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Books > Science & Mathematics > Mathematics > Calculus & mathematical analysis > Integral equations
Calculus with Vectors grew out of a strong need for a beginning calculus textbook for undergraduates who intend to pursue careers in STEM fields. The approach introduces vectorvalued functions from the start, emphasizing the connections between onevariable and multivariable calculus. The text includes early vectors and early transcendentals and includes a rigorous but informal approach to vectors. Examples and focused applications are well presented along with an abundance of motivating exercises. The approaches taken to topics such as the derivation of the derivatives of sine and cosine, the approach to limits and the use of "tables" of integration have been modified from the standards seen in other textbooks in order to maximize the ease with which students may comprehend the material. Additionally, the material presented is intentionally nonspecific to any software or hardware platform in order to accommodate the wide variety and rapid evolution of tools used. Technology is referenced in the text and is required for a good number of problems.
This open access textbook welcomes students into the fundamental theory of measure, integration, and real analysis. Focusing on an accessible approach, Axler lays the foundations for further study by promoting a deep understanding of key results. Content is carefully curated to suit a single course, or twosemester sequence of courses, creating a versatile entry point for graduate studies in all areas of pure and applied mathematics. Motivated by a brief review of Riemann integration and its deficiencies, the text begins by immersing students in the concepts of measure and integration. Lebesgue measure and abstract measures are developed together, with each providing key insight into the main ideas of the other approach. Lebesgue integration links into results such as the Lebesgue Differentiation Theorem. The development of products of abstract measures leads to Lebesgue measure on Rn. Chapters on Banach spaces, Lp spaces, and Hilbert spaces showcase major results such as the HahnBanach Theorem, Hoelder's Inequality, and the Riesz Representation Theorem. An indepth study of linear maps on Hilbert spaces culminates in the Spectral Theorem and Singular Value Decomposition for compact operators, with an optional interlude in real and complex measures. Building on the Hilbert space material, a chapter on Fourier analysis provides an invaluable introduction to Fourier series and the Fourier transform. The final chapter offers a taste of probability. Extensively class tested at multiple universities and written by an awardwinning mathematical expositor, Measure, Integration & Real Analysis is an ideal resource for students at the start of their journey into graduate mathematics. A prerequisite of elementary undergraduate real analysis is assumed; students and instructors looking to reinforce these ideas will appreciate the electronic Supplement for Measure, Integration & Real Analysis that is freely available online.
Addresses computational methods that have proven efficient for the solution of a large variety of nonlinear elliptic problems. These methods can be applied to many problems in science and engineering, but this book focuses on their application to problems in continuum mechanics and physics. This book differs from others on the topic by:* Presenting examples of the power and versatility of operatorsplitting methods.* Providing a detailed introduction to alternating direction methods of multipliers and their applicability to the solution of nonlinear (possibly nonsmooth) problems from science and engineering.* Showing that nonlinear leastsquares methods, combined with operatorsplitting and conjugate gradient algorithms, provide efficient tools for the solution of highly nonlinear problems.
This volume is a useful introduction to the subject of Fourier Integral Operators and is based on the author 's classic set of notes. Covering a range of topics from H rmander 's exposition of the theory, Duistermaat approaches the subject from symplectic geometry and includes application to hyperbolic equations (= equations of wave type) and oscillatory asymptotic solutions which may have caustics. This text is suitable for mathematicians and (theoretical) physicists with an interest in (linear) partial differential equations, especially in wave propagation, rep. WKBmethods.
