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This book aims to be a guide to the practice of blood conservation. The first chapter discusses the legal and administrative aspects of bloodless medicine describing the legal principles and practical issues relatd to refusal of transfusion. The second is on balancing the risks and benefits of transfusion includes clinical vignettes of appropriate and inappropriate transfusion. The remainder of the book covers the principles and practice of bloodless medicine, including a chapter on the scientific issues of haemostasis and the investigation of bleeding idsorders. The book concludes with chapters on blood conservation in neonatal and paediatric surgery, the costs associated with blood transfusion and the quest for artifical blood. New chapters will be included to address blood utilization in oncology and geriatric patients.
Presents an up-to-date treatment of research strategies, clinical and commercial developments, and regulatory and economic issues pertaining to the formulation of effective and safe red blood cell substitutes. The text examines regulatory and socioeconomic aspects of blood substitute products, and global tranfusion practices from the perspective of blood banks and the US Food and Drug Administrations. It also includes the mechanisms of action and consequences of blood substitute administration.
A Flexibook for both the specialist and non-specialist, the new book offers accessible information on hematology in a succinct format. In addition to providing basic methodology, the book utilizes more than 260 color illustrations to detail the most up-to-date clinical procedures. Numerous tables and flow charts are included to assist in differential diagnosis, making this a valuable didactic reference for nurses, practicing physicians and residents preparing for board examinations.
This issue of Hematology/Oncology Clinics, Guest Edited by Dr. Jonathan W. Friedberg, is devoted to Follicular Lymphoma. This issue is one of six selected each year by our series Consulting Editors, George P. Canellos and Edward J. Benz. Articles in this important issue include: Epidemiology of Follicular Lymphoma, Pathogenesis of Follicular Lymphoma, Circulating tumor DNA and MRD assessment in Follicular Lymphoma, Clinical and biological prognostic factors in Follicular Lymphoma, Vitamin D and Follicular Lymphoma, Initial Treatment of Early Stage and Low Tumor Burden Follicular Lymphoma, Initial Treatment of High Tumor Burden Follicular Lymphoma, Maintenance Antibody Therapy of Follicular Lymphoma, Cellular Therapy in Follicular Lymphoma, Immunomodulatory Agents in Follicular Lymphoma, Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Inhibition in Follicular Lymphoma, Novel Agents Beyond Immunomodulatory Imide Drugs and Phosphoinositide 3-Kinases for Follicular Lymphoma, Early progression of Follicular Lymphoma, Biological Basis of Histological Transformation, and Treatment of Histological Transformation.
Neutrophil granulocytes are the primary defense cells of blood against bacteria, fungi, parasites, or thrombi. Their main weapons and signals are reactive oxygen species (ROS) that release photons. The activation of the assembly of their NADPH-oxidase, the few specific triggers and many specific or unspecific primers are of great physiological and pathophysiological importance in inflammation and in hemostasis. The neutrophils generate different types of photons and they can "see" them. The 300400 nm photons are the main signals and the photons of lowest wave length which seem to especially alert them in emergency. The present book presents research on the regulation of the neutrophil's ROS generation by different photons, by singlet oxygen (the excited "pro-drug" of photons), by important proteins, or by modulators of the eicosanoid metabolism that should not favor the generation of systemically circulating micro-thrombi.
This book provides a review of imaging techniques and applications in stem cell transplantation and other cell-based therapies. The basis of different molecular imaging techniques is explained in detail, as is the current state of interventional radiology techniques. While the whole is a comprehensive discussion, each chapter is self-sufficient enough so that each can be reviewed independently. The contributors represent years of international and cross-disciplinary expertise and perspective and are all well known in their fields. comprehensive information on the role of clinical and molecular imaging in stem cell therapy from this book reviewed in detail. Essential reading for radiologists and physicians who are interested in developing a basic understanding of stem cell imaging and applications of stem cells and cell based therapies. However, it will also be of interest to clinical scientists and researchers alike, including those involved in stem cell labeling, tracking & imaging, cancer therapy, angiogenesis and cardiac regeneration.
