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This book is a comprehensive guide to the diagnosis and management of infertility. Beginning with an introduction to infertility and fertility testing, the following chapters discuss the causes and treatment of both male and female infertility, In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF), guidelines for infertility treatments and birth defects. The final sections examine regulatory issues and social and emotional aspects of assisted reproductive technology (ART). Authored by renowned experts in the USA, this manual includes more than 200 colour images and illustrations.
Flourishing in Emerging Adulthood highlights the third decade of life as a time in which individuals have diverse opportunities for positive development. There is mounting evidence that this time period, at least for a significant majority, is a unique developmental period in which positive development is fostered. Dr. Lene Arnett Jensen highlights the importance of this work in an engaging foreword, and chapters are written by leading scholars in diverse disciplines who address various aspects of flourishing. They discuss multiple aspects of positive development including how young people flourish in key areas of emerging adulthood (e.g., identity, love, work, worldviews), the various unique opportunities afforded to young people to flourish, how flourishing might look different around the world, and how flourishing can occur in the face of challenge. Most chapters are accompanied by first-person essays written by a range of emerging adults who exemplify the aspect of flourishing denoted in that chapter and make note of how choices and experiences have helped them transition to adulthood. Taken together, this innovative collection provides rich evidence and examples of how young people are flourishing as a group and as individuals in a variety of settings and circumstances. This unique resource will be useful to students, faculty, professionals, clinicians, and university personnel who work with young adults or who study development during emerging adulthood.
The monograph introduces innate immunity as second authority in the ovary besides the endocrine system. Innate immunity appears to orchestrate follicular atresia, follicle rupture, follicle transformation into a corpus luteum (CL) and CL regression through nonsterile inflammation and tissue repair. The concept is new. It centres on cytokeratin-positive (CK+) cells being recognized as a potential nonlymphoid dendritic cell type (DC). Part I describes morphological aspects of immune privilege starting with active hamster ovary implants into the chicken chorioallantois membrane. Follicular atresia and follicle rupture correspond with mild and moderate tissue damage in ovaries of small rodents and rabbits. Superovulations cause severe tissue damage through intraovarian oocyte release with follicle wall remnants in oedema, rupture of vessel walls and thrombosis. The complement system and neuropeptides might play regulatory roles. Part IIa analyzes intact ovaries (cows, human) for the appearance of CK+ cells. In the foetal ovary, sex cords give rise to CK+ cells in primordial follicles. In the adult ovary, CK+ cells are absent in preantral follicles and reappear in mature and regressing follicles. In the CL of early development, steroidogenic CK+ cells build a peripheral zone in the previous granulosa cell layer, and uniformly distribute in the following stages. A microvessel-associated CK+ cell type is seldom found. Part IIb characterizes the morphology and function of CK+ cells in vitro. Isolated from human preovulatory follicles, the epithelioid CK+ granulosa cell subtype regulates TLR4 and CD14 at 36 h of treatment with oxidized lipoprotein (oxLDL, 150 mg/ml); nonapoptotic cell death and the increase of reactive oxygen species occur. In contrast, the CK-negative (CK-) granulosa cell type regulates the lectin-like oxLDL receptor 1 (LOX-1) and survival autophagy under oxLDL stimulation. Isolated from bovine CL, the epithelioid CK+ cell type 1 is disclosed as microvascular cell type with a single nonmotile cilium. The microvascular CK+ type strongly upregulates intercellular contacts under treatment with interferon- (IFN- ). In the CK- cell type 5 of granulosa cell -like appearance, IFN- treatment supports cell proliferation, N-cadherin upregulation, and the dramatic increase in major histocompatibility complex II peptides (MHC II) by 80-fold compared to basal levels. Type 5 could have been conversed from the steroidogenic CK+ cell type. We summarize and conclude: CK+ granulosa cells express functionally active TLR4, which sense danger signals like oxidative stress in preovulatory follicles and trigger inflammatory and immunoregulatory pathways. The final outcome regulates follicle rupture and transformation into CL. Luteolysis could start by danger-sensing through the microvascular CK+ type 1 cells and the DC-like type 5 cells both sensitive to IFN- . The future will witness a novel strategy in the therapy of ovarian disorders like anovulations, luteal phase insufficiency, and autoimmune failures
Any events that challenge the survival of living organisms may be classified as stressors. These stressors could include, for example, lack of food, increased population pressure, predatory pressure, climatic events or in the case of humans, loss of a loved one, lack of financial security or uncertainty in the future. Although most physiological systems are affected by stress, those systems that regulate reproductive physiology and behaviour are the most sensitive. All multicellular organisms show a stress related effect on reproduction, although the more complex organisms, such as mammals, have the most complex effects.
