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The Arab Uprisings of 2010 and 2011 had a profound effect on labor politics in the region, with trade unions mobilizing to an extent never before seen. How did these formerly quiescent trade unions become militant? What linkages did they make to other social forces during and after the revolutions? And why did Tunisian unions emerge cohesive and influential while Egyptian unions were fractured and lacked influence? Following extensive interviews, Ian M. Hartshorn answers these questions and assesses how unions forged alliances, claimed independence, and cooperated with international groups. Looking at institutions both domestically and internationally, he traces the corporatist collapse and the role of global labor in offering training and new possibilities for disgruntled workers. With special attention to the relationship with rising Islamist powers, he also examines the ways in which political parties tried to use labor, and vice versa, and provides a detailed study of the role of labor in ousting the first Islamist governments.
Despite variation in ethnicity, age and sex, the labour force in Cameroon has displayed considerable solidarity. Trade unions were active but after independence came under state control, whereas the informal labour organisations retained their solidarity in the disputes of the 1960s and 1970s. Cameroon: Editions Cles
The author analyzes the considerable legislation enacted between 1945 and 1970 and its effect on labour-management-public relations. He looks at their relevance for Britain today, and offers the most complete survey yet available of the operations of American labour as a pressure group.
First published in 1993, this title explores the underlying ideologies and decision-making procedures that codify the rules of the post-World War II liberal, now defunct Soviet socialist, mercantilist and South preferential trade regimes. Food Fights presents a rich case study and rigorous data analysis of organised agrictultural trade that uncovers similarities between these diverse economic systems and identifies the principle trends governing the new global economy.
It is ironic that those whose job it is to save lives often find themselves injured in the course of performing their duties. In fact, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, healthcare workers have higher injury rates than agriculture workers, miners, and construction workers. The Handbook of Modern Hospital Safety, Second Edition covers exposure paradigms and offers solutions and models of protection for these individuals, presenting the latest science and intervention strategies that have proven successful in the scientific community. Extensively revised, this second edition explores a host of hazardous conditions that are faced by healthcare workers in today's hospitals, including: * infection and infectious diseases * back injuries * needlesticks * workplace violence * slip, trip, and fall injuries * ergonomic issues * electrocautery smoke * toxic drugs * ethylene oxide * aldehydes * pentamidine * ribavirin In this long-awaited update to William Charney's seminal work, experts from leading hospitals, universities, and health organizations explore these health risks and suggested preventive measures, discuss recent research and new information on technology to protect workers, cover new legislation and regulations, and provide insight into the philosophy of creating a safe hospital culture.
Economic Performance in the Americas compares the economic performances of Brazil, Mexico and the USA over the past half century. As with most other high and middle-income countries their economies are service-sector orientated and have been for several decades. This book encompasses all sectors of the economy but focuses primarily on services, analysing both the main trends in the various service industries in Brazil and Mexico and the underlying forces shaping their huge expansion. The growth of services obscures large differences between the two Latin countries and the USA in terms of the types of services that gained importance and the driving growth forces. The author provides a fascinatingly unique and comprehensive overview of the long run development of the entire service sector in the countries discussed. Using new methods for international comparisons of output and productivity in services, Nanno Mulder examines the impact of the increased service sector orientation in the overall economy. Relative to the USA, the Brazilian and Mexican service sectors performed better than agriculture and to a lesser extent, industry. However, this positive contribution hides large discrepancies, with some service industries showing important productivity gains whereas others turned out stagnant. Scholars and analysts of macroeconomics, industrial economics and development economics will warmly welcome this book.
Slavery is illegal throughout the world, yet more than twenty-seven million people are still trapped in one of history's oldest social institutions. Kevin Bales' disturbing story of slavery today reaches from brick kilns in Pakistan and brothels in Thailand to the offices of multinational corporations. His investigation of conditions in Mauritania, Brazil, Thailand, Pakistan, and India reveals the tragic emergence of a "new slavery", one intricately linked to the global economy. The new slaves are not a long-term investment as was true with older forms of slavery, explains Bales. Instead, they are cheap, require little care, and are disposable. Three interrelated factors have helped create the new slavery. The enormous population explosion over the past three decades has flooded the world's labor markets with millions of impoverished, desperate people. The revolution of economic globalization and modernized agriculture has dispossessed poor farmers, making them and their families ready targets for enslavement. And rapid economic change in developing countries has bred corruption and violence, destroying social rules that might once have protected the most vulnerable individuals. Bales' vivid case studies present actual slaves, slaveholders, and public officials in well-drawn historical, geographical, and cultural contexts. He observes the complex economic relationships of modern slavery and is aware that liberation is a bitter victory for a child prostitute or a bondaged miner if the result is starvation. Bales offers suggestions for combating the new slavery and provides examples of very positive results from organizations such as Anti-Slavery International, the Pastoral Land Commission in Brazil, and the Human Rights Commission in Pakistan. He also calls for researchers to follow the flow of raw materials and products from slave to marketplace in order to effectively target campaigns of "naming and shaming" corporations linked to slavery. "Disposable People" is the first book to point the way to abolishing slavery in today's global economy. All of the author's royalties from this book go to fund anti-slavery projects around the world.
