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This work highlights contemporary approaches to resource utilization and provides comprehensive coverage of technological advances in residuum conversion. It illustrates state-of-the-art engineering methods for the refinement of heavy oils, bitumen, and other high-sulphur feedstocks.
Foreword: - It is surprising that we had to wait so long for a new book that gives a comprehensive treatment of chlor-alkali manufacturing technology. Technologists are largely still making do with the classical book edited by Sconce, but that is more than thirty years old. At the time of its publication, metal anodes were just beginning to appear, and ion-exchange membrane technology was confined to laboratories. The various encyclopedias of industrial technology have more up-to-date information, but they are necessarily limited in their scope. Schmittinger recently provided an excellent shorter treatment of the broad field of chlorine technology and applications. After discussing electrolysis and the principal types of cell, this, too, gives rather brief coverage to brine and product processing. It then follows on with descriptions of the major derivatives and direct uses of chlorine and a discussion of environmental issues. The last feature named above has relieved the authors of this work of the obligation to cover applications in any detail. Instead, they provide a concentrated treatment of all aspects of technology and handling directly related to the products of electrolysis. It covers the field from a history of the industry, through the fundamentals of thermodynamics and electrochemistry, to the treatment and disposal of the waste products of manufacture. Membrane cells are considered the state of the art, but the book does not ignore mercury and diaphragm cells. They are considered both from a historical perspective and as examples of current technology that is still evolving and improving. Dear to the heart of a director of Euro Chlor, the book also pays special attention to safe handling of the products, the obligations of Responsible Care(r), and process safety management. Other major topics include corrosion, membranes, electrolyzer design, brine preparation and treatment, and the design and operation of processing facilities. Perhaps uniquely, the book also includes a chapter on plant commissioning. The coverage of membranes is both fundamental and applied. The underlying transport processes and practical experience with existing types of membrane both are covered. The same is true of electrolyzer design. The book explores the basic electrode processes and the fundamentals of current distribution in electrolyzers as well as the characteristics of the leading cell designs. The authors have chosen to treat the critical subject of brine treatment in two separate chapters. The chapter on brine production and treatment first covers the sources of salt and the techniques used to prepare brine. It then explains the mechanisms by which brine impurities affect cell performance and outlines the processes by which they can be removed or controlled. While pointing out the lack of fundamental science in much of the process, it describes the various unit operations phenomenologically and discusses methods for sizing equipment and choosing materials of construction. The chapter on processing and handling of products is similarly comprehensive. Again, it is good to see that the authors have included a lengthy discussion of safe methods and facilities for the handling of the products, particularly liquid chlorine. While the discussion of the various processing steps includes the topic of process control, there is also a separate chapter on instrumentation which is more hardware-oriented. Other chapters deal with utility systems, cell room design and arrangement (with an emphasis on direct current supply), alternative processes for the production of either chlorine or caustic without the other, the production of hypochlorite, industrial hygiene, and speculations on future developments in technology. There is an Appendix with selected physical property data. The authors individually have extensive experience in chlor-alkali technology but with diverse backgrounds and fields of specialization. This allows them to achieve both the breadth and the depth which are offered here. The work is divided into five volumes, successively treating fundamentals, brine preparation and treatment, production technology, support systems such as utilities and instrumentation, and ancillary topics. Anyone with interest in the large field of chlor-alkali manufacture and distribution, and indeed in industrial electrochemistry in general, will find something useful here. The work is recommended to students; chlor-alkali technologists; electrochemists; engineers; and producers, shippers, packagers, distributors, and consumers of chlorine, caustic soda, and caustic potash. This book is thoroughly up to date and should become the standard reference in its field. Barrie S. Gilliatt, Executive Director, Euro Chlor
This volume emphasizes the growing need for wood products with advanced engineering properties. It details the fundamental principles of cellulose technology and presents current techniques to modifying the basic chemistry of lignocellulosic materials. The work: discusses the cost-efficient use of cellulose derivatives in a variety of commodities; highlights the chemical modification of wood by methods such as etherification, esterification and thermoplasticization; considers recent progress in the lignocellulosic liquefaction of wood; and more.