Soft tissue tumors are a large and heterogeneous group of tumors and pseudotumors with a spectrum of behavior from benign to frankly malignant. This Atlas of Soft Tissue Tumor Pathology provides an overview of reactive, pseudoneoplastic, benign and intermediate neoplasms, sarcomas and related conditions arising in subcutaneous and deep soft tissues. Emphasis is placed on microscopic appearances with correlation with gross diagnostic findings where relevant. In addition, the immunohistochemical and molecular genetic features of the major soft tissue tumor subtypes are presented. This compendium of soft tissue tumors illustrates the vast majority of diseases you are likely to encounter in surgical pathology.
This issue of Hematology/Oncology Clinics, guest edited by David P. Steensma, will cover key topics in Myelodysplastic Syndromes. This issue is one of six selected each year by our series consulting editors, George P. Canellos and Edward J. Benz. Topics discussed in this issue will include: Novel prognostic models for MDS, Evaluating MDS patients with genetic mutations that might be germline, Implications of splicing mutations in MDS for pathophysiology and therapy, Assessing quality of life in MDS/MPN overlap patients, Creation of a clinic for patients with clonal hematopoiesis, Luspatercept in MDS, Prospects for venetoclax in MDS, Treatment of acquired sideroblastic anemias, Treatment of patients with AML arising from MDS, Targeting TP53 mutations in MDS, among others.
Structured to be a companion to the recently published Handbook of
Transfusion Medicine, the Handbook of Pediatric Transfusion
Medicine is dedicated to pediatric hematology-oncology and
transfusion medicine, a field which remains ambiguous and which has
generated few comprehensive texts. This book stands alone as one of
the few texts that addresses transfusion issues specific to
pediatric medicine. Written in an eminently readable style, this
authoritative handbook is a requirement for any pediatric physician
The subject matter of volume 2 of the 2-volumes-handbook focusses especially on rare sarcomas of the whole female genitalia. These entities include angiosarcoma, the different lipo- and rhabdomyosarcoma as well as newer entities like the PEComa. Furthermore, mixed mullerian tumors like the benign adenofibroma and the malignant adenosarcoma and carcinosarcoma are described in detail. The book provides a description at length of the epidemiology, etiology, pathological anatomy, prognosis, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, imaging and comprehensive therapy of each primary, relapsed, and metastasized tumor including surgery, chemo-, hormone- and radio- and targeted therapy. An own chapter is devoted to the problems of fertility and pregnancy in connection with all sarcomas, variants of leiomyoma, atypical smooth muscle tumors, disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis, benign metastasizing leiomyoma, intravenous leiomyomatosis and endometrial stromal tumors - endometrial stromal nodules, endometrial stromal tumor with sex cord-like elements (ESTSCLE), uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex-cord tumor (UTROSCT) -and all mixed tumors - of the female genitalia. The book aims to identify and provide diagnostic and therapeutic guidance. The listed tumor entities also constitute a particular diagnostic challenge for pathologists that contains numerous pitfalls and difficulties. This book, therefore, addresses gynecologists and pathologists in both clinical and private practice, but also surgeons and hemato-oncologists.
Serves as a comprehensive and up-to-date compendium on the biology, diagnosis, and treatment of childhood leukemia Focuses especially on genomic approaches to risk stratification and the use of risk-adjusted treatment approaches Includes detailed discussion of promising targeted agents and strategies for the development of new agents Will prove invaluable to specialists, generalists and trainees alike. This book is a comprehensive and up-to-date compendium on all aspects of childhood acute lymphoblastic and acute myeloid leukemia, which together constitute the most frequent cancer in the pediatric age group. After introductory chapters on the epidemiology and biology of pediatric leukemia, treatment considerations are extensively reviewed, with emphasis on the use of risk-adjusted treatment approaches. Promising targeted agents are discussed, and strategies for the development of new agents are appraised. The late effects of leukemia and its therapy are then considered in depth, with due attention to management of the psychosocial impact of the disease. Finally, global strategies to improve leukemia care and outcome are reviewed, and future directions discussed. The authors are internationally recognized experts and offer a largely evidence-based consensus on etiology, biology, and treatment. This handbook has far-reaching applicability to the clinical diagnosis and management of pediatric leukemia and will prove invaluable to specialists, generalists, and trainees alike.
