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The English language is rich with eponyms - words that are named after an individual - some better known than others. This book features 150 of the most interesting and enlightening specimens, delving into the origins of the words and describing the fascinating people after whom they were named.
Eponyms are derived from numerous sources. Some are named in honour of a style icon, inventor or explorer, such as pompadour, Kalashnikov and Cadillac. Others have their roots in Greek or Roman mythology, such as panic and tantalise. A number of eponyms, however, are far from celebratory and were created to indicate a rather less positive association - into this category can be filed boycott, Molotov cocktail and sadist. Encompassing eponyms from medicine, botany, invention, science, fashion, food and literature, this book uncovers the intriguing tales of discovery, mythology, innovation and infamy behind the eponyms we use every day.
The perfect addition to any wordsmith's bookshelf.
Wat Praat Jy! bevat meer as 20 000 Afrikaanse gesegdes, vaste uitdrukkings en idiome. Hierdie vaste uitdrukkings, gesegdes en idiome word met 'n eenvoudige voorbeeldsin verklaar. Dit word verder toegelig deur aan te dui van watter taal die uitdrukking of woord afkomstig is.
C.J. Langenhoven het 'n groot bydrae tot die Afrikaanse kultuurskat gemaak en De Wet toon ook aan wanneer 'n uitdrukking van hom afkomstig is. Heelwat spreekwoorde is afkomstig van die Bybel. Wat Praat Jy! is 'n besondere naslaanwerk. Johanna de Wet het na haar aftrede as onderwyseres in 1996 'n doktorsgraad in die psigo-pedagogiek behaal.
Haar belangstelling in die Afrikaanse taal en geskiedenis het gelei tot die samestelling van 'n aantal boeke, waaronder die kinder-trilogie Dierestories, Heldestories en Afrikastories en Hoopstad se mense onthou met waardevolle herinneringe aan die geskiedenis en karakters van die dorp. Sy woon steeds op Hoopstad waar sy haar aan haar skryfwerk wy.
Lesers wat nie ín annerlike kontrei se taal kan slat nie, hoef nie daaroor kop te vreet nie. Hierdie omvattende woordeboek plaas die gewoonlike Afrikaans uit die kontreie op skrif vir inkommers en vir ingesetenes wat wil klont oor kontreitaal. Die eienaardig mooie woordeboek ontgin annerlike Afrikaans op so ín manier dat geen leser meer uitgesluit hoef te wees van diegene wat eenspaaierig handel nie want alles wat hierin opgeteken is, is koek van een deeg. Dit kouboe die taal vir oueres wat daarmee vertroud is en vir jongeres is dit brandhout om vir die oudag bymekaar te maak.
We know all about women in slang, a pretty sorry story, but women and slang is an undiscovered territory. It is high time that omission was remedied. The book is comprehensively referenced, as befits a significant new work in a previously underexplored area, but it remains a very accessible read. The development of such heroines as Buffy the Vampire Slayer have seen the emergence not only of a story-specific 'Buffyverse' but also of a slang to accompany it, the best-known example probably being the questioning use of 'much?' Current technological developments, too, seem to have opened new possibilities. The world of social media, unfettered by traditional gatekeepers, has seemingly become a playground for female language users. Female-dominated web sites such as Mumsnet, for instance, have evolved their own non-standard vocabulary. And, with regard to the expression 'on fleek', we know that in June 2014 a Chicago teen, Peaches Monroe, posted a brief video online in which she described her newly beautified eyebrows as 'on flick', pronouncing it 'on fleek'. When the video went viral so too did her coinage. But it is a rare occurrence to be able to pinpint the genesis of slang in this way, and we have to accept it as such. This is a book-length study of one of language's most intriguing, but previously unexplored questions: what is the relationship of women to slang? Do they use it, do they create it, and is 'female' slang different to the well-known 'male' version? The relationship of women to slang has never been systematically explored. This book provides something entirely new, namely a work wholly devoted to girls' and women's uses of slang. The role of girls and women in slang is well-known, strictly objectified: whore or mother, appendage or nag. Sounds and Furies aims to take a wholly new look. Slang expert Green takes us into uncharted territory, taking a view of slang that sets girls and women in the subject position, as language users and linguistic innovators.
