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Health care is under tremendous pressure regarding efficiency, safety, and economic viability. It has responded by adopting techniques that have been useful in other industries, such as quality management, lean production, and high reliability - although with limited, and all-too-often disappointing, results. The Resilient Health Care Network (RHCN) has worked since 2011 to facilitate the interaction and collaboration among practitioners and researchers interested in applying concepts from resilience engineering to health care and patient safety. This has met with considerable success, not least because the focus from the start was on developing concrete ways to complement a Safety-I perspective with a Safety-II perspective. Building on previous volumes, Delivering Resilient Health Care presents documented experiences and practical guidance on how to bring Resilient Health Care into practice. It provides concrete advice on how to prepare a study, how to choose the right data, how to collect it, how to analyse the data, and how to interpret the results. This fourth book in the Resilient Healthcare series contains contributions from international experts in health care, organisational studies and patient safety, as well as resilience engineering. This book provides a practical guide for delivering resilient healthcare, particularly for clinicians on the frontline of care unsure how to incorporate resilience into their everyday work, managers coordinating care, and for policymakers hoping to steer the system in the right direction. Other groups - patients, the media, and researchers - will also find much of interest here.
Introducing Employment Relations draws on the most up-to-date research and many contemporary examples to encourage students to think critically about the significant issues surrounding employment relations from a variety of perspectives. Integrated learning features, factual examples, and real-life case studies prompt students to reflect on how employment relations are regulated, experienced, and contested, by organizations and employees, collectively or individually. End-of-chapter assignment and discussion questions then develop reflective learning and promote lively debate. This edition offers a brand new chapter on employment relations in an international context and in relation to globalisation, covering global supply chains, international trade unions, and labour conflict. Comparison between labour markets and the spread of neoliberalism and financialization are analysed in Chapter 2, with new material in Chapter 10 helping students turn a critical eye to how conflict is managed in practice, whether it's in the context of managing disciplinary procedures, staff absences, or grievances. Organized thematically to provide comprehensive coverage, while maintaining a critical focus to draw out the contemporary debates surrounding work, employment, and employment relations, it is clear to see why this book is the most trusted and thought-provoking introduction to the subject available. Williams' accessible and focussed style combined with the carefully designed learning features means students can rely on this book to provide all they need to support their study of employment relations. This book is supported by an Online Resource Centre, which includes: For students: Flashcard glossary Web case studies Web links Video links Updates For lecturers: PowerPoint slides Case study guide Guide to end-of-chapter questions Guide to web cases Figures and tables from the book
Reflecting the increased attention to gender and women in the field of employment relations, there is now a growing international literature on women and trade unions. The interest in women as trade unionists arises partly from the fact that women comprise 40 percent of trade union membership in the USA and over 50 percent in the UK. Further, despite considerable overall union membership decline in both the UK and USA, more women than men are joining unions in both countries. Recognition of the importance of women to the survival and revival of trade union movements has in many cases produced an unprecedented commitment to equality and inclusion at the highest level. Yet the challenge is to ensure that this commitment is translated to action and improves the experience of women in their union and in their workplace.
Gender and Leadership in Trade Unions explores and evaluates the similarities and differences in equality strategies pursued by unions in the US and the UK. It assesses the conditions experienced by women union members and how these impact on their leadership, both potential and actual. Women have made gains in both countries within union leadership and decision-making structures, however, climbing the ladder to leadership positions remains far from a smooth process. In the trade union context, women face multiple barriers that resonate with the barriers facing aspiring women leaders in other organizational contexts, including the gendered division of domestic work; the organization and nature of women s work; the organization and nature of trade union work and the masculine culture of trade unions. The discussion of women trade union leaders is situated more broadly within debates on governance, leadership and democracy within social justice activism.
