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How much water does the world need to support growing human populations? What are the potential effects of climate change on the world's water resources? These questions and more are discussed in this thoroughly updated and expanded new edition. Written at the undergraduate level, this accessible textbook covers the fundamentals of water resources, water law, allocation, quality and quantity, health issues, and provides examples of potential personal actions and solutions. There is a keener focus on climate change, as many of the predictions made in the first edition have now come to pass. This new edition features improved artwork, more active learning prompts, more positive examples of beneficial changes, basic introductions to scientific approaches and a discussion of emerging contaminants and LiDAR technology. It contains strong teaching features, with new 'In Depth' and 'Think About It' sections to encourage class discussion, and homework questions to test students' understanding.
This exciting new textbook introduces the concepts and tools essential for upper-level undergraduate study in water resources and hydraulics. Tailored specifically to fit the length of a typical one-semester course, it will prove a valuable resource to students in civil engineering, water resources engineering, and environmental engineering. It will also serve as a reference textbook for researchers, practicing water engineers, consultants, and managers. The book facilitates students' understanding of both hydrologic analysis and hydraulic design. Example problems are carefully selected and solved clearly in a step-by-step manner, allowing students to follow along and gain mastery of relevant principles and concepts. These examples are comparable in terms of difficulty level and content with the end-of-chapter student exercises, so students will become well equipped to handle relevant problems on their own. Physical phenomena are visualized in engaging photos, annotated equations, graphical illustrations, flowcharts, videos, and tables.
Computational Hydraulics introduces the concept of modeling and the contribution of numerical methods and numerical analysis to modeling. It provides a concise and comprehensive description of the basic hydraulic principles, and the problems addressed by these principles in the aquatic environment. Flow equations, numerical and analytical solutions are included. The necessary steps for building and applying numerical methods in hydraulics comprise the core of the book and this is followed by a report of different example applications of computational hydraulics: river training effects on flood propagation, water quality modelling of lakes and coastal applications. The theory and exercises included in the book promote learning of concepts within academic environments. Sample codes are made available online for purchasers of the book. Computational Hydraulics is intended for under-graduate and graduate students, researchers, members of governmental and non-governmental agencies and professionals involved in management of the water related problems. Author: Ioana Popescu, Hydroinformatics group, UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft , The Netherlands.
This practical, user-friendly reference book of common mechanical engineering concepts is geared toward makers who don't have (or want) an engineering degree but need to know the essentials of basic mechanical elements to successfully accomplish their personal projects. The book provides practical mechanical engineering information (supplemented with the applicable math, science, physics, and engineering theory) without being boring like a typical textbook. Most chapters contain at least one hands-on, fully illustrated, step-by-step project to demonstrate the topic being discussed and requires only common, inexpensive, easily sourced materials and tools. Some projects also provide alternative materials and tools and processes to align with the reader's individual preferences, skills, tools, and materials-at-hand. Linked together via the authors' overarching project -- building a kid-sized tank -- the chapters describe the thinking behind each mechanism and then expands the discussions to similar mechanical concepts in other applications. Written with humor, a bit of irreverence, and entertaining personal insights and first-hand experiences, the book presents complex concepts in an uncomplicated way. Highlights include: Provides mechanical engineering information that includes math, science, physics and engineering theory without being a textbook Contains hands-on projects in each chapter that require common, inexpensive, easily sourced materials and tools All hands-on projects are fully illustrated with step-by-step instructions Some hands-on projects provide alternative materials and tools/processes to align with the reader's individual preferences, skills, tools and materials-at-hand Includes real-world insights from the authors like tips and tricks ("Staying on Track") and fail moments ("Lost Track!") Many chapters contain a section ("Tracking Further") that dives deeper into the chapter subject, for those readers that are interested in more details of the topic Builds on two related Make: projects to link and illustrate all the chapter topics and bring individual concepts together into one system Furnishes an accompanying website that offers further information, illustrations, projects, discussion boards, videos, animations, patterns, drawings, etc. Learn to effectively use professional mechanical engineering principles in your projects, without having to graduate from engineering school!