The purpose of the volume is to provide a support textbook for a second lecture course on Mathematical Analysis. The contents are organised to suit, in particular, students of Engineering, Computer Science and Physics, all areas in which mathematical tools play a crucial role. The basic notions and methods concerning integral and differential calculus for multivariable functions, series of functions and ordinary differential equations are presented in a manner that elicits critical reading and prompts a handson approach to concrete applications. The pedagogical layout echoes the one used in the companion text Mathematical Analysis I. The book's structure has a specificallydesigned modular nature, which allows for great flexibility in the preparation of a lecture course on Mathematical Analysis. The style privileges clarity in the exposition and a linear progression through the theory. The material is organised on two levels. The first, reflected in this book, allows students to grasp the essential ideas, familiarise with the corresponding key techniques and find the proofs of the main results. The second level enables the strongly motivated reader to explore further into the subject, by studying also the material contained in the appendices. Definitions are enriched by many examples, which illustrate the properties discussed. A host of solved exercises complete the text, at least half of which guide the reader to the solution. This new edition features additional material with the aim of matching the widest range of educational choices for a second course of Mathematical Analysis.
Key definitions and results in symmetric spaces, particularly Lp, Lorentz, Marcinkiewicz and Orlicz spaces are emphasized in this textbook. A comprehensive overview of the Lorentz, Marcinkiewicz and Orlicz spaces is presented based on concepts and results of symmetric spaces. Scientists and researchers will find the application of linear operators, ergodic theory, harmonic analysis and mathematical physics noteworthy and useful. This book is intended for graduate students and researchers in mathematics and may be used as a general reference for the theory of functions, measure theory, and functional analysis. This selfcontained text is presented in four parts totaling seventeen chapters to correspond with a onesemester lecture course. Each of the four parts begins with an overview and is subsequently divided into chapters, each of which concludes with exercises and notes. A chapter called "Complements" is included at the end of the text as supplementary material to assist students with independent work.
The sphere is what might be called a perfect shape. Unfortunately nature is imperfect and many bodies are better represented by an ellipsoid. The theory of ellipsoidal harmonics, originated in the nineteenth century, could only be seriously applied with the kind of computational power available in recent years. This, therefore, is the first book devoted to ellipsoidal harmonics. Topics are drawn from geometry, physics, biosciences and inverse problems. It contains classical results as well as new material, including ellipsoidal biharmonic functions, the theory of images in ellipsoidal geometry and vector surface ellipsoidal harmonics, which exhibit an interesting analytical structure. Extended appendices provide everything one needs to solve formally boundary value problems. Endofchapter problems complement the theory and test the reader's understanding. The book serves as a comprehensive reference for applied mathematicians, physicists, engineers and for anyone who needs to know the current state of the art in this fascinating subject.
Using numerical integration, it is possible to predict the individual motions of a group of a few celestial objects interacting with each other gravitationally. In this introduction to the fewbody problem, a key figure in developing more efficient methods over the past few decades summarizes and explains them, covering both basic analytical formulations and numerical methods. The mathematics required for celestial mechanics and stellar dynamics is explained, starting with twobody motion and progressing through classical methods for planetary system dynamics. This first part of the book can be used as a short course on celestial mechanics. The second part develops the contemporary methods for which the author is renowned  symplectic integration and various methods of regularization. This volume explains the methodology of the subject for graduate students and researchers in celestial mechanics and astronomical dynamics with an interest in fewbody dynamics and the regularization of the equations of motion.
This book provides a unique path for graduate or advanced undergraduate students to begin studying the rich subject of functional analysis with fewer prerequisites than is normally required. The text begins with a selfcontained and highly efficient introduction to topology and measure theory, which focuses on the essential notions required for the study of functional analysis, and which are often buried within fulllength overviews of the subjects. This is particularly useful for those in applied mathematics, engineering, or physics who need to have a firm grasp of functional analysis, but not necessarily some of the more abstruse aspects of topology and measure theory normally encountered. The reader is assumed to only have knowledge of basic real analysis, complex analysis, and algebra. The latter part of the text provides an outstanding treatment of Banach space theory and operator theory, covering topics not usually found together in other books on functional analysis. Written in a clear, concise manner, and equipped with a rich array of interesting and important exercises and examples, this book can be read for an independent study, used as a text for a twosemester course, or as a selfcontained reference for the researcher.