Politicians and public managers utilize branding to communicate with the public as well as to position themselves within the ever-present media now so central to political and administrative life. They must further contend with stakeholders holding contradictory opinions about the nature of a problem, the desirable solutions , and the values at stake. Branding is used as a strategy to manage perceptions, motivate stakeholders, communicate clear messages in the media, and position policies and projects. Brands have a unique ability to simplify such messages and motivate different actors to invest their energy in governance processes. Public administration scholars so far have however paid little attention to branding. This book provides a systematic analysis of branding as phenomenon in governance. It deals with the nature of public branding, its relation to existing theories in public administration, the way branding is used as a managerial strategy in governance processes, and the risks and limitations of branding. Branding in Public Governance and Management highlights the growing importance of public banding as a public management strategy to influence political events, decision-making processes and outcomes in governance processes.
In most schools you will probably see one, if not all of the following: Metal detectors to prevent handguns and other weapons from being brought onto school property Students in standardized uniforms to prevent the appearance of gang affiliations Police officers patrolling the property to deter violent activity as well as respond to incidents Such evolutions have forever changed how we view the safety of our students. However, the phrase "school safety" goes beyond these issues of security put in place to protect students, faculty, and staff. Environmental factors also play a role. The Comprehensive Handbook of School Safety expands the dialogue on school safety to comprehensively address the spectrum of safety risks such as bullying, fire safety, playground and transportation safety, and more. Based on research and practical experience, it helps school administrators develop appropriate programs that protect all individuals from harm. Author E. Scott Dunlap brings his experience in OSHA and DOT compliance, behavior-based safety, and organizational safety culture to bear on the issue of school safety. He presents school safety from a holistic perspective and details vulnerability assessment tools and incident investigation forms to help schools develop a comprehensive safety program. By focusing on this range of issues, the book's dynamic perspective puts the keys to achieving an effective safety program within easy reach.
When the Space Shuttle Challenger exploded on January 28, 1986, millions of Americans became bound together in a single, historic moment. Many still vividly remember exactly where they were and what they were doing when they heard about the tragedy. Diane Vaughan recreates the steps leading up to that fateful decision, contradicting conventional interpretations to prove that what occurred at NASA was not skullduggery or misconduct but a disastrous mistake. Why did NASA managers, who not only had all the information prior to the launch but also were warned against it, decide to proceed? In retelling how the decision unfolded through the eyes of the managers and the engineers, Vaughan uncovers an incremental descent into poor judgment, supported by a culture of high-risk technology. She reveals how and why NASA insiders, when repeatedly faced with evidence that something was wrong, normalized the deviance so that it became acceptable to them. In a new preface, Vaughan reveals the ramifications for this book and for her when a similar decision-making process brought down NASA's Space Shuttle Columbia in 2003.
East Asia has undergone an intense period of economic development and accompanying social change in recent years and among the unforeseen social phenomena that have emerged are new forms of trade unions. This book analyzes the importance of such a new union movement in Korea by focusing on the promotion of social reforms by, and the intensification of interunion solidarity between the white-collar movement factions. Three sectors of the white-collar movement are examined-financial, hospital, and research unions. In comparing their success in raising social reforms and fortifying interunion solidarity, Doowon Suh considers diverse macro and micro social relations, such as the structure of political opportunities, organization leadership, and the effects of internal labor markets. This book is an important read for those interested in industrial relations, labor history and social movements in Korea.
First published in 1990, this work examines the link between the economic performance of companies and profit sharing. The relationship is a complex one: industrial relations may be improved by schemes, but good employers are likely to introduce profit sharing in any case; and though attitudes to work do change, schemes have more immediate impact on satisfaction an communications than on productivity and effort put into work.
