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Rivers and streams occupy a fundamental place within the British landscape. They are central and focal features of the natural landscape, helping to shape the very landforms of the country, as well as providing a range of habitats for flora and fauna. Few places in Britain are far from running water, and human society interacts with rivers in a wide range of ways. Most towns and cities grew up on riverbanks, and rivers play a vital role in economic, social and cultural life. They have provided power for industry; water for industrial use and human consumption; rivers have often been used for communication and the transport of goods; and they are sites of leisure and recreation. Most people are attracted to water; and rivers have featured prominently in literature and art over the centuries. Rivers can also pose threats, from flooding or pollution, and therefore have to be managed and regulated. Whereas there are many books which deal with specific aspects of rivers, "Rivers and the British Landscape" provides the first fully integrated analysis of British rivers exploring the physical formation of rivers; the characteristics of environments; analysis of the social, economic and cultural uses and associations of rivers; and examination of the problems of river management. These themes are explored through historical and contemporary examples, with case studies drawn from all parts of Britain. The book is lavishly illustrated and includes an appendix of key facts about British rivers. Written by experts on each aspect of British rivers, "Rivers and the British Landscape" is aimed at anyone with a general interest in rivers and the British landscape. The authors aim to highlight the holistic nature of river environments, and to explore the ways in which physical, economic, cultural and management characteristics interact to create the distinctive personalities of British rivers. It is hoped that material in this volume may help you to view your local river in a new light.
London has many rivers, but they are often hidden under centuries of development. Rivers like the Walbrook, the Fleet or the Westbourne have left their mark on the city, and still form an important part of our subterranean world. David Fathers traces the course of twelve hidden rivers in a series of detailed guided walks, illustrating the traces they have left and showing the ways they have shaped the city. Each walk starts at the tube or rail station nearest to the source of the river, and then follows it down to the Thames through parkland, suburbia, historic neighbourhoods and the vestiges of our industrial past. Along the way there are encounters with such extraordinary Londoners as William Blake, Judy Garland, Paul Robeson, Terence Donovan, Bradley Wiggins, Nelson, Lenin, Freud, and the great Victorian engineer Joseph Bazalgette. Hidden Rivers of London contains over 120 km of walks, both north and south of the Thames. Winding through the hills, valleys and marshes that underlie the city, every page is a revelation.
This book explains clearly how and where groundwater occurs, how it is used and how it is at risk.
Lakes are changing rapidly, not because we are separate from nature but because we are so much a part of it. While many of our effects on the natural world today are new, from climate change to nuclear fallout, our connections to it are ancient, as core samples from lake beds reveal. In Still Waters, Curt Stager introduces us to the worlds hidden beneath the surfaces of our most remarkable lakes, leading us on a journey from the wilds of Siberia to the Sea of Galilee. Through decades of first-hand investigations, Stager examines the significance of our impact on some of the world's most iconic inland waters. Along the way he discovers the stories these lakes contain about us. For him, lakes are not only mirrors reflecting our place in the natural world but also windows into our history, culture and the primal connections we share with all life.
When Ray Whaley set out to accomplish his bucket-list goal of kayaking the length of the St. Johns River, it didn't take long for him to realize he was in over his head. The longest river in Florida, stretching 310 miles between Vero Beach and Jacksonville, the St. Johns had been paddled in its entirety by only a handful of people. Whaley found himself blazing his own trail on an exciting and unexpected adventure.In Journey of a River Walker, Whaley tells the whole story of his experience, from his preparations beforehand to the techniques he learned along the way to his daily escapades and discoveries on the water. Learning from Whaley's recommendations, along with his mistakes and close calls, readers will gain valuable knowledge that will help them in planning their own paddling trips. Whaley's journey also highlights the delicate ecosystem of the river and the importance of conserving its environment, raising awareness of the fragile yet critical link between humans and nature.A volume in the series Wild Florida, edited by M. Timothy O'Keefe.