Written originally for the education of the polite London classes in `canting' - the language of thieves and ruffians - should they be so unlucky as to wander into the `wrong' parts of town, A New Dictionary of Terms, Ancient and Modern, of the Canting Crew by `B.E. Gent' is the first work dedicated solely to the subject of slang words and their meanings. It is also the first text which attempts to show the overlap and integration between canting words and common slang. In its refusal to distinguish between criminal vocabulary and the more ordinary everyday English of the period, it sets canting words side by side with terms used by sailors, labourers, and those in the common currency of domestic culture. With an introduction by John Simpson, chief editor of the Oxford English Dictionary, describing the history and culture of canting in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, as well as the evolution of English slang, this is a fascinating volume for anyone with a curiosity about language, or wishing to reintroduce `Dandyprat' or `Fizzle' into their everyday conversation. Anglers, c Cheats, petty Thievs, who have a Stick with a hook at the end, with which they pluck things out of Windows, Grates, &c. also those that draw in People to be cheated. Dandyprat, a little puny Fellow. Grumbletonians, Malecontents, out of Humour with the Government, for want of a Place, or having lost one. Strum, c. a Periwig. Rum-Strum, c. a long Wig; also a handsom Wench, or Strumpet.
This support text for the National Diploma in Adult Basic Education and Training examines the history of Afrikaans and the role it has in the multicultural environment of South Africa. It discusses how the language is used in contexts such as media, literature and popular culture.
Just as European Jews were being emancipated and ghettos in their original form-compulsory, enclosed spaces designed to segregate-were being dismantled, use of the word "ghetto" surged in Europe and spread around the globe. Tracing the curious path of this loaded word from its first use in sixteenth-century Venice to the present turns out to be more than an adventure in linguistics. Few words are as ideologically charged as "ghetto." Its early uses centered on two cities: Venice, where it referred to the segregation of the Jews in 1516, and Rome, where the ghetto survived until the fall of the Papal States in 1870, long after it had ceased to exist elsewhere. Ghetto: The History of a Word offers a fascinating account of the changing nuances of this slippery term, from its coinage to the present day. It details how the ghetto emerged as an ambivalent metaphor for "premodern" Judaism in the nineteenth century and how it was later revived to refer to everything from densely populated Jewish immigrant enclaves in modern cities to the hyper-segregated holding pens of Nazi-occupied Eastern Europe. We see how this ever-evolving word traveled across the Atlantic Ocean, settled into New York's Lower East Side and Chicago's Near West Side, then came to be more closely associated with African Americans than with Jews. Chronicling this sinuous transatlantic odyssey, Daniel B. Schwartz reveals how the history of ghettos is tied up with the struggle and argument over the meaning of a word. Paradoxically, the term "ghetto" came to loom larger in discourse about Jews when Jews were no longer required to live in legal ghettos. At a time when the Jewish associations have been largely eclipsed, Ghetto retrieves the history of a disturbingly resilient word.
With this new book Alice Honig addresses a neglected area in child development - how to help low literacy parents and parents for whom English is a second language enchance the literacy and cognitive development of their children in the home environment and through daily routines. In learning to choose appropriate songs and books for children, adults will feel comfortable with storytime long before their children begin to talk. Honig and coauthor Holly E. Brophy focus on language as a fundamental family activity. Through the use of songs and stories, the authors show how rich language interaction enhances an infant's feelings of love and security and how it helps toddlers and young children learn more about objects, rules, daily experiences and people. Rather than through more formal dialogue or an educational setting, ideas on how to talk to children are anchored to activities and comfortable personal chats between caregivers and child. With its emphasis on the roles both parents play in talking with babies during daily activities - such as diapering, bath time, feedings and walks - parents should find it an easily understood and valuable resource. In addition, the book reassures caregivers that, as children begin to experiment with language power, newly acquired behaviours are perfectly natural. For example, parents for whom disciplining their child is difficult, will learn to manage a child's new-found willfulness as well as the need to experiment with behaviour, even bad behaviour. The authors have included an entire section on discipline, which further illustrates ways to communicate effectively with children to improve cooperation. The book should be of interest to those in child development and psychology and literacy education, as well as a general manual for low-literacy parents.