The objective of this book is to provide a comparative analysis of the mechanisms by which stress regulates reproduction exploring the evolution of stress perceiving systems from the simplest organisms to humans. Taking an integrated approach, utilising a genes-to-environment overview, the book examines the stressors that occur at all levels of organisation. These theories are used to examine and explain human and animal reproductive behaviour and physiology under stressful conditions providing a well-written, concise introduction to this important subject.
As Louise Brown -- the first baby conceived by in vitro fertilization -- celebrates her 30th birthday, Margaret Marsh and Wanda Ronner tell the fascinating story of the man who first showed that human in vitro fertilization was possible.
John Rock spent his career studying human reproduction. The first researcher to fertilize a human egg in vitro in the 1940s, he became the nation's leading figure in the treatment of infertility, his clinic serving rich and poor alike. In the 1950s he joined forces with Gregory Pincus to develop oral contraceptives and in the 1960s enjoyed international celebrity for his promotion of the pill and his campaign to persuade the Catholic Church to accept it.
Rock became a more controversial figure by the 1970s, as conservative Christians argued that his embryo studies were immoral and feminist activists contended that he had taken advantage of the clinic patients who had participated in these studies as research subjects.
Marsh and Ronner's nuanced account sheds light on the man behind the brilliant career. They tell the story of a directionless young man, a saloon keeper's son, who began his working life as a timekeeper on a Guatemalan banana plantation and later became one of the most recognized figures of the twentieth century. They portray his medical practice from the perspective of his patients, who ranged from the wives of laborers to Hollywood film stars.
The first scholars to have access to Rock's personal papers, Marsh and Ronner offer a compelling look at a man whose work defined the reproductive revolution, with its dual developments in contraception and technologically assisted conception.
This authoritative reference work contains more than 300 entries covering all aspects of the multi-disciplinary field of adult development and aging Brings together concise, accurate summaries of classic topics as well as the most recent thinking and research in new areas Covers a broad range of issues, from biological and physiological changes in the body to changes in cognition, personality, and social roles to applied areas such as psychotherapy, long-term care, and end-of-life issues Includes contributions from major researchers in the academic and clinical realms 3 Volumes www.encyclopediaadulthoodandaging.com
This SpringerBrief analyzes varicocele from a novel approach, and provides the reader with a comprehensive view of its scientific and clinical significance. The Brief covers all the important aspects of varicocele related to infertility, from epidemiology to assisted reproduction techniques, contemplating pathophysiology, semen analysis, specialized sperm function tests, and clinical management including all available treatment options form three distinct perspectives, i.e., current concepts, consensus and controversies. Each topic is addressed using the same template, offering the best information from all angles to readers. This SpringerBrief is aimed at both clinicians and scientists involved in the study and care of male and female fertility, and is written by a team of three internationally recognized authors with expertise in andrology and male infertility. The text is the first of its kind, and presents an invaluable tool both for the basic scientists with an interest in reproductive medicine and for clinicians working in the field of infertility.
This book provides a comprehensive overview on issues surrounding fertility in patients who have been diagnosed with breast cancer or belong to a high-risk population. The impact of breast cancer treatment on fertility is clearly explained and all the available options for fertility preservation are discussed, including the use of assisted reproduction technologies. Guidance is offered on family planning and on management options when breast cancer arises during pregnancy and when pregnancy occurs after breast cancer. Answers are provided to a wide range of key questions, including: What is the impact of pregnancy after breast cancer on prognosis? What advice should be given on the timing of pregnancy in relation to chemotherapy and endocrine treatment? What is the effect of reducing the duration of endocrine treatment to allow an earlier attempt at pregnancy? Is breast feeding possible? Medical treatments of breast cancer have a huge impact on fertility. While many procedures can be applied to preserve fertility, all must be put into action within the very short time available before starting treatment. Any delay in referral of a woman wishing to preserve her fertility to an ART center with experience in oncologic patients may preclude the possibility of a future pregnancy. In addition, an increasing number of high-risk patients are asking questions about their reproductive life, from choice of contraception to the risks of assisted reproduction techniques. Physicians will find this book an invaluable aid in providing flawless counseling to their patients and ensuring that they receive optimal management.
