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We stand on the brink of unprecedented growth in our ability to understand and change the human genome. New reproductive technologies now enable parents to select some genetic traits for their children, and soon it will be possible to begin to shape ourselves as a species. Despite the loud cries of alarm that such a prospect inspires, Ronald Green argues that we will, and we should, undertake the direction of our own evolution. A leader in the bioethics community, Green offers a scientifically and ethically informed view of human genetic self-modification and the possibilities it opens up for a better future. Fears of a terrible Brave New World or a new eugenics movement are overblown, he maintains, and in the more likely future, genetic modifications may improve parents' ability to enhance children's lives and may even promote social justice. The author outlines the new capabilities of genomic science, addresses urgent questions of safety that genetic interventions pose, and explores questions of parenting and justice. He also examines the religious implications of gene modification. Babies by design are assuredly in the future, Green concludes, and by making responsible choices as we enter that future, we can incorporate gene technology in a new age of human adventure.
Dementia is a brain disorder that seriously affects a person's ability to carry out daily activities. The most common form of dementia among older people is Alzheimer's Disease (AD), which involves the parts of the brain that control memory, thought and language. Age is the most important known risk factor for AD. The number of people with the disease doubles every 5 years beyond age 65. AD is a slow disease, starting with mild memory loss and ending with severe brain damage. The course the disease takes and how fast changes occur vary from person to person. On average, AD patients live from 8 to 10 years after they are diagnosed, though the disease can last for as many as 20 years. Current research is aimed at understanding why AD occurs and who is at greatest risk for developing it, improving the accuracy of diagnosis and ability to identify who is at risk, developing, discovering and testing new treatments for behavioural problems in patients with AD. This book gathers state-of-the-art research from leading scientists throughout the world which offers important information on understanding the underlying causes and discovering the most effective treatments for Alzheimer's Disease.
One in six couples have problems conceiving and many more suffer the pain of miscarriage, which FIT FOR FERTILITY also addresses. Much of the advice they're given is misleading or negative and IVF is often presented as the only option. In fact, it's been shown that an integrated approach to fertility treatment achieved the same success rates as IVF, without medical intervention, worry and expense. This is Michael's approach and is based on his hugely successful Fit for Fertility programme that combines changes to lifestyle, good nutrition and complementary therapies. FIT FOR FERTILITY will allow the reader to self diagnose and tailor their programme according to their needs. It is infused with Michael's up-beat philosophy and builds on his inspiring work to promise a genuine chance of success.
This publication highlights new insights into the evolution of neural systems in vertebrates. The elaboration of links among all levels of vertebrate neural phenomena is the continuing focus of the eighth triannual European conference of comparative neurobiologists (ECCN8), to which this volume is devoted. Topics range from principles of brain morphology and comparative molecular neuroembryology or neuroanatomy over the evolution of hair cell sensory systems, including hearing and lateral line system, to cognitive processes in the teleost fish telencephalon. A comparative approach involves looking at and interpreting facts coming from various developing and adult species in a phylogenetic perspective. The specific value of such a viewpoint is not only to communicate scientific detail but also to open any researcher's mind to the real variability of neural systems and their functional adaptations beyond their own special field. Therefore, this volume is addressed to brain researchers from all disciplines of neuroscience.
Developmental biologists have been driven to investigate growth factor signaling in embryos in order to understand the regulatory mechanisms underlying a given developmental process. Thus, it is critical to explore the technical methods and experimental designs for growth factor signaling in embryos.
Focusing on specific pathways or pathway components, Analysis of Growth Factor Signaling in Embryos provides the methods and guidelines for experimental design to study major aspects of cell signaling in vertebrate embryos. The book covers a broad range of topics in signaling and a variety of current model organisms. Section I explores specific signaling pathways or pathway components. In this section, some chapters highlight the biochemistry of signaling pathways during development, which is often distinctive from that observed in cell culture systems. Section II discusses ionic regulatory mechanisms and the two chapters in Section III examine ways of investigating gene regulation in response to extracellular signals. Finally, Section IV addresses emerging strategies that facilitate integrated analyses of cell signaling" in vivo" in embryonic systems.