The Encyclopedia of Estuaries, part of Springer's Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series, provides a single, state-of-the-art, comprehensive reference volume on estuaries for research scientists, educators, students, and others. Consisting of almost 270 subject entries in an easy-to-use format, this volume covers the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of estuaries. In total more than 225 authors from around the world have contributed to the encyclopedia on such diverse subjects as biotic communities, essential habitats, food webs, fisheries, hydrology, pollution, conservation, and many more. The Encyclopedia of Estuaries will meet the needs of professionals worldwide by supplying detailed information from world-class estuarine and marine scientists as well as experts from other fields of study.
Rising at 11,750 feet in the Sangre de Cristo range and snaking 926 miles through New Mexico and Texas to the Rio Grande, the Pecos River is one of the most storied waterways in the American West. It is also one of the most troubled. In 1942, the National Resources Planning Board observed that the Pecos River basin ""probably presents a greater aggregation of problems associated with land and water use than any other irrigated basin in the Western U.S."" In the twenty-first century, the river's problems have only multiplied. Bitter Waters, the first book-length study of the entire Pecos, traces the river's environmental history from the arrival of the first Europeans in the sixteenth century to today. Running clear at its source and turning salty in its middle reach, the Pecos River has served as both a magnet of veneration and an object of scorn. Patrick Dearen, who has written about the Pecos since the 1980s, draws on more than 150 interviews and a wealth of primary sources to trace the river's natural evolution and man's interaction with it. Irrigation projects, dams, invasive saltcedar, forest proliferation, fires, floods, flow decline, usage conflicts, water quality deterioration - Dearen offers a thorough and clearly written account of what each factor has meant to the river and its prospects. As fine-grained in detail as it is sweeping in breadth, the picture Bitter Waters presents is sobering but not without hope, as it also extends to potential solutions to the Pecos River's problems and the current efforts to undo decades of damage. Combining the research skills of an accomplished historian, the investigative techniques of a veteran journalist, and the engaging style of an award-winning novelist, this powerful and accessible work of environmental history may well mark a turning point in the Pecos's fortunes.
An accessible introduction to large rivers, including coverage of the geomorphology, hydrology, ecology, and environments of large river systems This indispensible book takes a structured and global approach to the subject of large rivers, covering geomorphology, hydrology, ecology, and anthropogenic environment. It offers a thorough foundation for readers who are new to the field and presents enlightening discussions about issues of management at the worldwide scale. The book also examines possible future adaptations that may come about due to climate change. The book has benefitted from contributions by Professor W.J. Junk on the ecology of floodplains and Professor Olav Slaymaker on the large arctic rivers. Introducing Large Rivers is presented in three parts. Part 1 provides an introduction to the world's large rivers and their basins. It covers source, transfer, and storage of their water and sediment; Pleistocene inheritance; the ecology of channels and floodplains; deltas; and more. Several large rivers are discussed in the next part. These include the Amazon Mississippi, Nile, Ganga-Brahmaputra System, Mekong, and Yangtze. The last part examines changes in large rivers and our management of river systems. It studies anthropogenic alterations such as land use and deforestation in large river basins; structural control systems like dams and reservoirs on channels; and ecological changes. It finishes with chapters on the management of large rivers, covering both technical and political aspects, and the future of the world's big river systems. Introducing Large Rivers is ideal as an introductory textbook on large rivers for future earth and environmental scientists and river managers. It will also benefit advanced undergraduate and graduate students studying geography, geology, ecology, and river management.
The Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes are located on the Flathead Reservation in western Montana. They have undertaken a large-scale watershed restoration project in an effort to benefit bull trout in the Jocko River drainage. An important component of this project is education and outreach, of which the centerpiece is a multimedia set of educational materials describing the ecology and importance of bull trout and its relationship with the Salish and Pend d'Oreille people. This integrated set includes the storybook "Bull Trout's Gift," the "Field Journal," and the interactive DVD "Explore The River: Bull Trout, Tribal People, and the Jocko River."