Fun to read and packed with information, this contemporary dictionary of American slang includes terms that are likely to be heard in movies, on television, in the streets, and on college campuses. The easy-to-read format features 10,000 entries with at least two example sentences for each.
Most of us are aware that words such as geometry, mathematics, phobia and hypochondria derive from ancient Greek, but did you know that marmalade, pirate, sketch and purse can also trace their linguistic origins back to the Athens of 500 bce? This book offers a word-by-word look at the influence of Greek on everyday words in English, telling the stories behind the etymological developments of each example and tracing their routes into modern English via Latin and European languages. It also explains connections with ancient Greek culture, in particular mythology, politics and warfare, and includes proverbs and quotations from Greek literature. Taken together, these words show how we are deeply indebted to the language spoken in Athens 2,500 years ago for the everyday vocabulary we use when conducting our daily business.
This accessibly written and pedagogically rich text delivers the most comprehensive examination of its subject, carefully drawing on the most up-to-date research and covering a breadth of the central topics including communication, language acquisition, language processing, language disorders, speech, writing, and development. This book also examines an array of other progressive areas in the field neglected in similar works such as bilingualism, sign language as well as comparative communication. Based on her globally-orientated research and academic expertise, author Shelia Kennison innovatively applies psycholinguistics to real-world examples through analysing the hetergenous traits of a wide variety of languages. With its engaging easy-to-understand prose, this text guides students gently and sequentially through an introduction to the subject. The book is designed for undergraduate and graduate students taking courses in psycholinguistics.
Abstract concepts are often embodied through metaphor. For example, we talk about moving through time in metaphorical terms, as if we were moving through space, allowing us to 'look back' on past events. Much of the work on embodied metaphor to date has assumed a single set of universal, shared bodily experiences that motivate our understanding of abstract concepts. This book explores sources of variation in people's experiences of embodied metaphor, including, for example, the shape and size of one's body, one's age, gender, state of mind, physical or linguistic impairments, personality, ideology, political stance, religious beliefs, and linguistic background. It focuses on the ways in which people's experiences of metaphor fluctuate over time within a single communicative event or across a lifetime. Combining theoretical argument with findings from new studies, Littlemore analyses sources of variation in embodied metaphor and provides a deeper understanding of the nature of embodied metaphor itself.
In this exhilarating and often hilarious book, David Crystal examines why we devote so much time and energy to language games, how professionals make a career of them, and how young children instinctively take to them. Crystal makes a simple argument-that since playing with language is so natural, a natural way to learn language is to play with it-while he discusses puns, crosswords, lipograms, comic alphabets, rhymes, funny voices taken from dialect and popular culture, limericks, anagrams, scat singing, and much more.
Understand American English better by mastering its slang
This authoritative reference offers thousands of American English slang expressions. Entries include definitions and examples of slang used in context. With help from "McGraw-Hill's Essential American Slang Dictionary," you will become familiar with English as it is used in the media, at work, around the house, and in everyday conversations. This knowledge will help you comprehend English as it is spoken in the United States and add variety to your word usage.