Modern look at the thermodynamics of hydrocarbon reservoirs
This book bridges the gap between theory and practice. It provides fundamental information on heterogeneous catalysis and the practicalities of the catalysts and processes used in producing ammonia, hydrogen and methanol via hydrocarbon steam reforming. It also covers the oxidation reactions in making formaldehyde from methanol, nitric acid from ammonia and sulphuric acid from sulphur dioxide. Designed for use in the chemical industry and by those in teaching, research and the study of industrial catalysts and catalytic processes. Students will also find this book extremely useful for obtaining practical information not available in more conventional textbooks.
A complete guide to petrochemicals production processes-fully revised to cover the latest advances Get all the information you need on petrochemical processes for major organic chemicals inside this industry-standard one-stop reference. Prepared by leading petrochemical licensing firms, Handbook of Petrochemicals Production Processes, Second Edition clearly explains the powerful techniques used to create the most economically important chemicals in the world. The book offers cutting-edge production methods along with detailed product properties. You will discover how to effectively evaluate licensable processes for new production through the comparison of technologies, environmental factors, and economics. Coverage includes: *General process descriptions, feed definitions, product yields, and simplified flow diagrams *Process chemistries and thermodynamics *Commercial process perspectives, including plant locations and long-term plans *Process details, with flow diagrams and mass and energy balances for major process variations *Feeds and details on unique and key equipment *Brand-new details on gas to petrochemical conversion, biomass to petrochemical conversion, and bisphonal A (BPA)
Bretherick's Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards, Eighth Edition presents the latest updates on the unexpected, but predictable, loss of containment and explosion hazards from chemicals and their admixtures and actual accidents. The extensively cross-referenced book enables readers to avoid explosion and loss of containment of chemicals. Primary and more specialized sources are easily traced, and this new edition includes available record updates, also adding a number of new records. In this newly updated and expanded edition, the content is presented in a clear and user-friendly format.
Bioinspired concepts are becoming increasingly integrated into materials and devices intended for medical applications. Biological organisms evolve within specific environmental constraints, giving rise to elegant and efficient strategies for fabricating materials that often outperform man-made materials of similar composition. A main goal of the interdisciplinary field of bioinspired materials is to unlock the secrets of this process-the composition, processing, self-assembly, hierarchical organization, and properties of biological materials-and use this information to synthesize and engineer novel functional materials for a variety of practical applications. The authors are from a variety of scientific disciplines, including biology, biochemistry, chemistry, physics, materials science, mechanical engineering, and bioengineering. This book will appeal to readers interested in the cross-disciplinary fertilization of new ideas in this emerging field. The first volume of this book includes sections focused on the bioinspired approaches using biological macromolecules including poly(nucleic acids), polypeptides, and the derivatives. Both volumes cover the interdisciplinary fields of biological, synthetic, and the hybrid materials and describe their medical applications ranging from molecular to cellular levels.
The book addresses the latest technical developments in the chlorine industry with emphasis on operational improvements. The effects of economic, political, environmental and safety issues surrounding the industry are covered.
World-class authors spearheaded by an internationally acknowledged expert ensure that the chapters are highly practical, authoritative and vigorous.
Structured Glass-Fiber Catalysts discusses the synthesis of advanced glass-fiber catalysts for various emerging applications, investigation of their properties, and development of the engineering basis required for their wide practical application. This book describes how to create and use such catalysts for different chemical reactions. It discusses how to efficiently arrange them into structured catalytic cartridges and gives examples of their successful application for purification of waste gases from different hazardous contaminants and environmentally safe combustion of fuels. It covers nanosize surface science fundamentals through large-scale commercial catalytic reactors. This book is aimed at researchers and engineers in the fields of chemical engineering, industrial engineering, and materials engineering.