Organise or Die? Leadership in South Africa's National Union of Mineworkers from Apartheid to Democracy is the first in-depth study of one of the leading trade unions in the country. Founded in 1982, the trade union played a key role in the struggle against white minority rule, before turning into a central protagonist of the ruling Tripartite Alliance after apartheid. Deftly navigating through workerist, social movement and political terrains that shape the South African labour landscape, this book sheds light on the path that led to the unprecedented 2012 Marikana massacre, the dissolution of the Congress of South African Trade Unions (Cosatu) federation and to fractures within the African National Congress (ANC) itself. Working with the notions of organisational agency and strategic bureaucratisation, Raphael Botiveau shows how the founding leadership of NUM built their union's structures with a view to mirror those of the multinational mining companies NUM faced. Good leadership proved key to the union's success in recruiting and uniting mineworkers and NUM became an impressive school for union and political cadres, producing a number of South Africa's top post-apartheid leaders. An incisive analysis of leadership styles and strategies shows how the fragile balance between an increasingly distant leadership and an increasingly militant membership gradually broke down. Botiveau provides a compelling narrative of NUM's powerful history and the legacy of its leadership. It will appeal to a broad readership - including journalists, students and social sciences scholars - interested in South Africa's contemporary politics and labour history.
Safety professionals communicate, directly and indirectly with a large number of employees and others on a daily basis. While not lawyers, they regularly deal with legal issues. A subset of their responsibilities includes how to discuss safety without crossing the discriminatory line. To do this, they need an understanding of discrimination laws. Discrimination Law Issues for the Safety Professional gives them exactly that. It provides general knowledge of the laws and regulations that offer protection to employees and individuals against discrimination in the workplace.
Created by safety expert Thomas Schneid, specifically for safety professionals, the book takes a proactive approach to identifying situations where potential discrimination against an employee or individual may occur, and supplies guidance on how to take immediate action to address the potential discriminatory situation. Schneid also identifies "red flag" situations where potential discrimination against an employee or individual may surface and safety professionals should proceed with caution. Once they can recognize these red flags, they can take immediate action to address the potential discriminatory situation.
Although many texts address discrimination in the workplace, very few, if any, educate individuals and employers on how to prevent" "acts and omissions in the workplace that can result in discrimination from a safety perspective. With the multitude of laws and regulations addressing the prohibition of discrimination in the workplace, often legal actions result from individuals and employers simply not being knowledgeable in the requirements of the law. Written in clear, plain language, not legalese or business speak, this book delineates the procedures that safety professionals need to know in the area of labor, employment, and other laws impacting the safety function.
John W. Budd contends that the turbulence of the current workplace and the importance of work for individuals and society make it vitally important that employment be given "a human face." Contradicting the traditional view of the employment relationship as a purely economic transaction, with business wanting efficiency and workers wanting income, Budd argues that equity and voice are equally important objectives. The traditional narrow focus on efficiency must be balanced with employees' entitlement to fair treatment (equity) and the opportunity to have meaningful input into decisions (voice), he says. Only through a greater respect for these human concerns can broadly shared prosperity, respect for human dignity, and equal appreciation for the competing human rights of property and labor be achieved.Budd proposes a fresh set of objectives for modern democracies efficiency, equity, and voice and supports this new triad with an intellectual framework for analyzing employment institutions and practices. In the process, he draws on scholarship from industrial relations, law, political science, moral philosophy, theology, psychology, sociology, and economics, and advances debates over free markets, globalization, human rights, and ethics. He applies his framework to important employment-related topics, such as workplace governance, the New Deal industrial relations system, comparative industrial relations, labor union strategies, and globalization. These analyses create a foundation for reforming employment practices, social norms, and public policies. In the book's final chapter, Budd advocates the creation of the field of human resources and industrial relations and explores the wider implications of this renewed conceptualization of industrial relations."
In recent years, the safety management field has placed leadership and commitment at the center of effective workplace health and safety programs. At the same time, personal liability for workplace health and safety has increased, resulting in poor outcomes for individual managers. Discussing the minimum expectations that courts and tribunals have of managers, Management Obligations for Health and Safety examines the relationship between those expectations and effective safety performance.
The book looks at safety management from the perspective of management obligations. What expectations are placed on managers at all levels of an organization to ensure that the workplace and systems of work are safe, and how are these expectations considered and analyzed by courts and public inquiries? As importantly, the book explores how management actions in relation to these obligations and expectations influence, positively or negatively, the safety performance of an organization. With examples drawn from legal and quasi-legal processes, one of the more enlightening and thought-provoking features of this book is the extensive use of cross examination taken from various proceedings.