This comprehensive collection brings together an impressive range of papers on the economics of labor unions. Some of these are classics, and others are less well known - included because they cover significant but under-researched areas, or because they raise interesting questions that as yet remain unanswered. The study of labor unions has long fascinated economists. Over the last quarter of the twentieth century there has been a tremendous evaluation of research in this area. This blossoming occurred with the growth of labor economics as a discipline separate from industrial relations, and with the development of micro data sets and the dissemination of sophisticated new micro-econometric techniques with which to analyse them. These volumes include papers that not only span the most important topics in the economics of labor unions, but also offer a useful overview of the field and its methodology. They will prove invaluable both to researchers and practitioners.
Trust is an elusive concept, meaning different things to different people, and so needs to be clearly defined. By focusing on relations within and between firms, Bart Nooteboom undertakes to produce a clearer definition of trust and its role in the economy. Trust deals with a range of questions such as: what are the roles of trust? What can we trust in? Can trust serve as an instrument for the governance of relations? Is trust a substitute, a precondition or an outcome of contracts? The author then goes on to analyse what trust is based on, what its limits are, how it grows and how it can also break down. The role of intermediaries is also discussed. Bart Nooteboom argues that trust goes beyond calculative self-interest and that blind, unconditional trust is unwise. He then examines the paradox of how trust can be non-calculative and yet, not blind. The book also reveals ways to measure and model trust, its antecedents and its consequences.
In Marx After Marx, Harry Harootunian questions the claims of Western Marxism and its presumption of the final completion of capitalism. If this shift in Marxism reflected the recognition that the expected revolutions were not forthcoming in the years before World War II, its Cold War afterlife helped to both unify the West in its struggle with the Soviet Union and bolster the belief that capitalism remained dominant in the contest over progress. This book deprovincializes Marx and the West's cultural turn by returning to the theorist's earlier explanations of capital's origins and development, which followed a trajectory beyond Euro-America to Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Marx's expansive view shows how local circumstances, time, and culture intervened to reshape capital's system of production in these regions. His outline of a diversified global capitalism was much more robust than was his sketch of the English experience in Capital and helps explain the disparate routes that evolved during the twentieth century. Engaging with the texts of Lenin, Luxemburg, Gramsci, and other pivotal theorists, Harootunian strips contemporary Marxism of its cultural preoccupation by reasserting the deep relevance of history.
The Economics of Technology Transfer presents a selection of the most important articles in the field, many of which are not easily accessible. The volume pays particular attention to issues facing developing countries in the context of rapid technical change, globalisation of production and the international spread of innovation itself. Part I focuses on theory and concepts. Part II, which examines multinationals, deals with the main engines of technology development and transfer. Part III discusses developing countries, pointing to the possible conflict between internalised technology transfer (via multinational enterprises) and the needs of domestic technological capability building. The final two parts include papers on technology transfer processes and issues in selected countries of Latin America, East Asia, the transition economies and the mature industrial economies. The Economics of Technology Transfer will be essential reading for students, researchers and policy makers concerned with international technology transfer.
The Dynamics of Industrial Collaboration revisits and reformulates issues previously raised by inter-firm collaboration. The latest research in collaboration, processes and evaluation of cooperation, and industrial and research networks, is presented by way of both empirical and theoretical studies. The authors use several theoretical perspectives to explain inter-firm and inter-institutional collaboration: the theory of transaction costs and contracts, evolutionary theory, and the resource-based view. The book illustrates that none of these approaches are dominant. The issue of collaboration is raised in various contexts such as the new economics, biotechnology, and the motor industry. It will be of special interest to industrial economists and scholars of evolutionary economics.
This publication is a collection of selected papers from the 3rd International Symposium on Work Ability Promotion of Work Ability Towards a Productive Aging.
