How much does appearance matter in the formation of romantic relationships? Do nice guys always finish last? Does playing hard-to-get ever work? What really makes for a good chat-up line? When it comes to relationships, there's no shortage of advice from self-help 'experts', pick-up artists, and glossy magazines. But modern-day myths of attraction often have no basis in fact or - worse - are rooted in little more than misogyny. In Attraction Explained, psychologist Viren Swami debunks these myths and draws on cutting-edge research to provide a ground-breaking and evidence-based account of relationship formation. At the core of this book is a very simple idea: there are no 'laws of attraction', no foolproof methods or strategies for getting someone to date you. But this isn't to say that there's nothing to be gained from studying attraction. Based on science rather than self-help cliches, Attraction Explained looks at how factors such as geography, appearance, personality, and similarity affect who we fall for and why.
Although group theory is a mathematical subject, it is indispensable to many areas of modern theoretical physics, from atomic physics to condensed matter physics, particle physics to string theory. In particular, it is essential for an understanding of the fundamental forces. Yet until now, what has been missing is a modern, accessible, and self-contained textbook on the subject written especially for physicists. Group Theory in a Nutshell for Physicists fills this gap, providing a user-friendly and classroom-tested text that focuses on those aspects of group theory physicists most need to know. From the basic intuitive notion of a group, A. Zee takes readers all the way up to how theories based on gauge groups could unify three of the four fundamental forces. He also includes a concise review of the linear algebra needed for group theory, making the book ideal for self-study. * Provides physicists with a modern and accessible introduction to group theory* Covers applications to various areas of physics, including field theory, particle physics, relativity, and much more* Topics include finite group and character tables; real, pseudoreal, and complex representations; Weyl, Dirac, and Majorana equations; the expanding universe and group theory; grand unification; and much more* The essential textbook for students and an invaluable resource for researchers* Features a brief, self-contained treatment of linear algebra* An online illustration package is available to professors* Solutions manual (available only to professors)
Aimed toward graduate students and research mathematicians, with minimal prerequisites this book provides a fresh take on Alexandrov geometry and explains the importance of CAT(0) geometry in geometric group theory. Beginning with an overview of fundamentals, definitions, and conventions, this book quickly moves forward to discuss the Reshetnyak gluing theorem and applies it to the billiards problems. The Hadamard-Cartan globalization theorem is explored and applied to construct exotic aspherical manifolds.
Every four years leading researchers gather to survey the latest developments in all aspects of group theory. Initially held in St Andrews, these meetings have become the premier forum for group theory across the whole of the UK. Since 1981, the proceedings of 'Groups St Andrews' have provided a regular snapshot of the state-of-the-art in group theory and helped to shape the direction of research in the field. This volume contains papers from the 2017 meeting held in Birmingham. It includes expository articles from the invited speakers, and further surveys contributed by the participants. Topics include: generation of finite simple groups, block theory, fusion systems, algebraic groups, one-relator groups, geometric group theory, and Beauville groups.
Every four years, leading researchers gather to survey the latest developments in all aspects of group theory. Since 1981, the proceedings of those meetings have provided a regular snapshot of the state of the art in group theory and helped to shape the direction of research in the field. This volume contains selected papers from the 2013 meeting held in St Andrews. It begins with major articles from each of the four main speakers: Emmanuel Breuillard (Paris-Sud), Martin Liebeck (Imperial College London), Alan Reid (Texas) and Karen Vogtmann (Cornell). These are followed by, in alphabetical order, survey articles contributed by other conference participants, which cover a wide spectrum of modern group theory.
This volume is based on the presentations and discussions of a national symposium on "Couples in Conflict" that focused on family issues. A common thread throughout is that constructive conflict and negotiation are beneficial for relationships. Together, the chapters provide a foundation for thinking about creative ways in which our society can work to prevent or minimize destructive couple conflict and to enhance couples' abilities to constructively handle their differences. Divided into four parts, this book: *addresses the societal and bioevolutionary underpinnings of couple conflict; *presents the interpersonal roots of couple conflict and the consequences for individuals and couples; *discusses what effects couple conflict have on children and how individual differences in children moderate these effects; and *outlines the issue of policies and programs that address couple conflict. This book concludes with an essay that pulls these four themes together and points to new directions for research and program efforts.
Fourier analysis aims to decompose functions into a superposition of simple trigonometric functions, whose special features can be exploited to isolate specific components into manageable clusters before reassembling the pieces. This two-volume text presents a largely self-contained treatment, comprising not just the major theoretical aspects (Part I) but also exploring links to other areas of mathematics and applications to science and technology (Part II). Following the historical and conceptual genesis, this book (Part I) provides overviews of basic measure theory and functional analysis, with added insight into complex analysis and the theory of distributions. The material is intended for both beginning and advanced graduate students with a thorough knowledge of advanced calculus and linear algebra. Historical notes are provided and topics are illustrated at every stage by examples and exercises, with separate hints and solutions, thus making the exposition useful both as a course textbook and for individual study.
Complex Lie groups have often been used as auxiliaries in the study of real Lie groups in areas such as differential geometry and representation theory. To date, however, no book has fully explored and developed their structural aspects.