No one person reacts the same to finding him- or herself responsible for managing the aftermath of a death at work, or having to deal with the immediate pressure of being subject to interviews and investigation by safety regulators (much less the drawn-out experience of the legal process), but one of the most constant reactions is "Why didn't anybody tell me about this?" Stressing the importance of safety culture, this book details the true nature of the expectations that are placed on managers by virtue of their obligation to provide a safe workplace.
The auto industry is facing tough competition and severe economic constraints. Their products need to be designed "right the first time" with the right combinations of features that not only satisfy the customers but continually please and delight them by providing increased functionality, comfort, convenience, safety, and craftsmanship. Based on the author's forty plus years of experience as a human factors researcher, engineer, manager, and teacher who has conducted numerous studies and analyses, Ergonomics in the Automotive Design Process covers the entire range of ergonomics issues involved in designing a car or truck and provides evaluation techniques to avoid costly mistakes and assure high customer satisfaction. The book begins with the definitions and goals of ergonomics, historic background, and ergonomics approaches. It covers human characteristics, capabilities, and limitations considered in vehicle design in key areas such as anthropometry, biomechanics, and human information processing. It then examines how the driver and the occupants are positioned in the vehicle space and how package drawings and/or computer-aided design models are created from key vehicle dimensions used in the automobile industry. The author describes design tools used in the industry for occupant packaging, driver vision, and applications of other psychophysical methods. He covers important driver information processing concepts and models and driver error categories to understand key considerations and principles used in designing controls, displays, and their usages, including current issues related to driver workload and driver distractions. The author has included only the topics and materials that he found to be useful in designing car and truck products and concentrated on the ergonomic issues generally discussed in the automotive design studios and product development teams. He distills the information needed to be a member of an automotive product development team and create an ergonomically superior vehicle.
The Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 2007 (CDM Regulations 2007) is a revision of a major piece of legislation within the wide portfolio of construction-related legislation. It seeks to improve the long term health and safety performance of the UK construction industry, with ownership of health and safety proactively undertaken by the integrated project team.
Good design has always embraced health and safety issues and design teams remain essential players as well as key contributors and communicators in matters of health and safety management. Designers have a legal responsibility to ensure that their designs account for health and safety at all stages within the holistic envelope of construction.
"Design Risk Management: Contribution to Health and Safety" gives detailed guidance to construction practitioners with design responsibility on how to identify and manage health and safety risks, and on the design strategies to be followed. It seeks to focus on accountability with due emphasis on the minimisation of unnecessary bureaucracy and offers documentation trails that provide an insight to managing risk and not paperwork. Subsequently it offers a process by which designers can discharge their duties in compliance with the CDM Regulations.
While workers movements have been largely phased out and considered out-dated in most parts of the world during the 1990s, the 21st century has seen a surge in new and unprecedented forms of strikes and workers organisations. The collection of essays in this book, spanning countries across global South and North, provides an account of strikes and working class resistance in the 21st century. Through original case studies, the book looks at the various shades of workers' movements, analysing different forms of popular organisation as responses to new social and economic conditions, such as restructuring of work and new areas of investment.
This book explores the human contribution to the reliability and resilience of complex, well-defended systems. Usually the human is considered a hazard - a system component whose unsafe acts are implicated in the majority of catastrophic breakdowns. However there is another perspective that has been relatively little studied in its own right - the human as hero, whose adaptations and compensations bring troubled systems back from the brink of disaster time and again. What, if anything, did these situations have in common? Can these human abilities be 'bottled' and passed on to others? The Human Contribution is vital reading for all professionals in high-consequence environments and for managers of any complex system. The book draws its illustrative material from a wide variety of hazardous domains, with the emphasis on healthcare reflecting the author's focus on patient safety over the last decade. All students of human factors - however seasoned - will also find it an invaluable and thought-provoking read.