It addresses the Work Ability Index (WAI) as an index for evaluating work ability, developed by the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health as a tool for evaluating work ability of workers. The ICOH SC for Aging and Work has promoted the use of this index through international conferences, publications and other means and by constructing an international database based on this index. As a result, today the WAI is used in 25 languages. WAI is becoming an international and multi-cultural technique.
This book is a collection of papers that discuss, from a variety of angles, the goal of developing a truly international standard tool that can be used in common internationally, taking into account differences in circumstances among countries, striving towards a common guideline that exceeds national and regional boundaries and can be used for the diagnostic evaluation of work ability and employability.
Trade Unions in a Neoliberal World is the first book to provide readers with an authoritative and comprehensive assessment of the impact of New Labour governments on employment relations and trade unions. This innovative text locates changes in industrial politics since the 1990s in the development of globalization and the worldwide emergence of neoliberalism. The advent of Tony Blair's government in 1997 promised a new dawn for employment relations. In this rigorous but readable volume, a team of experienced and respected contributors explain in detail how the story has unfolded. This book looks at all aspects of New Labour's policies in relation to employment relations and trade unionism. The first half of Trade Unions in a Neoliberal World presents an overview of industrial politics, the evolution of New Labour and an anatomy of contemporary trade unionism. It discusses relations between the Labour Party and the unions and the response of trade unionists to political and economic change. The second part contains chapters on legislation, partnership, organizing, training, strikes and perspectives on Europe.
The classic text on resolving workplace conflicts, fully revised and updated
Resolving Conflicts at Work is a guide for preventing and resolving conflicts, miscommunications, and misunderstandings at work, including dozens of techniques for revealing how the inevitable disputes and divisions in the workplace are actually opportunities for greater creativity, productivity, enhanced morale, and personal growth. In the third edition of this text, all chapters are completely infused with additional content, updated examples, and new case studies. Like its predecessors, it identifies core strategies for preventing and resolving both intermittent and chronic conflicts in the workplace.?In addition, the bookIncludes a new foreword by Warren Bennis, which represents his most recent thinking about judgment calls and candid communications in the workplacePresents new chapters on leadership and transformational conflict coaching, and organizational systems designFeatures downloadable teaching materials available for faculty using the book
This definitive and comprehensive work provides a handy guide for managers, employees, union representatives, human resource experts, and consultants seeking to maintain stable and productive workplaces.
The main original aim of the European Union was to promote convergence towards higher economic growth and social standards. However, EU countries have sometimes experienced different trajectories, due in part to their different starting points and the fact that their convergence on particular socio-economic indicators has varied. At the same time, little evidence has so far been presented on cross-country convergence within the EU. This book aims to answer a number of important questions. To what extent have European countries converged or diverged with EU-wide economic and social indicators over the past 20 years? What have been the drivers of convergence? Why do some countries lag behind, while others experience continuous upward convergence? Why are these trajectories not always linear? Particular attention is paid to the role of institutions, actors and industrial relations - focusing on the resources and strategies of governments, employers and trade unions - in nudging EU countries onto an upward convergence path. This book provides a unique analysis of socio-economic indicators to identify convergence trends in the EU. It defines a number of clusters that help to gauge the strengths and weaknesses of national socio-economic models and the European Social Model. Cross-country case studies help to identify the possible impact of global movements (migration, foreign investment) and policies (social protection, social dialogue, employment) on cross-country convergence. This book offers a timely assessment of convergence within the EU, identifying its drivers in the world of work and in institutions and industrial relations. It presents examples of where institutions and industrial relations can change convergence outcomes and proposes a range of useful policy options. Scholars and researchers will find it an invaluable reference for studies of European affairs and social policies.
Just looking at the Pacific Northwest's many verdant forests and fields, it may be hard to imagine the intense work it took to transform the region into the agricultural powerhouse it is today. Much of this labor was provided by Mexican guest workers, Tejano migrants, and undocumented immigrants, who converged on the region beginning in the mid-1940s. Of Forests and Fields tells the story of these workers, who toiled in the fields, canneries, packing sheds, and forests, turning the Pacific Northwest into one of the most productive agricultural regions in the country. Employing an innovative approach that traces the intersections between Chicana/o labor and environmental history, Mario Sifuentez shows how ethnic Mexican workers responded to white communities that only welcomed them when they were economically useful, then quickly shunned them. He vividly renders the feelings of isolation and desperation that led to the formation of ethnic Mexican labor organizations like the Pineros y Campesinos Unidos Noroeste (PCUN) farm workers union, which fought back against discrimination and exploitation. Of Forests and Fields not only extends the scope of Mexican labor history beyond the Southwest, it offers valuable historical precedents for understanding the struggles of immigrant and migrant laborers in our own era. Sifuentez supplements his extensive archival research with a unique set of first-hand interviews, offering new perspectives on events covered in the printed historical record. A descendent of ethnic Mexican immigrant laborers in Oregon, Sifuentez also poignantly demonstrates the links between the personal and political, as his research leads him to amazing discoveries about his own family history.