Inside you will find: 2,000 entries with examples of everyday usage The latest slang used in the American lexicon Fun illustrations that show the humor of taking expressions too literally
"Why are you learning Zulu?" When Mark Sanders began studying the language, he was often asked this question. In Learning Zulu, Sanders places his own endeavors within a wider context to uncover how, in the past 150 years of South African history, Zulu became a battleground for issues of property, possession, and deprivation. Sanders combines elements of analysis and memoir to explore a complex cultural history. Perceiving that colonial learners of Zulu saw themselves as repairing harm done to Africans by Europeans, Sanders reveals deeper motives at work in the development of Zulu-language learning-from the emergence of the pidgin Fanagalo among missionaries and traders in the nineteenth century to widespread efforts, in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, to teach a correct form of Zulu. Sanders looks at the white appropriation of Zulu language, music, and dance in South African culture, and at the association of Zulu with a martial masculinity. In exploring how Zulu has come to represent what is most properly and powerfully African, Sanders examines differences in English- and Zulu-language press coverage of an important trial, as well as the role of linguistic purism in xenophobic violence in South Africa. Through one person's efforts to learn the Zulu language, Learning Zulu explores how a language's history and politics infl uence all individuals in a multilingual society.
Linguists estimate that there are currently nearly 2,000 languages in Africa, a staggering figure that is belied by the relatively few national languages. While African national politics, economics and law are all conducted primarily in the colonial languages, the cultural life of the majority of citizens is conducted in a bewildering babel of regional vernaculars and local dialects. In The Power of Babel, Ali Mazrui and Alamin Mazrui explore the cultural and political implications of this linguistic diversity, including the role of language in nationalism and expansionist policies, gender roles, and social theory, to provide one of the most comprehensive studies of the complex linguistic constellations of Africa.
The Power of Babel draws on Ali Mazrui's earlier work in its examination of the "triple heritage" of African culture, in which indigenous, Islamic, and Western traditions compete for influence. In bringing the idea of the triple heritage to language, the Mazruis unravel issues of power, culture, and modernity as they are embedded in African linguistic life. The first section of the book takes a global perspective, exploring such issues as the Eurocentrism of much linguistic scholarship on Africa; part two takes an African perspective on a variety of topics from the linguistically disadvantaged position of women in Africa to the relation of language policy and democratic development; the third section presents a set of regional studies, centering on the Swahili language's exemplification of the triple heritage. The Power of Babel unites empirical information with theories of nationalism and pluralism -- among others -- to consider the future of a linguistically pluralisticAfrica and to offer the richest contextual account of African languages to date.
Where have emoji come from? Why are they so popular? What do they tell us about the technology-enhanced state of modern society? Far from simply being an amusing set of colourful little symbols, emoji are in the front line of a revolution in the way we communicate. As a form of global, image-based communication, they're a perfect example of the ingenuity and creativity at the heart of human interaction. But they're also a parable for the way that consumerism now permeates all parts of our daily existence, taking a controlling interest even in the language we use; and of how technology is becoming ever more entangled in our everyday lives. So how will this split-identity affect the way that online communication develops? Are emoji ushering in a bold new era of empathy and emotional engagement on the internet? Or are they a first sign that we're handing over the future of human interaction to the machines?
There are no men so dull and stupid, not even idiots, as to be incapable of joining together different words, and thereby constructing a declaration by which to make their thoughts understood...On the other hand, there is no other animal, however perfect or happily circumstanced which can do the like.-Descartes Language is more like a snowflake than a giraffe's neck. Its specific properties are determined by laws of nature, they have not developed through the accumulation of historical accidents.-Noam Chomsky In I Speak, Therefore I Am, the Italian linguist and neuroscientist Andrea Moro composes an album of his favorite quotations from the history of linguistics, beginning with the Book of Genesis and the power of naming and concluding with Noam Chomsky's metaphor that language is a snowflake. Moro's seventeen linguistic thoughts and his commentary on them display the humanness of language: our need to name and interpret this world and create imaginary ones, to express and understand ourselves. This book is sure to delight anyone who enjoys the ineffable paradox that is human language.