Philadelphia exploded in violence in 1910. The general strike that year was a notable point, but not a unique one, in a generations-long history of conflict between the workers and management at one of the nation's largest privately owned transit systems. In Running the Rails, James Wolfinger uses the history of Philadelphia's sprawling public transportation system to explore how labor relations shifted from the 1880s to the 1960s. As transit workers adapted to fast-paced technological innovation to keep the city's people and commerce on the move, management sought to limit its employees' rights. Raw violence, welfare capitalism, race-baiting, and smear campaigns against unions were among the strategies managers used to control the company's labor force and enhance corporate profits, often at the expense of the workers' and the city's well-being. Public service workers and their unions come under frequent attack for being a "special interest" or a hindrance to the smooth functioning of society. This book offers readers a different, historically grounded way of thinking about the people who keep their cities running. Working in public transit is a difficult job now, as it was a century ago. The benefits and decent wages Philadelphia public transit workers secured-advances that were hard-won and well deserved-came as a result of fighting for decades against their exploitation. Given capital's great power in American society and management's enduring quest to control its workforce, it is remarkable to see how much Philadelphia's transit workers achieved.
Globalisation has put national labour movements under severe pressure, due to the increasing transnationalisation of production, with the production of many goods being organised across borders, and the informalisation of the economy. Through a range of case studies, this volume examines the possibilities and obstacles to transnational solidarity of labour in a period of global restructuring and changing global political economy. It brings together a range of international and transnational case studies, examining successful and failed transnational solidarity covering inter-trade union co-operation as well as co-operation between trade unions and social movements within the formal and informal economy, and the public and private sector. It is structured in six parts and examines: Globalisation and the new challenges for transnational solidarity Inter trade union co-operation across borders. The dynamics of co-operation between trade unions and social movements across borders, looking at developing and developed countries. The struggles to defend the public sector against private service providers. The possible ways forward towards transnational solidarity of formal and informal labour in the global economy. This book will be of interest to students and scholars of International Political Economy, International Relations, Industrial Relation, Globalisation, Geography and History.
The creation of European Works Councils is arguably the most important measure taken in global industrial relations in recent years. Adopted with the primary goal of facilitating European-level workers' participation in information-sharing and consultation in multinational companies, EWCs have also been central to a wide-ranging process of institution-building at the European level. European Works Councils charts the growth in the number of EWCs and the development of practices associated with EWCs between 1994, when legislation on EWCs was adopted, and 2009, when the initial legislation was amended. Drawing on original, large-scale, survey data, the book shows that the quality of information and consultation is generally poor, thus bringing into question the soft touch legislative approach to employee participation of the European Commission.
The reforms implemented within trade union organizations to accommodate the development of EWCs are explored, together with the initiatives taken to extend the role of EWCs beyond information and consultation to incorporate negotiation. Articulation between EWCs and trade union organizations is shown to be integral to EWCs as institutions of information and consultation, and as a means to influence managerial decision-making. Similarly, the development of EWCs is shown to be a process contested by employers' organizations and managers on the one hand and labour organizations on the other. The character of this contestation ensures that the category 'EWC' includes a wide range of institutional forms and practices.