This book collects important results concerning the classification and properties of nilpotent orbits in a Lie algebra. It develops the Dynkin-Kostant and Bala-Carter classifications of complex nilpotent orbits and derives the Lusztig-Spaltenstein theory of induction of nilpotent orbits.
Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Trends in Semigroup Theory and Evolution Equations held Sept. 1989, Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands. Papers deal with recent developments in semigroup theory (e.g., positive, dual, integrated), and nonlinear evolution equations (e
In the 1800s mathematicians introduced a formal theory of symmetry: group theory. Now a branch of abstract algebra, this subject first arose in the theory of equations. Symmetry is an immensely important concept in mathematics and throughout the sciences, and its applications range across the entire subject. Symmetry governs the structure of crystals, innumerable types of pattern formation, how systems change their state as parameters vary; and fundamental physics is governed by symmetries in the laws of nature. It is highly visual, with applications that include animal markings, locomotion, evolutionary biology, elastic buckling, waves, the shape of the Earth, and the form of galaxies. In this Very Short Introduction, Ian Stewart demonstrates its deep implications, and shows how it plays a major role in the current search to unify relativity and quantum theory. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
MATRIX is Australia's international, residential mathematical research institute. It facilitates new collaborations and mathematical advances through intensive residential research programs, each lasting 1-4 weeks. This book is a scientific record of the five programs held at MATRIX in its first year, 2016: - Higher Structures in Geometry and Physics - Winter of Disconnectedness - Approximation and Optimisation - Refining C*-Algebraic Invariants for Dynamics using KK-theory - Interactions between Topological Recursion, Modularity, Quantum Invariants and Low- dimensional Topology The MATRIX Scientific Committee selected these programs based on their scientific excellence and the participation rate of high-profile international participants. Each program included ample unstructured time to encourage collaborative research; some of the longer programs also included an embedded conference or lecture series. The articles are grouped into peer-reviewed contributions and other contributions. The peer-reviewed articles present original results or reviews on selected topics related to the MATRIX program; the remaining contributions are predominantly lecture notes based on talks or activities at MATRIX.
Fascinating connections exist between group theory and automata theory, and a wide variety of them are discussed in this text. Automata can be used in group theory to encode complexity, to represent aspects of underlying geometry on a space on which a group acts, and to provide efficient algorithms for practical computation. There are also many applications in geometric group theory. The authors provide background material in each of these related areas, as well as exploring the connections along a number of strands that lead to the forefront of current research in geometric group theory. Examples studied in detail include hyperbolic groups, Euclidean groups, braid groups, Coxeter groups, Artin groups, and automata groups such as the Grigorchuk group. This book will be a convenient reference point for established mathematicians who need to understand background material for applications, and can serve as a textbook for research students in (geometric) group theory.
This book presents exercises and problems in the mathematical methods of physics with the aim of offering undergraduate students an alternative way to explore and fully understand the mathematical notions on which modern physics is based. The exercises and problems are proposed not in a random order but rather in a sequence that maximizes their educational value. Each section and subsection starts with exercises based on first definitions, followed by groups of problems devoted to intermediate and, subsequently, more elaborate situations. Some of the problems are unavoidably "routine", but others bring to the fore nontrivial properties that are often omitted or barely mentioned in textbooks. There are also problems where the reader is guided to obtain important results that are usually stated in textbooks without complete proofs. In all, some 350 solved problems covering all mathematical notions useful to physics are included. While the book is intended primarily for undergraduate students of physics, students of mathematics, chemistry, and engineering, as well as their teachers, will also find it of value.
2020 has been the year of the virus, and it will not be a mere footnote in history. This book reflects on the unprecedented changes to our lives and the impact on our behaviour as we lived through social isolation during the global COVID-19 pandemic. From sociable creatures of habit, we were forced into a period of uncertainty, restriction and risk, physically separated from families and friends. Packed with guidance and coping strategies for lockdown, this book, authored by top psychologist David Cohen, explores the impact of this wide-spread quarantine on our relationships, our children, our mental health and our daily lives. Benedictine monks, hermit popes, Dorothy Sayers, Daniel Defoe (who made the isolated Robinson Crusoe a hero), Sigmund Freud and a rabbi's angry dog are all among the cast of characters as we are taken on a whistle-stop tour through plagues in history and brain science, to the importance of introspection and how to make meaning from lockdown. In his trademark entertaining style, Cohen examines the psychology behind our behaviour during this unusual time to discover what we can learn about human nature, what lessons we can learn for the future, and whether we will.
This volume is to be regarded as the fifth in the series of Harish-Chandra's collected papers, continuing the four volumes already published by Springer-Verlag. Because of manifold illnesses in the last ten years of his life, a large part of Harish-Chandra's work remained unpublished. The present volume deals with those unpublished manuscripts involving real groups, and includes only those pertaining to the theorems which Harish-Chandra had announced without proofs. An attempt has been made by the volume editors to bring out this material in a more coherent form than in the handwritten manuscripts, although nothing essentially new has been added and editorial comments are kept to a minimum. The papers deal with several topics: characters on non-connected real groups, Fourier transforms of orbital integrals, Whittaker theory, and supertempered characters. The generality of Harish-Chandra's results in these papers far exceeds anything in print. The volume will be of great interest to all mathematicians interested in Lie groups, and all who have an interest in the opus of a twentieth century giant. Harish-Chandra was a great mathematician, perhaps one of the greatest of the second half of the twentieth century.