Selected as a Doody's Core Title for 2021! Bridging the gap between science and clinical practice, The Bethesda Handbook of Clinical Hematology, Fourth Edition , provides concise, up-to-date coverage of "need to know" information on the diagnosis and treatment of blood and bone marrow disorders. Written by nationally recognized experts and senior fellows at the National Institutes of Health, and at leading research institutions throughout the United States, this essential pocket reference is logically organized by disease category and features a reader-friendly format that includes tables, algorithms, illustrations, and bulleted lists that highlight key information. Discusses the pathophysiology, natural history, risk factors, diagnosis, management, and follow-up of common hematological diseases. Contains new information on diagnosis, treatment and management of myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative disorders; leukemias and lymphomas; disorders of hemostasis and thrombosis. Features new diagnostic and treatment strategies, updated references, and revised information throughout. Ideal for the student, resident, or fellow on a hematology or oncology service, as well as the internist, hospitalist, family practitioner, and pediatrician who sees patients with blood diseases. Perfect as an everyday reference or for board review. Enrich Your eBook Reading Experience with Enhanced Video, Audio and Interactive Capabilities! Read directly on your preferred device(s ), such as computer, tablet, or smartphone Easily convert to audiobook , powering your content with natural language text-to-speech Adapt for unique reading needs , supporting learning disabilities, visual/auditory impairments, second-language or literacy challenges, and more
Transfusion Update covers a broad range of topics concerning blood banks and transfusion, including collection and storage, testing and transfusing blood components, and cellular therapies. Comprised of four sections, divided into 81 chapters, the book begins with a section on clinical haemotherapy, which incorporates transfusion in medicine, surgery, maternal foetal and neonatal practice, massive transfusion, platelet therapy and apheresis. Other subsections include information on chronically transfused patients, and intervention bleeding patients. The second section provides information on cellular therapies, including stem cell therapy for a variety of diseases. The third section on blood safety covers important topics such as improving blood donor screening, bacterial detection in blood components, discarding of blood and blood components, and adverse transfusion reactions. The final miscellaneous section includes ethical issues and recent advances in the field of blood transfusion such as gel based technology. Transfusion Update features the latest in evidence-based transfusion medicine, enhanced by 70 illustrations, images and tables throughout. Key Points Comprehensive coverage of topics in transfusion medicine Up-to-date guidance on transfusion procedures, cellular therapies, safety, and discussion on future technologies 70 images, illustrations and tables
As the science and practice of haematology continues to advance at a considerable rate, Haematology Lecture Notes remains a comprehensive guide to this diverse subject, and provides support in understanding the pathogenesis and management of haematological disorders. Successfully integrating the physiological, pathological, and clinical aspects of haematology, this new edition includes new material on molecular and cellular diagnostics, expanded coverage on haemostasis, malignant haematology and transplant, and features self-assessment questions at the end of each chapter. Thoroughly revised and updated, Haematology Lecture Notes provides the core subject knowledge required by students and junior doctors to excel in this specialty.
Coagulopathy (also called clotting disorder and bleeding disorder) is a condition in which the blood's ability to clot (coagulate) is impaired. Acquired hemophilia is a rare disorder characterized by spontaneous bleeding in a patient with no previous personal or family hemorrhagic history. The first chapter explores the challenges associated with this disease, its unfamiliarity often causing a delay in diagnosis and therapeutic approaches. The second chapter focuses on lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB) in children, describing the epidemiology, etiology and clinical management. The third chapter reviews the pathogenesis, risk factors and treatment strategies of coagulopathy in patients with craniocerebral injury. The next article examines Vitamin B12 with its four cobalamin vitamers, which often play a role in coagulation. The next chapter starts with a description of the methodology of viscoelastic hemostatic assay, followed by a review of literature on the utilization of thrombelastography (TEG) or rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM). Finally, the role of TEG and ROTEM to monitor or guide prophylaxis/treatment of thromboembolic events and the limitations of using them to detect hypercoagulability and identify patients with increased risks for thromboembolic complications are discussed. The final chapter of this book focuses on the use of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) in patients who are not actively bleeding, critically questions these assumptions in the context of pre-procedural administration of FFP, and also examines why carrying out high quality trails in this area has been so problematic.