Asymptotic methods are frequently used in many branches of both pure and applied mathematics, and this classic text remains the most uptodate book dealing with one important aspect of this area, namely, asymptotic approximations of integrals. In this book, all results are proved rigorously, and many of the approximation formulas are accompanied by error bounds. A thorough discussion on multidimensional integrals is given, and references are provided. Asymptotic Approximations of Integrals contains the "distributional method," which is not available elsewhere. Most of the examples in this text come from concrete applications. Since its publication twelve years ago, significant developments have occurred in the general theory of asymptotic expansions, including smoothing of the Stokes phenomenon, uniform exponentially improved asymptotic expansions, and hyperasymptotics. These new concepts belong to the area now known as "exponential asymptotics." Expositions of these new theories are available in papers published in various journals, but not yet in book form.
This book presents exercises and problems in the mathematical methods of physics with the aim of offering undergraduate students an alternative way to explore and fully understand the mathematical notions on which modern physics is based. The exercises and problems are proposed not in a random order but rather in a sequence that maximizes their educational value. Each section and subsection starts with exercises based on first definitions, followed by groups of problems devoted to intermediate and, subsequently, more elaborate situations. Some of the problems are unavoidably "routine", but others bring to the fore nontrivial properties that are often omitted or barely mentioned in textbooks. There are also problems where the reader is guided to obtain important results that are usually stated in textbooks without complete proofs. In all, some 350 solved problems covering all mathematical notions useful to physics are included. While the book is intended primarily for undergraduate students of physics, students of mathematics, chemistry, and engineering, as well as their teachers, will also find it of value.
This book covers the material of a one year course in real analysis. It includes an original axiomatic approach to Lebesgue integration which the authors have found to be effective in the classroom. Each chapter contains numerous examples and an extensive problem set which expands considerably the breadth of the material covered in the text. Hints are included for some of the more difficult problems.
Reactiondiffusion theory is a topic which has developed rapidly over the last thirty years, particularly with regards to applications in chemistry and life sciences. Of particular importance is the analysis of semilinear parabolic PDEs. This monograph provides a general approach to the study of semilinear parabolic equations when the nonlinearity, while failing to be Lipschitz continuous, is Hoelder and/or upper Lipschitz continuous, a scenario that is not well studied, despite occurring often in models. The text presents new existence, uniqueness and continuous dependence results, leading to global and uniformly global wellposedness results (in the sense of Hadamard). Extensions of classical maximum/minimum principles, comparison theorems and derivative (Schaudertype) estimates are developed and employed. Detailed specific applications are presented in the later stages of the monograph. Requiring only a solid background in real analysis, this book is suitable for researchers in all areas of study involving semilinear parabolic PDEs.
This ninechapter monograph introduces a rigorous investigationof "q"difference operators in standard and fractional settings. It starts with elementary calculus of "q"differences and integration of Jackson's type before turning to "q"difference equations. The existence and uniqueness theorems are derived using successive approximations, leading to systems of equations with retarded arguments. Regular "q"SturmLiouville theory is also introduced; Green's function is constructed and the eigenfunction expansion theorem is given. The monograph also discusses some integral equations of Volterra and Abel type, as introductory material for the study of fractional "q"calculi. Hence fractional "q"calculi of the types RiemannLiouville; GrunwaldLetnikov; Caputo; ErdelyiKober and Weyl aredefined analytically. Fractional "q"Leibniz rules with applications in "q"series are also obtained with rigorous proofs of the formal results of AlSalamVerma, which remained unproved for decades. In working towards the investigation of "q"fractional difference equations; families of "q"MittagLeffler functions are defined and their properties are investigated, especially the "q"MellinBarnes integral and Hankel contour integral representation of the "q"MittagLeffler functions under consideration, the distribution, asymptotic and reality of their zeros, establishing "q"counterparts of Wiman's results. Fractional "q"difference equations are studied; existence and uniqueness theorems are given and classes of Cauchytype problems are completely solved in terms of families of "q"MittagLeffler functions. Among many "q"analogs of classical results and concepts, "q"Laplace, "q"Mellin and "q"2""Fourier transforms are studied and their applications are investigated."