The primary focus of the Cross Cultural Decision Making field is specifically on the intersections between psychosocial theory provided from the social sciences and methods of computational modeling provided from computer science and mathematics. While the majority of research challenges that arise out of such an intersection fall quite reasonably under the rubric of "human factors", although these topics are broad in nature, this book is designed to focus on crucial questions regarding data acquisition as well as reconciliation of mathematical and psychosocial modeling methodologies. The utility of this area of research is to aid the design of products and services which are utilized across the globe in the variety of cultures and aid in increasing the effectiveness of cross-cultural group collaboration. To aid a researcher in defining the requirements and metrics for this complex topic applications and use cases of CCDM can be found in sections: I. Applications of Human, Social, Culture Behavioral Modeling Technology IV. Cross Cultural Decision Making: Implications for Individual and Team Training X. Tactical Culture Training: Narrative, Personality, and Decision-Making XII. Use Cases of Cross Cultural Decision Making Theories and techniques for understanding, capturing, and modeling the components of Culture are covered in these sections: II. Assessing and Developing Cross-Cultural Competence III. Civilizational Change: Ideological, Economic, and Historical Change V. Cultural Models for Decision Making VI. Extracting Understanding from Diverse Data Sources VII. Hybrid & Multi-Model Computational Techniques for HSCB Applications IX. Socio-cultural Models and Decision-Making VIII. Sense Making in Other Cultures: Dynamics of Interaction XI. Understanding The science and technology provided in this book represents the latest available from the international community. It is hoped that this content can be used to tackle two of the biggest challenges in this area: 1) Unification and standardization of data being collected for CCDM applications/research so these data can support as many different thrusts under the CCDM umbrella as possible; and 2) Validation and verification with respect to utility and underlying psychosocial theory. Solutions for both of these must be in the context of, and will require, sound methods of integrating a complex array of quite different behavioral models and modeling techniques. This book would of special value to researchers and practitioners in involved in the design of products and services which are marketed and utilized in a variety of different countries Seven other titles in the Advances in Human Factors and Ergonomics Series are: Advances in Human Factors and Ergonomics in Healthcare Advances in Applied Digital Human Modeling Advances in Cognitive Ergonomics Advances in Occupational, Social and Organizational Ergonomics Advances in Human Factors, Ergonomics and Safety in Manufacturing and Service Industries Advances in Ergonomics Modeling & Usability Evaluation Advances in Neuroergonomics and Human Factors of Special Populations
How far will an ounce of prevention really go? While the answer to that question may never be truly known, Process Plants: A Handbook for Inherently Safer Design, Second Edition takes us several steps closer. The book demonstrates not just the importance of prevention, but the importance of designing with prevention in mind. It emphasizes the role of inherent safety in process safety management systems and in ensuring an appropriate process safety culture. Keeping the easy to understand style that made the first edition so popular, this book clearly delineates practical, everyday issues and complex technical ones.
The second edition provides:
This updated version of a classic text examines how to incorporate inherently safer design into process industry activities, revising and updating information based on recent research and developments. A how-to resource at its core, the book includes numerous examples that illustrate the principles of inherently safer design and how to apply them in practice. It explains how to measure the inherent safeness of a process, referencing metric tools that have been developed during the past decade and the tried and true methods that have become industry stand bys.
The Annual Report 2016 provides an overview of WTO activities in 2015 and early 2016. The Report begins with a message from WTO Director-General Roberto Azev do, followed by a brief overview of 2014-15 and more in-depth accounts of WTO activities over the past year.
Just looking at the Pacific Northwest's many verdant forests and fields, it may be hard to imagine the intense work it took to transform the region into the agricultural powerhouse it is today. Much of this labor was provided by Mexican guest workers, Tejano migrants, and undocumented immigrants, who converged on the region beginning in the mid-1940s. Of Forests and Fields tells the story of these workers, who toiled in the fields, canneries, packing sheds, and forests, turning the Pacific Northwest into one of the most productive agricultural regions in the country. Employing an innovative approach that traces the intersections between Chicana/o labor and environmental history, Mario Sifuentez shows how ethnic Mexican workers responded to white communities that only welcomed them when they were economically useful, then quickly shunned them. He vividly renders the feelings of isolation and desperation that led to the formation of ethnic Mexican labor organizations like the Pineros y Campesinos Unidos Noroeste (PCUN) farm workers union, which fought back against discrimination and exploitation. Of Forests and Fields not only extends the scope of Mexican labor history beyond the Southwest, it offers valuable historical precedents for understanding the struggles of immigrant and migrant laborers in our own era. Sifuentez supplements his extensive archival research with a unique set of first-hand interviews, offering new perspectives on events covered in the printed historical record. A descendent of ethnic Mexican immigrant laborers in Oregon, Sifuentez also poignantly demonstrates the links between the personal and political, as his research leads him to amazing discoveries about his own family history.
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