K. H. Buchel, H.-H. Moretto, P. Woditsch Industrial Inorganic Chemistry Second, Completely Revised Edition This book provides an up-to-date survey of modern industrial inorganic chemistry in a clear and concise manner. Production processes are described in close detail, aspects such as the disposition of raw materials and energy consumption, the economic significance of the product and technical applications as well as ecological problems being discussed. From reviews of the previous edition: .,." Overall this is an extremely useful, authoritative reference book dealing with a topic in which it is often difficult to obtain up-to-date information. ..." Chemistry and Industry "One of few texts available that concisely describes the current state of industrial inorganic chemistry. ..." The New York Public Library .,." And as for modern uses of inorganic chemistry, I'd recommend this book as a welcome addition to any professional library..." Chemtech "This book fills an important niche in its sector. Industrial scientist and engineers, academics, and students can be rocommended to turn to it with reasonable confidence that the most important areas are described. ..." Endeavour .,." it fills a currently existing gap in the market." Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology
Fluid-membrane material interfaces, morphologies of membrane surface and the sub-layer underneath the membrane surface, and fluid transport through the membrane governed by the above interface and morphology parameters, and driving forces involved in process operatio- all these three aspects together constitute the fundamental physico-chemical and engineering basis for the practical success of Membrane Separation Technology (MST) in all its applications. Quantitative data on the above interface and morphology parameters and applicable transport equations involving the above parameters, are needed for membrane design, specification of membranes, modules and systems, and prediction of their performance for any given separation application. Even though more than 40 years have elapsed since the emergence of the field of MST, there are very few books which deal with all the above three aspects of the subject in an integrated manner. This simply shows that the field of MST is still in its early stages of development and only a small fraction of its vast potential has been practically realized to-date. Still, what has already accomplished is extraordinary both in its scope, and in its impact, on scientific research and service to society at large.
Selective Oxidation by Heterogeneous Catalysis covers one of the major areas of industrial petrochemical production, outlining open questions and new opportunities. It gives keys for the interpretation and analysis of data and design of new catalysts and reactions, and provides guidelines for future research. A distinctive feature of this book is the use of concept by example. Rather than reporting an overview of the literature results, the authors have selected some representative examples, the in-depth analysis of which makes it possible to clarify the fundamental, but new concepts necessary for a better understanding of the new opportunities in this field and the design of new catalysts or catalytic reactions. Attention is given not only to the catalyst itself, but also to the use of the catalyst inside the process, thus evidencing the relationship between catalyst design and engineering aspects of the process. This book provides suggestions for new innovative directions of research and indications on how to reconsider the field of selective oxidation from different perspectives, outlining that is not a mature field of research, but that new important breakthroughs can be derived from fundamental and applied research. Suggestions are offered on how to use less conventional approaches in terms of both catalyst design and analysis of the data.
"Second Edition expands and updates information on the technological aspects of refining heavy oils, residua, bitumen, and other high-sulfur feedstocks. Focuses on the range of next-generation refining processes."
This volume describes recent advances in the bioconversion of lignocellulosics. It starts with two articles on genetics and properties of cellulases and their re- tion kinetics and mechanisms. The cost of cellulases has been a hindrance to large scale use of enzymatic hydrolysis. Two articles on cellulase production by submerged fermentation and by solid state fementation are included to describe the state of the art in this area. Dilute acid hydrolysis of cellulose continues to be of interest as well as potentially useful. The most recent advances in this area is also covered. A great deal of progress has been made in genetic engineering for improved regulation of xylose fermentation by yeasts. An article on genetically engineered Saccharomyces for simulteaneous fermentation of glucose and xylose describes the importance advances made in production of fuel ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. In recent years, there has been increasing interests in recycling and the reuse of scrap paper as well as environment considerations. A contribution is presented which describes the research perspectives in that area. Finally, recent advances in the use of lignocellulosic biomass for the p- duction of ethanol and organic acids are presented in two articles. Renewable resources are inevitably of great importance in the years to come. There is a never-ending search for better living conditions for human beings. The more resource materials can be recycled, the richer we will be.
Phase transfer catalysis is a sophisticated chemical technique which can be used to perform a variety of chemical reactions under mild conditions and with improved control. Since the concept was developed, both the theoretical and practical synthetic applications have seen considerable development, to the point where the technique can be applied to many areas of chemistry. Thus, phase transfer methods are now utilized in many applications, from research chemistry to full-scale production, where the benefits of faster, cleaner and more selective reactions are required. In this new book, the editors have brought together a range of contributors, each of whom is working at the forefront of the technology, to provide a clear, concise and ahtoritative review of this important area of chemistry. Industrial and academic chemists working on the synthesis, scale-up, production or analysis of a wide range of chemical products will find this book an essential reference on phase transfer technology.