Pollution of freshwater resources becomes an issue in virtually every country undergoing an industrialization process. While the main emphasis has been for many years on lakes due to their limited capacity of self-renewal, streams and rivers attract increasing attention due to their importance for agriculture, fisheries, drinking water reserves and as feeder of freshwater lakes and reservoirs. There are many factors influencing the ecology of streams, only some of them relating to direct anthropogenic influences and it is important to have reliable long term data on natural occurring variations in order to better estimate the default' status of a stream and to judge the influence of modern anthropogenic influences.
The Breitenbach is one of the best-studied streams on earth, as the nearby Max-Planck Outstation in Schlitz was founded in 1949 and scientists there have been collecting data ever since.
"Central European Stream Ecosystems: The Long Term Study of the Breitenbach "is the result of this research, and special focus has been placed on animal and microorganism occurrence and variation as well as chemical and physical parameters. Already this data influences the discussion of the good ecological state' reference values and it will be in particular useful to analyze the effect of global warming on the ecology of streams.
An invaluable data basis for modeling purposes, this important book is a useful resource for everyone in the world dealing with stream ecology, for example limnologists, ecologists, biologists and hydrologists.
With the Midwest under water, America had a chance to see how effectively it had "improved" its rivers. We've straightened and dredged them, revetted and rerouted them, made massive efforts to control them, yet our actions have been less than successful. Too often, physical changes made to a river conflict with natural processes, resulting in--rather than alleviating--damage. Applying available knowledge on how rivers form and act could prevent such problems. In this book, Luna Leopold seeks to organize such knowledge. Widely regarded as the most creative scholar in the field of river morphology, Leopold presents a coherent description of the river, its shape, size, organization, and action, along with a consistent theory that explains much of the observed character of channels.
The laws of physics that govern rivers allow for variations, many of them dictated by random chance. Thus, a river's adaptation, as Leopold describes it, tends toward the most probable form, the one with the least variance among hydraulic parameters. We see how this probabilistic tendency plays out as Leopold views the river as a whole from headwater to mouth, in the drainage net, in the behavior of meanders, and in aspects of sediment transport.
Grounded in hydraulics, geomorphology, and surveying, as well as in extensive fieldwork on rivers in the eastern and Rocky Mountain states, Leopold's view of a river is at once technical and personal, providing both a firm foundation for understanding the behavior of rivers--including instructions for getting started in backyard hydrology--and a wealth of firsthand observations by a thoughtful and experienced scientist. It will be of immediate interest andgreat use as we seek to develop, preserve, and appreciate our most fluid natural resource.
This book has grown from Intermediate Technology's field experiences with micro-hydro installations and covers operation and maintenance, commissioning, electrical power, induction generators, electronic controllers, management, and energy surveys.
Formed by the confluence of the Ocmulgee and Oconee Rivers, the
Altamaha is the largest free-flowing river on the East Coast and
drains its third-largest watershed. It has been designated as one
of the Nature Conservancy's seventy-five Last Great Places because
of its unique character and rich natural diversity. In evocative
photography and elegant prose, "Altamaha" captures the distinctive
beauty of this river and offers a portrait of the man who has
become its improbable guardian.
This book is geared for advanced level research in the general subject area of remote sensing and modeling as they apply to the coastal marine environment. The various chapters focus on the latest scientific and technical advances in the service of better understanding coastal marine environments for their care, conservation and management. Chapters specifically deal with advances in remote sensing coastal classifications, environmental monitoring, digital ocean technological advances, geophysical methods, geoacoustics, X-band radar, risk assessment models, GIS applications, real-time modeling systems, and spatial modeling. Readers will find this book useful because it summarizes applications of new research methods in one of the world s most dynamic and complicated environments. Chapters in this book will be of interest to specialists in the coastal marine environment who deals with aspects of environmental monitoring and assessment via remote sensing techniques and numerical modeling."