This open access book provides an extensive treatment of Hardy inequalities and closely related topics from the point of view of Folland and Stein's homogeneous (Lie) groups. The place where Hardy inequalities and homogeneous groups meet is a beautiful area of mathematics with links to many other subjects. While describing the general theory of Hardy, Rellich, Caffarelli-Kohn-Nirenberg, Sobolev, and other inequalities in the setting of general homogeneous groups, the authors pay particular attention to the special class of stratified groups. In this environment, the theory of Hardy inequalities becomes intricately intertwined with the properties of sub-Laplacians and subelliptic partial differential equations. These topics constitute the core of this book and they are complemented by additional, closely related topics such as uncertainty principles, function spaces on homogeneous groups, the potential theory for stratified groups, and the potential theory for general Hoermander's sums of squares and their fundamental solutions. This monograph is the winner of the 2018 Ferran Sunyer i Balaguer Prize, a prestigious award for books of expository nature presenting the latest developments in an active area of research in mathematics. As can be attested as the winner of such an award, it is a vital contribution to literature of analysis not only because it presents a detailed account of the recent developments in the field, but also because the book is accessible to anyone with a basic level of understanding of analysis. Undergraduate and graduate students as well as researchers from any field of mathematical and physical sciences related to analysis involving functional inequalities or analysis of homogeneous groups will find the text beneficial to deepen their understanding.
The seminar focuses on a recent solution, by the authors, of a long standing problem concerning the stable module category (of not necessarily finite dimensional representations) of a finite group. The proof draws on ideas from commutative algebra, cohomology of groups, and stable homotopy theory. The unifying theme is a notion of support which provides a geometric approach for studying various algebraic structures. The prototype for this has been Daniel Quillen's description of the algebraic variety corresponding to the cohomology ring of a finite group, based on which Jon Carlson introduced support varieties for modular representations. This has made it possible to apply methods of algebraic geometry to obtain representation theoretic information. Their work has inspired the development of analogous theories in various contexts, notably modules over commutative complete intersection rings and over cocommutative Hopf algebras. One of the threads in this development has been the classification of thick or localizing subcategories of various triangulated categories of representations. This story started with Mike Hopkins' classification of thick subcategories of the perfect complexes over a commutative Noetherian ring, followed by a classification of localizing subcategories of its full derived category, due to Amnon Neeman. The authors have been developing an approach to address such classification problems, based on a construction of local cohomology functors and support for triangulated categories with ring of operators. The book serves as an introduction to this circle of ideas.
Over the last forty years, David Vogan has left an indelible imprint on the representation theory of reductive groups. His groundbreaking ideas have lead to deep advances in the theory of real and p-adic groups, and have forged lasting connections with other subjects, including number theory, automorphic forms, algebraic geometry, and combinatorics. Representations of Reductive Groups is an outgrowth of the conference of the same name, dedicated to David Vogan on his 60th birthday, which took place at MIT on May 19-23, 2014. This volume highlights the depth and breadth of Vogan's influence over the subjects mentioned above, and point to many exciting new directions that remain to be explored. Notably, the first article by McGovern and Trapa offers an overview of Vogan's body of work, placing his ideas in a historical context. Contributors: Pramod N. Achar, Jeffrey D. Adams, Dan Barbasch, Manjul Bhargava, Cedric Bonnafe, Dan Ciubotaru, Meinolf Geck, William Graham, Benedict H. Gross, Xuhua He, Jing-Song Huang, Toshiyuki Kobayashi, Bertram Kostant, Wenjing Li, George Lusztig, Eric Marberg, William M. McGovern, Wilfried Schmid, Kari Vilonen, Diana Shelstad, Peter E. Trapa, David A. Vogan, Jr., Nolan R. Wallach, Xiaoheng Wang, Geordie Williamson
This is an in-depth report on the endotrivial modules, an important class of modular representations for finite groups. Following the historical development of the theory, the book starts with a review of the necessary definitions and some key examples. The main results obtained using traditional techniques are then presented, followed by more recent results such as the work of Grodal inspired by algebraic topology. In the last part of the book original methods are applied to obtain the group of endotrivial modules for certain very important groups. An accessible reference collecting half a century of research on endotrivial modules, this book will be of interest to researchers in algebra.
This study of graded rings includes the first systematic account of the graded Grothendieck group, a powerful and crucial invariant in algebra which has recently been adopted to classify the Leavitt path algebras. The book begins with a concise introduction to the theory of graded rings and then focuses in more detail on Grothendieck groups, Morita theory, Picard groups and K-theory. The author extends known results in the ungraded case to the graded setting and gathers together important results which are currently scattered throughout the literature. The book is suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, as well as researchers in ring theory.
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