Phosphate Fibers is a singular detailed account of the discovery, chemistry, synthesis, properties, manufacture, toxicology, and uses of calcium and sodium calcium polyphosphate fibers. Author Edward J. Griffith-the inventor and developer of this safe, biodegradable material-takes a multidisciplinary approach to this subject, considering the social, legal, medical, and industrial issues surrounding the use of asbestos and other mineral fibers. This compelling study is a beneficial resource to both readers interested in mineral fibers as well as those who want to understand the complexities of bringing new substances into the modern marketplace.
The development of photosensitive materials in general and photoreactive polymers in particular is responsible for major advances in the information, imaging, and electronic industries. Computer parts manufacturing, information storage, and book and magazine publishing all depend on photoreactive polymer systems. The photo-and radiation-induced processes in polymers are also active areas of research. New information on the preparation and properties of com mercially available photosensitive systems is constantly being acquired. The recent demand for environmentally safe solvent-free and water-soluble materials also motivated changes in the composition of photopolymers and photoresists. The interest in holographic recording media for head-up displays, light scanners, and data recording stimulated development of reconfigurable and visible light sensitive materials. Photoconductive polymerizable coatings are being tested in electrostatic proofing and color printing. The list of available initiators, poly meric binders, and other coating ingredients is continually evolving to respond to the requirements of low component loss (low diffusivity) and the high rate of photochemical reactions."
Ammonia is one of the 10 largest commodity chemicals produced. The
editor, Anders Nielsen, is research director with one of the
largest industrial catalyst producers. He has compiled a complete
reference on all aspects of catalytical ammonia production in
industry, from thermodynamics and kinetics to reactor and plant
design. One chapter deals with safety aspects of ammonia handling
This sourcebook is the detailed review of the chemistry, manufacturing processes, and uses of resorcinol and its derivatives. Citing over 1,900 references, the author clearly explains the chemical 's complex development, discussing the many tests, techniques, and instruments used.
Striking a balance between basic chemistry and chemical engineering, this up-to-date reference discusses important aspects of acetic acid and its major derivatives, including chemistry, methods of preparation and manufacture, and synthesis, as well as current and emerging downstream technologies.;The book provides comprehensive physical property data for compounds and their separation, including acetic acid-water separation. Describing five categories of techniques for the manufacture of acetic acid, it: examines thermophysical properties and aqueous solutions, with detailed explanations of mathematical models and correlations; supplies a critical analysis of property; outlines manufacturing costs and related economic factors; reviews the applications of acetic acid and derivatives; covers the chemistry and preparation of the derivatives; elucidates recent topics such as deicers, esters and new esterification technologies.
This book provides an integrated account of the phenomenon of acidity set against the background of the acidic substances which are of major significance in the chemical industry and commerce.
Direct Natural Gas Conversion to Value-Added Chemicals comprehensively discusses all major aspects of natural gas conversion and introduces a broad spectrum of recent technological developments. Specifically, the book describes heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis, microwave-assisted conversion, non-thermal plasma conversion, electrochemical conversion, and novel chemical looping conversion approaches. Provides an excellent benchmark resource for the industry and academics Appeals to experienced researchers as well as newcomers to the field, despite the variety of contributing authors and the complexity of the material covered Includes all aspects of direct natural gas conversion: fundamental chemistry, different routes of conversion, catalysts, catalyst deactivation, reaction engineering, novel conversion concepts, thermodynamics, heat and mass transfer issues, system design, and recent research and development Discusses new developments in natural gas conversion and future challenges and opportunities This book is as an excellent resource for advanced students, technology developers, and researchers in chemical engineering, industrial chemistry, and others interested in the conversion of natural gas.
This is a hands-on reference guide for the maintenance or
reliability engineer and plant manager. As the third volume in the
"Life Cycle Engineering" series, this book takes the guiding
principles of Lean Manufacturing and Maintenance and applies these
concepts to everyday planning and scheduling tasks allowing
engineers to keep their equipment running smoothly, while
decreasing downtime. The authors offer invaluable advice on the
effective use of work orders and schedules and how they fit into
the overall maintenance plan.
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