Featuring contributions from expert researchers, Analysis of Growth Factor Signaling in Embryos will provide a foundation for further explorations of the cellular regulatory mechanisms governing vertebrate embryonic development.
This book explores how conditions for childbearing are changing in the 21st century under the impact of new biomedical technologies. Selective reproductive technologies (SRTs) - technologies that aim to prevent or promote the birth of particular kinds of children - are increasingly widespread across the globe. Wahlberg and Gammeltoft bring together a collection of essays providing unique ethnographic insights on how SRTs are made available within different cultural, socio-economic and regulatory settings and how people perceive and make use of these new possibilities as they envision and try to form their future lives. Topics covered include sex-selective abortions, termination of pregnancies following detection of fetal anomalies during prenatal screening, the development of preimplantation genetic diagnosis techniques as well as the screening of potential gamete donors by egg agencies and sperm banks. This is invaluable reading for scholars of medical anthropology, medical sociology and science and technology studies, as well as for the fields of gender studies, reproductive health and genetic disease research.
With the conclusion of adolescence, a child develops into a teenager that may experiment with dating, smoking and drinking, and they may make important decisions without parental knowledge or guidance. These teenagers may also engage in risky behaviour, which may pose as a threat to their well-being and successful transition into adulthood. With this in mind, how can we can prevent adolescent risk behaviour? Traditionally, prevention scientists propose three forms of prevention. Primarily, attempts to reduce the harmful consequences of risk behaviour, such as treatment of risk behaviour (ie: mental disorders or substance abuse) are ideal. For some problematic behaviour which has already occurred, a better approach is to identify those who are at-risk as early as possible (ie: secondary prevention). For example, youth workers may identify those who have suicidal ideation and intervene as early as possible so that they will not harm themselves. In this book, the authors assess whether a community-based program in Hong Kong was effective in promoting adolescent development and explore what factors were associated with the program effects. The authors hope that the studies included in this book can help to reveal the successful experience of the project and provide some pointers for the development of programs for adolescents with greater psychosocial needs.
This book addresses various aspects of testicular autoimmunity. It has long been suspected that testicular autoimmunity could be one of the causes of idiopathic male infertility. However, it is very difficult to estimate the incidence of testicular autoimmunity in men, as most male patients first realize they are infertile when they start trying to conceive a child, and there is a possibility that their testes may already exhibit the end stage of testicular autoimmunity, in which lymphocytic inflammation and immunoglobulin deposition in their testes subsided long ago and only the spermatogenic disorder remains. Therefore, autopsy or biopsy for testicular tissues in men before the end stage of testicular autoimmunity and investigations using testicular autoimmunity model animals are needed to determine the epidemiology of testicular autoimmunity. Accordingly, the book discusses "the immunological fragility of testis" with regard to male infertility, reviewing autopsy data in men and presenting experimental data using murine models of autoimmune orchitis that has been induced by immunizing with viable syngeneic testicular germ cells alone. Testicular autoimmunity in animals is also discussed. In summary, the book provides a wealth of valuable information, not only for researchers who are interested in immunologic male infertility, but also for clinical professionals who treat these patients at hospitals.
This book describes human development including sexual reproduction and stem cell research with the development of model organisms that are accessible to genetic and experimental analysis in readily understandable texts and 315 multi-colored graphics. The introductory account of model organisms selected from the entire animal kingdom presents general principles, which are then outlined in subsequent chapters devoted to, for example, sexual development; genes controlling development and their contemporary molecular-analysis methods; production of clones and transgenic animals; development of the nervous and circulatory systems; regenerative medicine and ageing. Finally the evolution of developmental toolkits and novelties is discussed including the genetic basis of the enlargement of the human forebrain. Separate boxes are devoted to controversial questions such as the benefits and problems of prenatal diagnostics or the construction of ancient body plans.