Hydrodynamics of Pumps is a reference for pump experts and a textbook for advanced students exploring pumps and pump design. This book is about the fluid dynamics of liquid turbomachines, particularly pumps. It focuses on special problems and design issues associated with the flow of liquid through a rotating machine. There are two characteristics of a liquid that lead to problems and cause a significantly different set of concerns than those in gas turbines. These are the potential for cavitation and the high density of liquids, which enhances the possibility of damaging, unsteady flows and forces. The book begins with an introduction to the subject, including cavitation, unsteady flows, and turbomachinery as well as basic pump design and performance principles. Chapter topics include flow features, cavitation parameters and inception, bubble dynamics, cavitation effects on pump performance, and unsteady flows and vibration in pumps discussed in the three final chapters. The book is richly illustrated and includes many practical examples."
New Edition Now Covers Shock-Wave Analysis An in-depth presentation of analytical methods and physical foundations, Analytical Fluid Dynamics, Third Edition breaks down the "how" and "why" of fluid dynamics. While continuing to cover the most fundamental topics in fluid mechanics, this latest work emphasizes advanced analytical approaches to aid in the analytical process and corresponding physical interpretation. It also addresses the need for a more flexible mathematical language (utilizing vector and tensor analysis and transformation theory) to cover the growing complexity of fluid dynamics. Revised and updated, the text centers on shock-wave structure, shock-wave derivatives, and shock-produced vorticity; supersonic diffusers; thrust and lift from an asymmetric nozzle; and outlines operator methods and laminar boundary-layer theory. In addition, the discussion introduces pertinent assumptions, reasons for studying a particular topic, background discussion, illustrative examples, and numerous end-of-chapter problems. Utilizing a wide variety of topics on inviscid and viscous fluid dynamics, the author covers material that includes: Viscous dissipation The second law of thermodynamics Calorically imperfect gas flows Aerodynamic sweep Shock-wave interference Unsteady one-dimensional flow Internal ballistics Force and momentum balance The Substitution Principle Rarefaction shock waves A comprehensive treatment of flow property derivatives just downstream of an unsteady three-dimensional shock Shock-generated vorticity Triple points An extended version of the Navier-Stokes equations Shock-free supersonic diffusers Lift and thrust from an asymmetric nozzle Analytical Fluid Dynamics, Third Edition outlines the basics of analytical fluid mechanics while emphasizing analytical approaches to fluid dynamics. Covering the material in-depth, this book provides an authoritative interpretation of formulations and procedures in analytical fluid dynamics, and offers analytical solutions to fluid dynamic problems.
During the life of a dam, changes in safety standards, legislation and land use will inevitably occur, and functional deterioration may also appear. To meet these challenges, these Proceedings from a panel of international experts assess, define and re-evaluate the design criteria for the construction of dams and the many attendant issues in on-going maintenance and management. Authors include international specialists: academics, professionals and those in local government, utilities and suppliers. Practitioners from these same fields will find the book a useful tool in acquiring a comprehensive knowledge of managing and retrofitting dams, so that they can continue to meet society's needs.
This wise, eloquent volume distils the essence of Dr. Jerry Lewis' rich 25-year background in the teaching of psychotherapeutic skills to residents and other professionals - skills that are central to the core identity of the psychiatrist.
A discussion of the fundamental aspects of fluid flow phenomena in a jointed rock mass, as well as various geological (structural) features and their influence on flow deformation characteristics. Various types of laboratory triaxial apparatus used in testing are also highlighted.
Flow-induced vibrations and noise continue to cause problems in a wide range of engineering applications ranging from civil engineering and marine structures to power generation and chemical processing. These proceedings bring together more than a hundred papers dealing with a variety of topics relating to flow-induced vibration and noise. The contents of this work constitute a mix of investigations by those working on the mechanisms of vibration and means of their alleviation, and studies by those in industry who draw on the present state of knowledge of these mechanisms to avoid or solve flow-induced vibration and noise problems in industrial applications.
This revised text provides an updated account of principles and survey modelling in hydraulic, coastal and offshore engineering. Topics covered include discrete forms of conservation laws, numerical methods, the foundations of computational hydraulics, and applications of computational hydraulics.
This text covers topics such as: hydrodynamic and water quality modeling; jets and plumes; turbulent sheer flows; air-water interaction; water quality models; environmental impact studies/Three Gorges project; water quality mangement; and eco hydraulics and river hydraulics.