In recent years, and to varying degrees, there has been a marked trend towards decentralisation of labour market regulation in many European countries. The authors of this book seek to assess the impact of social partnership and social protection on the macroeconomic performance of nine member states of the European Union - namely Austria, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the UK. They compare the performance outcomes of these countries with the USA over the last twenty years and find that, in broad terms, the countries that perform `best' are those that have adapted and decentralised their systems of social partnership and protection. The authors also analyse the changing nature of social partnership and protection within the European Union (EU). They examine recent developments in EU social policy, particularly its shift towards employment promotion through the national action plans on employment that each member state is now required to introduce. These reinforce social partnership but also impose new challenges for governments, employers and unions to meet. Central amongst these challenges is the need to ensure that social partnership is as inclusive as possible. The authors conclude that the EU requires more social partnership if ever closer union, including monetary union, is to succeed and that employment promotion programmes must be pursued by the EU as a whole.
Economists need to understand some fundamental aspects of science in order to measure and analyse the process of technological change. This book explores the interrelationships between economics, science and technology in order to find ways of improving economists' approaches to technical change. Dr Payson begins by offering a scientific critique of economic discourse and presents a unique, unconstrained and critical view of the behavioral differences between economists and scientists. The economic literature on technological change is analysed in order to assess economists' approach to science. The author then offers concrete solutions for the useful economic study of technological change including alternative methods of classifying data based on scientific principles, a characteristics approach to measuring physical capital, and a futuristic exploration into how artificial intelligence may improve economics.
Historically, alternative models of the employment relationship have developed across culturally diverse nation states. However, the trend towards globalization incorporates a powerful force towards an international uniformity of employment relations. Underlying the issues addressed in this book is the question of how important cultural differences are and will continue to be. Ferrie Pot analyses the impact of national culture on the way the employment relationship is organized using case studies from the United States and the Netherlands. Evidence from these countries suggests that nations respond to globalization in line with their cultural values. As such, this book challenges the widespread belief that global trends will lead to the homogenization of the employment relationship.
The sectoral composition of economies is fundamental to the understanding of growth, unemployment and the relative performance of nations. Henri de Groot models the relationship between these four factors from a single theoretical perspective in order to determine the foundations of the wealth of nations. Special issues that are addressed include: * the macroeconomic consequences of outsourcing and downsizing * unemployment and catching-up * the relationship between growth and unemployment in a dual labour market * the relative stagnancy of Europe versus the USA in terms of productivity levels and unemployment * transitional dynamics in two-sector endogenous growth models * the causes of deindustrialization * the role of trade unions and efficiency-wage considerations Growth, Unemployment and Deindustrialization will be of paramount interest to scholars of endogenous growth theory, economic growth and unemployment, labour market economics and industrial organization.
The Safety Critical Systems Handbook: A Straightforward Guide to Functional Safety: IEC 61508 (2010 Edition), IEC 61511 (2016 Edition) & Related Guidance, Fourth Edition, presents the latest on the electrical, electronic, and programmable electronic systems that provide safety functions that guard workers and the public against injury or death, and the environment against pollution. The international functional safety standard IEC 61508 was revised in 2010, and authors David Smith and Kenneth Simpson provide a comprehensive guide to the revised standard, as well as the revised IEC 61511 (2016). The book enables engineers to determine if a proposed or existing piece of equipment meets the safety integrity levels (SIL) required by the various standards and guidance, and also describes the requirements for the new alternative route (route 2H), introduced in 2010. A number of other areas have been updated by Smith and Simpson in this new edition, including the estimation of common cause failure, calculation of PFDs and failure rates for redundant configurations, societal risk, and additional second tier guidance documents. As functional safety is applicable to many industries, this book will have a wide readership beyond the chemical and process sector, including oil and gas, machinery, power generation, nuclear, aircraft, and automotive industries, plus project, instrumentation, design, and control engineers.
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