In the last 15 years, fertility treatment has become mainstream medical practice. With this evolution has come a change in focus from effectiveness ('success rates') to safety, patient acceptability and ethical questions. It is recognized that effectiveness also depends crucially on safety and good risk management. The purpose of this book is to address this wider change in focus. Reducing Risk in Fertility Treatment examines risk in assisted conception, covering a wide range of topics and areas. 'Risk' refers to situations in which an outcome of value to people is uncertain. Specifically for the purpose of this book, 'Risk' means situations where patients or professionals or society as a whole is at risk of an adverse outcome in relation to fertility treatment. It therefore encompasses clinical complications, risks inherent in laboratory practice, reputational and business risks to clinics and ethical risks to society as a whole. It will be an essential resource for all clinic staff to consult in reducing the risk associated with their work. It will provide practical resources such as 'how to' guides, but also a theoretical discussion of uncertainty where this exists. The book is primarily directed to practitioners in the area of fertility treatment, namely clinicians, embryologists, nurses, counsellors and administrators. However, it is likely also to be relevant to policy-makers, commissioners of health services, researchers in this field and biomedical ethicists.
Successful implantation and early development need a union of healthy genes and an optimal uterine environment. The 48th RCOG Study Group, an international multidisciplinary expert forum, considered factors involved in preparation for implantation within the uterus; how to determine a good egg and good sperm; lessons from animal models; transgenic and genomic technologies; sporadic and recurrent early pregnancy loss; single-embryo transfer; and the developmental consequences of assisted reproduction technologies. This book presents the findings of the Study Group, with sections covering: preparation for implantation - the uterine environment the embryo lessons from animal models (transgenics) and novel technologies clinical sequelae."
Based on the 2002 conference Fertility: The Current South African Issues of Poverty, HIV/AIDS, and Youth emanating from the partnership between the Department of Social Development, the South African Regional Poverty Network (SARPN), and the Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC), this book examines the underlying link between fertility and socioeconomic development. The complex features in the current fertility trends in postapartheid South Africa are examined, including the demographic fertility profile of South Africa's population, determinants of fertility-related behaviors such as sexual initiation in the context of AIDS, contraceptive use, and the broader regional fertility issues.
"Extremely well-written, innovative, and timely, "Infertility Around the Globe is a definitive work. Together, the authors use infertility as the lens to examine numerous compelling social issues, generating a powerful argument that infertility is a globally significant phenomenon. This volume will attract anthropologists and other social scientists interested in the study of reproduction, as well as anyone interested in gender studies, women's studies, and international health."--Carolyn Sargent, co-editor of "Childbirth and Authoritative Knowledge: Cross-Cultural Perspectives
"This groundbreaking, interdisciplinary book will change how infertility is theorized and how intervention programs are designed. It will become the primary sourcebook for international and comparative research in a variety of cultural settings. Reading this book was a distinct pleasure."--Lynn Morgan, co-editor of "Fetal Subjects, Feminist Positions
"A stunning achievement. Through its richly textured ethnographic accounts, this book beautifully explicates the universals and particularities of involuntary childlessness in disparate world regions. It challenges the myopic view that the heartbreak is limited to advanced industrial societies. This book is a much-needed antidote in a field mostly characterized by polemic and untested assumptions."--C. H. Browner, UCLA School of Medicine
"Scholarship on infertility too often has been culture-bound, focusing on Western versions of biosocial reproductive problems and on technological solutions. This innovative volume decenters that perspective, with studies on the ostracism of elder childless men in Kenya, political suspicions of vaccination campaigns in theCameroons, new reproductive technologies for ultraorthodox use in Israel, and China's emergent eugenics. It enlarges the 'public' in public health."--Rayna Rapp, co-editor of "Conceiving the New World Order: The Global Politics of Reproduction
Infertility affects an estimated 50 million women worldwide and has a wide range of causes including eating disorders, smoking, chemotherapy, diseases such as STIs, as well as genetic factors and malformations. The preliminary assessment and diagnosis involves a potentially broad array of lab and imaging tests, physical examination and potentially genetic tests, after which a management plan is selected depending on the woman's age, the cause(s) and duration of the infertility. Female Infertility: Core Principles and Clinical Management provides clinicians with a comprehensive understanding of how best to overcome infertility using the various treatment options now available. The book opens with an introduction to the anatomy and physiology of the female reproductive system before describing the assessment and investigative tools used in primary and secondary healthcare settings. Subsequent chapters describe how to secure optimum functionality of the ovaries, the measurement of ovarian reserves, stimulation protocols and the process of oogenesis and oocyte collection.