Fanconi Anemia (FA), a rare genetic disease featuring excess cancer risk and chromosomal instability, has received growing interest after the discovery that one of the defective genes in FA is associated with high-impact diseases such as familial breast cancer and ovary cancers. A well-documented relationship has accumulated in several decades and up to recently, studies have linked FA with a redox imbalance (oxidative stress, OS) in FA cells. The toxicity mechanisms of crosslinking agents (mitomycin C and diepoxybutane) in FA cells, along with the roles of OS-related aldehydes and glutathione in FA and in other diseases, are critically discussed. Also discussed is the proinflammatory state in FA phenotype. Additionally, recent studies have discovered an impairment in the structure and function of mitochondria in FA cell lines, while mitochondrial dysfunction in FA patients has so far been an unexplored field warranting ad hoc investigations. This book provides the readers with up-to-date information and perspectives on Fanconi anemia and oxidative stress that may prompt further elucidation of this intriguing disease, along with working hypotheses in clinical research and patients' management.
This book provides clinical practitioners and the research community with detailed information on the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, taking into account the significant growth in knowledge including multiple therapeutic advances that have been achieved over the past 5-10 years. The work is subdivided into epidemiology, pathogenesis, pathology, imaging, and therapy of the non-Hodgkin lymphomas. The full range of therapeutic options are examined according to the major subtypes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and the most up-to-date information is provided on current standard treatment options, including stem cell transplantation as well as new cutting-edge therapeutics.
The blood system is multi-scale, from the organism to the organs to cells to intracellular signaling pathways to macromolecule interactions. Blood consists of circulating cells, cellular fragments (platelets and microparticles), and plasma macromolecules. Blood cells and their fragments result from a highly-ordered process, hematopoiesis. Definitive hematopoiesis occurs in the bone marrow, where pluripotential stem cells give rise to multiple lineages of highly specialized cells. Highly-productive and continuously regenerative, hematopoiesis requires a microenvironment of mesenchymal cells and blood vessels. A Systems Biology Approach to Blood is divided into three main sections: basic components, physiological processes, and clinical applications. Using blood as a window, one can study health and disease through this unique tool box with reactive biological fluids that mirrors the prevailing hemodynamics of the vessel walls and the various blood cell types. Many blood diseases, rare and common can and have been exploited using systems biology approaches with successful results and therefore ideal models for systems medicine. More importantly, hematopoiesis offers one of the best studied systems with insight into stem cell biology, cellular interaction, development; linage programing and reprograming that are every day influenced by the most mature and understood regulatory networks.
Adolescent females experience a variety of blood disorders that are often unique to this patient population. As they go through puberty, they are uniquely poised to encounter various bleeding and thrombotic disorders once they attain menarche, start to have menstrual bleeding, and require hormonal therapy. This may in turn lead to other medical conditions, such as anemia and iron deficiency. Pregnancy encountered by some adolescents can pose hematologic challenges specifically in regards to bleeding and thrombotic disorders. In addition, adolescent females are at risk to develop immune mediated hematologic disorders, such as immune thrombocytopenia, auto-immune hemolytic anemia, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, as well as vitamin deficiencies due to pernicious anemia. Sickle cell disease, thalassemia and bone marrow failure disorders in the adolescent female poses unique challenges that need to be addressed with special care and attention. Knowledge about these various blood disorders in adolescent females is crucial for the treating physician in order to accurately diagnose and optimally manage these teenagers. Otherwise, it can affect their overall health, causing hematologic and gynecologic issues, poor quality of life, neurocognitive impairments, and poor psycho-social development, all of which can lead to various complications immediately and into adulthood. This book provides a comprehensive, state-of-the art overview of blood disorders in female adolescents. The text presents new data about bleeding disorders that affect the female adolescent, including bleeding disorders, thromboembolism, thrombophilia, anemia, sickle cell disease and thalassemia, disorders od hemostasis and thrombosis in pregnancy, immune hematology and bone marrow failure disorders; reviews our current understanding of these disorders; outlines recent research findings; and spotlights multi-disciplinary approaches, evaluation and treatment modalities to combat these blood disorders. Written by experts in the field, Hematology in the Adolescent Female is a valuable resource for clinicians and practitioners who treat and manage female adolescents with blood disorders.