An ideal reference for infertility specialists and reproductive endocrinologists alike, this comprehensive text discusses current natural and mild approaches to in vitro fertilization (IVF) and the development of in vitro maturation (IVM) as a clinical treatment. It is divided thematically into four sections. Part I presents the basic science of ovarian endocrinology and the mechanism of oocyte maturation, including follicular development and the importance of mitochondrial changes. The differences between natural cycle IVF and stimulated IVF are presented in part II, including the standard ovarian stimulation protocols and their outcomes and the etiology, prevention and management of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Minimal and mild stimulation for IVF is discussed in part III, including mild stimulation protocols for oncofertility patients and the new minimally invasive INVO procedure. In vitro maturation as a clinical treatment is the subject of part IV, discussing the methodology of immature oocyte retrieval as well as other laboratory aspects and congenital and obstetrical outcomes of babies born from IVM. Combining expertise from thought leaders around the world, Development of In Vitro Maturation for Human Oocytes will be a go-to resource for infertility researchers and practitioners and reproductive endocrinologists working with infertile couples looking for safer and more cost-effective options for treatment.
Professor Mary Wingfield is one of Ireland's foremost fertility experts, and she has helped hundreds of people to conceive over the last thirty years. In The Fertility Handbook she has created an up-to-date and authoritative guide for anyone who wants to maximise their chance of pregnancy. This book provides a clear and holistic approach to fertility, including: Understanding your body and maximising your chances of conceiving naturally A pre-conception plan with sections on lifestyle, nutrition and the role of stress The common (and uncommon) causes of fertility problems in both men and women Demystifying complex treatments such as IVF, IUI and egg freezing Up-to-date information on ethics, funding and the law both nationally and internationally Options for single people and same-sex couples from a modern perspective Insightful testimonials from patients dealing with fertility problems and the emotional impact of treatment The Fertility Handbook is a must-read for anyone planning a pregnancy now or in the future. All royalties from the sale of this book will be donated to the Merrion Fertility Foundation, which funds fertility treatment. Mary Wingfield is a leading light in fertility treatment in Ireland for over a generation. If you are looking to know more about maximising your fertility, having a baby or what to do if you're having problems this book is a really good read. Dr Ciara Kelly - Alive and Kicking, Newstalk. 'Wonderfully accessible and hugely informative. Whether seeking or delivering care for infertility, this book will be invaluable'. Dr Rhona Mahony, Master, National Maternity Hospital
Part of the Infertility Management Series, this book is a concise guide to the diagnosis and management of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), caused by an imbalance of hormones in women, often leading to infertility if untreated. Beginning with an overview of prevalence, symptoms, genetics and physiology, the following sections examine different treatment options, from lifestyle management, to ovulation induction and surgical management. The final chapters discuss ART in women with PCOS, identification and treatment of ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome, and long term effects and metabolic syndrome. Edited by recognised experts in the field, the book is enhanced by clinical images and figures. Other titles in the Infertility Management Series include: Practical Management of Male Infertility, Intrauterine Insemination, and Investigating Infertility. Key Points Practical guide to diagnosis and management of PCOS Part of Infertility Management Series Covers all treatment methods, from lifestyle management, to surgical procedures Edited by recognised experts in the field
The U.S. population is getting older, and Americans are living longer, on average, than they ever have before. As they age, people are healthier and more active than the generations before them and have fewer functional limitations such as difficulty walking or blindness. Studies show that people are happier on average as they advance into their later decades and enjoy high levels of accumulated knowledge and experience. Getting older is a time of social, emotional, mental, and physical change. Retirement might change how a person interacts socially every day, affecting a persons mood and well-being. Cognitive aging--the normal process of cognitive change as a person gets older--can begin, or a permanent change in physical function may arise. Technology offers a path for people who are navigating these changes potentially to prevent or minimise the risks associated with them and to enhance peoples ability to live their lives fully. The Presidents Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), seeks to identify technologies and policies that will maximise the independence, productivity, and engagement of Americans in their later years. This book focuses on four key changes older Americans often experience: hearing loss; loss of social engagement and connectivity; cognitive change; and physical change.
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