Rheumatic (or systemic autoimmune) diseases disproportionately affect young women: the female-to-male ratio for patients with systemic lupus erythematosus during the reproductive years is approximately 9:1. In the mid- to late-twentieth century, women with rheumatic disease diagnoses were often advised to avoid pregnancy due to fear of disease exacerbation and adverse outcome. In more recent years, many women with rheumatic disease have deferred childbearing until a later age due to active disease or unsafe therapies. However, with advances in rheumatology therapies, obstetric monitoring, and reproductive medicine technologies, increasing numbers of women with rheumatic diseases are pursuing pregnancy. As a result, obstetricians and rheumatologists need to be aware of the current state of knowledge and the recommendations for management of pregnancy in these patients. Contraception and Pregnancy in Patients with Rheumatic Disease explains the basics of contraception, fertility treatment, and pregnancy in rheumatic disease patients and serves as a guide and reference tool for both rheumatologists and OB/GYNs. Most general rheumatologists and OB/GYNs have limited experience in caring for rheumatic disease patients during pregnancy, and many do not have ready access to expert colleagues in this area. This book summarizes the current state of knowledge and presents a general approach for assessment of the rheumatic disease patient considering pregnancy, hormonal contraception or infertility treatment.
Studies of mammary gland biology are essential in the fight against
breast cancer. Moreover, the mammary gland represents an excellent
model system for investigation of physiological and pathological
processes that occur throughout the body. The branching
morphogenesis that occurs during puberty and the alveogenesis
processes during pregnancy, for example, recapitulate steps that
occur in many tissues during embryogenesis and are also relevant to
tumor invasion and metastasis. Similarly, analyses of breast cancer
progression and the cell types that contribute to it yield findings
applicable not only to breast cancer but widely to other cancers as
A Probabilistic Model of the Genotype/Phenotype Relationship provides a new hypothesis on the relationship between genotype and phenotype. The main idea of the book is that this relationship is probabilistic, in other words, the genotype does not fully explain the phenotype. This idea is developed and discussed using the current knowledge on complex genetic diseases, phenotypic plasticity, canalization and others.
In this book the authors present current research in the study of foetal development and its stages of growth, maternal influences and potential complications. Topics discussed in this compilation include the equine foetal development, fetomaternal interaction and potential complications during pregnancy; comparative anatomy, development and functional significance of the mammalian yolk sac; influence of exercise training on e-NOS expression, nitric oxide production and mitochondrial function in the human placenta; maternal melamine and foetal development; and immunolocalisation of syntaxin2 in sinusoidal endothelial cells during mouse liver development.
Social and medical developments during the past century have led to a dramatic increase in life expectancy and hence populations in countries of the developed world in which up to half of adults are in the age range of 60-100. This has encouraged the study of organismic changes associated with healthy ageing, of which an early example is the erosion of homeostatic capabilities in multiple endocrine systems.
This book reviews and discusses the most recent advances in the understanding of the endocrine facets of ageing, drawing together findings from both basic and clinical research. The questions addressed include the following: what are the relative magnitudes and time courses of different endocrine adaptations in the ageing human and experimental animal? How do external factors influence the rates of progression of endocrine sequelae of ageing? What mechanisms underlie the disarray of endocrine axes in ageing? And what are the implications of therapeutic reconstitution with hormones in ageing? By bringing together an international and interdisciplinary group of experts, the book reviews much new and exciting work in this area and serves to identify promising new research directions.
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