This new edition of Guide to Process Based Modeling of Lakes and Coastal Seas brings the modeling up to date, taking into account multiple stressors acting on aquatic systems. The combination of acidification and increasing amounts of anoxic waters associated with eutrophication puts severe stress on the marine environment. The detection and attribution of anthropogenic changes in coastal seas are therefore crucial and transparent modeling tools are increasingly important. Modeling the marine CO2-O2 system makes systematic studies on climate change and eutrophication possible and is fundamental for understanding the Earth system. This second edition also includes new sections on detection and attribution and on modeling future changes, as well as improved exercises, updated software, and datasets. This unique book will stimulate students and researchers to develop their modeling skills and make model codes and data transparent to other research groups. It uses the general equation solver PROBE to introduce process-oriented numerical modeling and to build understanding of the subject step by step. The equation solver has been used in many applications, particularly in Sweden and Finland with their numerous lakes, archipelago seas, fjords, and coastal zones. It has also been used for process studies in the Polar Seas and the Mediterranean Sea and the approach is suitable for applications in many other environmental applications. Guide to Process Based Modeling of Lakes and Coastal Seas: * is a unique teaching tool for systematic learning of aquatic modeling; * approaches lake and ocean modeling from a new angle; * introduces aquatic numerical modeling using a process-based approach; * enables the thorough understanding of the physics and biogeochemistry of lakes and coastal seas; * provides software, datasets, and algorithms needed to reproduce all calculations and results in the book; * provides a number of creative and stimulating exercises with solutions; * addresses the interaction between climate change and eutrophication and is a good basis for learning Earth System Sciences.
A peer reviewed, comprehensive encyclopedia that reflects the current state of water science and engineering from multidisciplinary global viewpoints Water quantity and quality are becoming increasingly urgent environmental issues. To meet the growing water demands of our expanding global population, professionals are turning to nontraditional sources and technologies. This expansive, multidisciplinary reference work contains hundreds of articles that reflect the many substantial changes that have occurred in the field of water science. Topics include the hydrologic cycle, nanomaterials and colloids, ecology and microbiology, oceans and coastal processes, ice and glaciers, climate change and sustainability, societal considerations, water and health, and more. This comprehensive work features standalone, authoritative, verifiable, carefully edited, well organized, and accessible content. Written and peer-reviewed by experts from around the world, The Encyclopedia of Water: Science, Technology, and Society comes in five volumes that cover: Fundamentals of Water, Chemistry, Particles, and Ecology; Hydrology, Groundwater, and Surface Water; Atmosphere and Precipitation, Ice and Glaciers, Oceans and Costs, Soils and Mineral-Water Interface; Water Technology; and Human Dimension. The Encyclopedia: Offers a multidisciplinary reference work covering water-related topics at the fundamental and applied levels Contains 229 articles on a wide range of subjects, including: Basic Concepts, The Hydrologic Cycle, Water Technology, and Societal Considerations and Special Topics Provides carefully edited articles presenting verifiable information and references Written and reviewed by a team of global experts Encyclopedia of Water is a must-have reference for all hydrologists, environmental chemists and geochemists, environmental engineers, soil scientists, agriculturists, biologists, health scientists, and ecologists, as well as senior undergraduate and postgraduate students and educators in these areas. It is an important resource for all libraries in universities and colleges, industry, research organizations, and government departments.