Discussing the properties of tap water as the hydraulic pressure medium and the influence of water on component design, Water Hydraulics Control Technology describes the physical differences between water and mineral oil used in hydraulics... delineates, for the first time in book form, the complete range of water hydraulic products for power control systems... examines in depth newly developed, commercially available high-speed axial piston pumps and motors for industrial applications... analytically defines volumetric, mechanical, and total efficiencies of water hydraulic pumps and motors and provides experimental numerical data... furnishes measured-performance data for water hydraulic valves ... outlines procedures for the design of water hydraulic systems and looks at future developments ... and more. Written by an internationally recognized expert with over 40 years of industrial and academic experience, Water Hydraulics Control Technology is an incomparable resource for mechanical, design, control, chemical, fluid power, system, industrial, environmental, and manufacturing engineers; and upper-level undergraduate, graduate, and continuing-education students in these disciplines.
Reviewing basic fluid power principles, this updated Second Edition presents practical methods for detecting, diagnosing, and correcting fluid power problems within a system-detailing the design, maintenance, and troubleshooting of pneumatic, hydraulic, and electrical systems and components. Examines the root causes of failures in items such as hydraulic pumps and motors, air motors, hydraulic and pneumatic valves, compressors, accumulators, filters, seals, cylinders, tubing, fittings, and hoses Fully revised and expanded throughout, Fluid Power Troubleshooting, Second Edition stresses the latest developments in understanding the complex interactions of components within a fluid power system cartridge valve systems, proportional valve and servo-systems, and compressed air drying and filtering noise reduction and other environmental concerns the control of contaminants in hydraulic and pneumatic systems the selection and care of hydraulic system fluid the reduction of leaks in fluid power systems and much more
This is a comprehensive work of reference for engineers dealing with the hydraulic problems that occur along coastlines and estuaries and in harbours. This branch of engineering has experienced rapid and profound changes since the 1960s due to the introduction of powerful computer modelling techniques. The book presents concise reviews of key topics on these techniques as well as the traditional civil engineering aspects of design and construction of coastal and maritime works. The powerful tools which are now available for computational and numerical modelling of hydraulic systems have to a considerable extent replaced physical models as the most appropriate means of investigating and selecting economic design options. This development has taken place alongside a greater understanding of the transport processes of granular and cohesive sediments, and an increasing concern with the environmental impact of engineering works. At the design stage, the engineer now commonly has to demonstrate the impact of the proposed works on the natural/watery environment. The chapters are presented under seven main headings: the physical environment; the scientific background; numerical tools and t
A review of open channel turbulence, focusing especially on certain features stemming from the presence of the free surface and the bed of a river. Part one presents the statistical theory of turbulence; Part two addresses the coherent structures in open-channel flows and boundary layers.
This book provides an introduction to the subject of turbulence modelling in a form easy to understand for anybody with a basic background in fluid mechanics, and it summarizes the present state of the art. Individual models are described and examined for the merits and demerits which range from the simple Prandtl mixing length theory to complex second order closure schemes.
This monograph provides the practising engineer with a concise overview of the methods of water diversion and exclusion or removal of sediment from the diverted water. The emphasis is on flow features and the associated conveyance of sediments.
This work provides comprehensive guidance on maintaining old waterfront walls, especially gravity walls constructed with stone masonry, brick blocks or mass concrete. It should be of use to engineers and owners responsible for such structure. Many existing waterfront structures (harbour and dock walls, breakwaters, seawalls, flood defences, skin walls, bridge piers and abutments) are crucial parts of industrial or environmental facilities. Many date back to the 19th century and earlier, and information on their design and construction is often incomplete. They are often massive structures, and the problems of working over or under water and on the buried back of the wall mean that they are difficult and expensive to investigate and maintain, yet they represent substantial capital assets and appropriate management and maintenance are essential. This work draws together a wealth of information and experience on the types of wall that were constructed up to the earlier part of this century. It includes numerous drawings and illustrations of these walls and reviews their performance. It goes on to identify and describe the most suitable techniques available for their inspection, struct
This volume in the Hydraulic Machinery Book Series covers the most important types of hydraulic machinery: hydraulic turbines for transforming water power to mechanical output; and pumps for producing fluid pressure for many purposes. It describes the features of mechanical design of various types of turbines and pumps. The structure of a hydraulic machine is decided primarily to satisfy the need of fluid flow, so hydraulic characteristics of the machines are also stressed. Manufacturing processes of turbines and pumps and their requirements are referred to in chapters on mechanical construction.
This book presents practical hydraulic and river engineering research along with fluvial geomorphological concepts, and links the theoretical and practical knowledge of people working every day with rivers, streams, and hydraulic structures to fluvial geomorphology. Besides providing a guide for professionals, this book also provides material for students to acquire the knowledge and skills to rehabilitate rivers, streams, and waterways.
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