Extensively revised and updated, this second edition provides, in an A-Z format, an analysis of the most important generalizations that have been made on the unidirectional change of grammatical forms and constructions. Based on the analysis of more than 1,000 languages, it reconstructs over 500 processes of grammatical change in the languages of the world, including East Asian languages such as Chinese, Korean and Japanese. Readers are provided with the tools to discover how lexical and grammatical meanings can be related to one another in a principled way, how such issues as polysemy, heterosemy, and transcategoriality are dealt with, and why certain linguistic forms have simultaneous lexical and grammatical functions. Definitions of lexical concepts are provided with examples from a broad variety of languages, and references to key relevant research literature. Linguists and other scholars will gain a better understanding of languages on a worldwide scale.
A witty and original insight into London, its landmarks and the language of its world-renowned cab drivers.
Whether it's the possibility of hearing the voices of ancient peoples or the puzzle solver's taste for the challenges posed by breaking codes, undeciphered scripts have long tantalized the public. Here, Andrew Robinson investigates the most famous examples, beginning with the stories of three great decipherments: Egyptian hieroglyphs, Maya glyphs, and the Minoan Linear B clay tablets.
He then tackles the important scripts that have yet to be cracked. Perhaps the greatest challenge is the Indus script, the onl writing of the four "first" civilizations that cannot be read and a potential key to better understanding the impressive Indus Valley civilization. Then there are the Etruscans, builders of sensational tombs and the cultural conduit through whom the Greek alphabet reached Rome and the rest of Europe. Yet the language spoken by the Etruscans remains wrapped in mystery. And on isolated Easter Island, the Rongorongo script, inscribed on wood with sharks' teeth, has long been an irresistible magnet for ambitious scholars.
The struggle to decipher these three scripts and six others--including the Phaistos disc of Crete and the Zapotec script of Mexico--is recounted with extraordinary depth and erudition in this wonderfully illustrated book. Lost Languages is an archaeological and linguistic detective story that will appeal to anyone interested in ancient peoples and the intricacies of language.
Andrew Robinson's many books include The Story of Writing.
Where do our everyday words come from? The bagel you eat for breakfast, the bumf you have to wade through at the office, and the bus that takes you home again: we use these words without thinking about their origins or how their meanings have changed over time. Simon Horobin takes the reader on a journey through a typical day, showing how the words we use to describe routine activities - getting up, going to work, eating meals - have surprisingly fascinating histories.
"Cognitive Exploration of Language and Linguistics "is designed as a comprehensive introductory text for first and second-year university students of language and linguistics. It provides a chapter on each of the more established areas in linguistics such as lexicology, morphology, syntax, phonetics and phonology, historical linguistics, and language typology and on some of the newer areas such as cross-cultural semantics, pragmatics, text linguistics and contrastive linguistics.In each of these areas language is explored as part of a cognitive system comprising perception, emotion, categorisation, abstraction processes, and reasoning. All these cognitive abilities may interact with language and be influenced by language. Thus the study of language in a sense becomes the study of the way we express and exchange ideas and thoughts.This Second Revised Edition is corrected, updated and expanded."Cognitive Exploration of Language and Linguistics "is clearly presented and organized after having been tested in several courses in various countries.Includes exercises (solutions to be found on the Internet).
Is acquiring a third language the same as acquiring a second? Are all instances of non-native language acquisition simply one and the same? In this first book-length study of the topic, the authors systematically walk the reader through the evidence to answer these questions. They suggest that acquiring an additional language in bilinguals (of all types) is unique, and reveals things about the links between language and mind, brain, and cognition, which are otherwise impossible to appreciate. The patterns of linguistic transfer and what motivates it when there are choices (as can only be seen starting in third language acquisition) underscores a key concept in linguistic and psychological sciences: Economy. Overviewing the subfields examining multilingual acquisition and processing, this book offers an expanded systematic review of the field of multilingual morphosyntactic transfer, as well as providing recommendations for the future emerging field.
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