This book provides a comprehensive overview of benign hematologic disorders in children. Divided into nine sections, the text reviews common hematologic disorders or conditions that affect children, while providing state-of-the-art information on pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and management strategies. The text begins with a section on hematopoiesis, and the next section covers red blood cell disorders. The following sections provide overviews of platelet disorders, white blood cell disorders, and coagulation disorders. The sixth and seventh sections discuss neonatal hematology and bone marrow failure syndrome. The eighth section reviews supportive care, while the final section covers miscellaneous subjects including pediatric vascular anomalies and complement dysregulation syndromes. Written by experts in the field, Benign Hematologic Disorders in Children: A Clinical Guide is a valuable resource for clinicians and practitioners who treat children afflicted with these disorders.
Angiogenesis -- the growth of new blood vessels -- is an important natural process occurring in the body, both for health and as related to disease. Angiogenesis occurs in the healthy body to help heal wounds and to help restore blood flow to tissues after injury or insult. In females, Angiogenesis also occurs during the monthly reproductive cycle (to rebuild the uterus lining, to mature the egg during ovulation) and during pregnancy (to build the placenta, the circulation between mother and foetus). The healthy body controls Angiogenesis through a series of 'on' and 'off' switches. The main 'on' switches are known as Angiogenesis-stimulating growth factors. The main 'off' switches are known as Angiogenesis inhibitors. When angiogenic growth factors are produced in excess of angiogenesis inhibitors the balance is tipped in favour of blood vessel growth. When inhibitors are present in excess of stimulators, angiogenesis is stopped. The normal, healthy body maintains a perfect balance of angiogenesis modulators. In general, angiogenesis is 'turned off' by the production of more inhibitors than stimulators. Tumour angiogenesis is the proliferation of a network of blood vessels that penetrates into cancerous growths, supplying nutrients and oxygen and removing waste products. Tumour angiogenesis actually starts with cancerous tumour cells releasing molecules that send signals to surrounding normal host tissue. This signalling activates certain genes in the host tissue that, in turn, cause proteins to encourage growth of new blood vessels. This new book examines its angiogenesis within the context of theory and its applications to cancer treatment.
This is a comprehensive, state-of-the-art guide to the diagnosis, treatment, and biology of multiple myeloma and related plasma disorders. Edited and written by a multidisciplinary group of recognized authorities from the Mayo Clinic, it presents clear guidelines on diagnosis and therapy and covers all aspects of multiple myeloma, from molecular classification and diagnosis, to risk stratification and therapy. Closely related plasma cell disorders such as solitary plasmacytoma, Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia, and light chain amyloidosis are discussed in detail as well. The book addresses often overlooked topics, including the role of radiation therapy, vertebral augmentation, and supportive care. Our understanding of this group of disorders is developing at an unprecedented rate, and Multiple Myeloma meets the need among oncologists and hematologists for a clear, timely, and authoritative resource on their biology, diagnosis, and treatment.
ICMR-NIIH Practical Guide to Laboratory Immunohematology is intended for a wide range of academicians who work in the area of life sciences, i.e. scientists, laboratory personnel, undergraduates, graduates, postgraduates, clinicians, and professors alike, as a reference manual. The book deals with both laboratory and genetic diagnostic protocols on a wide range of subjects in the area of immunohematology ranging from hemoglobinopathies, hemostasis and thrombosis, cytogenetics, transfusion medicine and transfusion transmitted disorders, autoimmune disorders, and primary immunodeficiencies. The unique feature of the book is its potential utility for both laboratory and genetic diagnosis along with theoretical information in each of these areas which is mainly directed to students to get basic information about the topics.The authors also have added the protocols of several in-house, costeffective techniques as also the modifications of basic techniques established in the laboratory over the last several years which are published in various national and international journals. In short, the book provides extremely useful information on a unique combination of disorders in the area of Immunohematology. A comprehensive practical laboratory guide for both medical and paramedical practitioners. Comprehensive coverage of laboratory techniques of a wide range of immunohematology disorders. Genetic diagnosis of monogenic and multigenic disorders with special emphasis on carrier diagnosis and antenatal diagnosis. Step-by-step procedures and readily reproducible techniques. Diagnostic algorithms for complex disorders with multiple etiologies like primary immunodeficiencies, hemoglobinopathies, and disorders of hemostasis. Simplified in-house techniques, quality control exercises, and notes on troubleshooting. Classical and unusual case illustrations.
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