From its small headwaters in Hall County, Georgia, the North Oconee winds nearly seventy miles, tumbling over granite outcroppings at Hurricane Shoals and on to Athens, where it meets the Middle Oconee. From there, the Oconee courses 220 miles through east-central Georgia to meet the Ocmulgee convergence near Lumber City, forming the Altamaha River, which flows to the Atlantic Ocean. As the Oconee's importance as a recreational amenity has grown over the years, University of Georgia students and instructors, the Altamaha Riverkeeper, Georgia River Network, Upper Oconee Watershed Network, and the North Oconee River Greenway have worked together to create a plan for water trails and recreational trails along the river as it flows through Athens. In the Oconee River User's Guide, both novice and experienced water sports enthusiasts will find all the information required to enjoy the river, including detailed maps, put in and take out suggestions, fishing and camping locations, mile-by-mile points of interest, and an illustrated guide to the animals and plants commonly seen in and around the river. Daytrippers will enjoy Joe Cook's fascinating description of the cultural and natural heritage of this richly diverse waterway. The Oconee River is home to seventy-four species of fish, including the Altamaha shiner, found only in the Altamaha River basin, as well as thirty-seven species of salamanders and frogs and forty-three species of reptiles, including the American alligator, found in the lower Oconee downstream of Milledgeville. FEATURES: an introduction and overview of the river chapters describing each river section with detailed maps and notes on river access and points of interest a compact natural history guide featuring species of interest found along Georgia's rivers notes on safety and boating etiquette a fishing primer notes on organizations working to protect the river
Water Resources and Coastal Management presents a comprehensive and unique collection of articles which provide an interdisciplinary perspective on the science and management of global coastal resources. This important volume comprises five main sections. Part I reviews basic scientific concepts and underpinning knowledge of the processes at work in this dynamic environment. Part II considers how the natural variability of coastal zone environments has been unsustainably exacerbated by development and exploitation of such resources. Parts III and IV focus upon the various aspects of the management response options that could or have been deployed both in developed and developing countries. Finally, Part V examines the management issues that surround regional seas and their, often international, resource regions.
In a powerful work of environmental history, Martin Doyle tells the epic story of America and its rivers, from the U.S. Constitution's roots in interstate river navigation, to the failure of the levees in Hurricane Katrina and the water wars in the west. Through his own travels and his encounters with experts all over the country-a Mississippi River tugboat captain, an Erie Canal lock operator, a project manager buying water rights for farms along the Colorado River-Doyle reveals the central role rivers have played in American history and how vital they are to its future.
The application of natural isotopes, stable as well as radioactive, has become a widespread tool for hydrological research, especially surface- and groundwater behavior and exploration. By far the most common isotopes applied are those of the elements of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, which are crucial in the water cycle. The concentration ratios of the stable isotopes in water (2H/1H, 18O/16O) vary depending on the source of the water and natural processes such as evaporation and condensation. The radioactive isotopes 3H and 14C may provide indications of the source of water and the time elapsed since infiltration.
Introduction to Isotope Hydrology explains, in a simple but mathematically, physically, and chemically correct form, the consequences of natural processes to stable isotope concentrations and radioactivities. It also presents indications of possible applications without the pretention of a cookbook. After a largely theoretical introduction, the elements of the water cycle are treated successively: precipitation globally, regionally, and locally; different forms of surface water, including rivers, rivulets and small streams, lakes and stagnant waters, estuaries, and the sea; and groundwater infiltration and flow.
The book also includes three appendices that deal with water sample treatment in the field and in the laboratory, measurement techniques for stable and radioactive isotopes, and the inorganic carbon chemistry of water, needed for understanding the behavior of the carbon isotopes.
Historians, biographers, and scholars of John James Audubon and natural history have long been mystified by Audubon's 1843 Missouri River expedition, for his journals of the trip were thought to have been destroyed by his granddaughter Maria Rebecca Audubon. Daniel Patterson is the first scholar to locate and assemble three important fragments of the 1843 Missouri River journals, and here he offers a stunning transcription and critical edition of Audubon's last journey through the American West. Patterson's new edition of the journals-unknown to Audubon scholars and fans-offers a significantly different understanding of the very core of Audubon's life and work. Readers will be introduced to a more authentic Audubon, one who was concerned about the disappearance of America's wild animal species and yet also loved to hunt and display his prowess in the wilderness. This edition reveals that Audubon's famous late conversion to conservationism on this expedition was, in fact, a literary fiction. Maria Rebecca Audubon created this myth when she rewrote her grandfather's journals for publication to make him into a visionary conservationist. In reality the journals detail almost gratuitous hunting predations throughout the course of Audubon's last expedition. The Missouri River Journals of John James Audubon is the definitive presentation of America's most famous naturalist on his last expedition and assesses Audubon's actual environmental ethic amid his conflicted relationship with the natural world he so admired and depicted in his iconic works.
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