This comprehensive textbook is intended for a twosemester sequence in analysis. The first four chapters present a practical introduction to analysis by using the tools and concepts of calculus.The last five chapters present a first course in analysis. The presentation is clear and concise, allowing students to master the calculus tools that are crucial in understanding analysis. "From Calculus to Analysis "prepares readers for their first analysis courseimportant because many undergraduate programs traditionally require such a course. Undergraduates and some advanced highschool seniors will find this text a useful and pleasant experience in the classroom or as a selfstudy guide. The only prerequisite is a standard calculus course."
This book highlights the current state of Lyapunovtype inequalities through a detailed analysis. Aimed toward researchers and students working in differential equations and those interested in the applications of stability theory and resonant systems, the book begins with an overview Lyapunov's original results and moves forward to include prevalent results obtained in the past ten years. Detailed proofs and an emphasis on basic ideas are provided for different boundary conditions for ordinary differential equations, including Neumann, Dirichlet, periodic, and antiperiodic conditions. Novel results of higher eigenvalues, systems of equations, partial differential equations as well as variational approaches are presented. To this respect, a new and unified variational point of view is introduced for the treatment of such problems and a systematic discussion of different types of boundary conditions is featured. Various problems make the study of Lyapunovtype inequalities of interest to those in pure and applied mathematics. Originating with the study of the stability properties of the Hill equation, other questions arose for instance in systems at resonance, crystallography, isoperimetric problems, Rayleigh type quotients and oscillation and intervals of disconjugacy and it lead to the study of Lyapunovtype inequalities for differential equations. This classical area of mathematics is still of great interest and remains a source of inspiration.
Now in its second edition, this textbook serves as an introduction to probability and statistics for nonmathematics majors who do not need the exhaustive detail and mathematical depth provided in more comprehensive treatments of the subject. The presentation covers the mathematical laws of random phenomena, including discrete and continuous random variables, expectation and variance, and common probability distributions such as the binomial, Poisson, and normal distributions. More classical examples such as Montmort's problem, the ballot problem, and Bertrand's paradox are now included, along with applications such as the MaxwellBoltzmann and BoseEinstein distributions in physics. Key features in new edition: * 35 new exercises * Expanded section on the algebra of sets * Expanded chapters on probabilities to include more classical examples * New section on regression * Online instructors' manual containing solutions to all exercises< Advanced undergraduate and graduate students in computer science, engineering, and other natural and social sciences with only a basic background in calculus will benefit from this introductory text balancing theory with applications. Review of the first edition: This textbook is a classical and wellwritten introduction to probability theory and statistics. ... the book is written 'for an audience such as computer science students, whose mathematical background is not very strong and who do not need the detail and mathematical depth of similar books written for mathematics or statistics majors.' ... Each new concept is clearly explained and is followed by many detailed examples. ... numerous examples of calculations are given and proofs are welldetailed." (Sophie Lemaire, Mathematical Reviews, Issue 2008 m)
Designed for the postgraduate students of mathematics, the book on Integral Equations equips the students with an indepth and singlesource coverage of the complete spectrum of Integral Equations, including the basic concepts, Fredholm integral equations, separable and symmetric kernels, solutions of integral equations, classical Fredholm theory, integral transform method, and so on. Divided into eight chapters, the text addresses the doubts and concerns of the students. Examples given in the chapters inculcate the habit to try to solve more and more problems based on integral equations and create confidence in students. Bridging the gap between theory and practice, the book offers: Clear and concise presentation Systematic discussion of the concepts Numerous workedout examples to make the students aware of problemsolving methodology Sufficient exercises containing ample unsolved questions along with their answers Practice questions with intermediate results to help students from practice pointofview
This book offers a comprehensive introduction to the theory of linear and nonlinear Volterra integral equations (VIEs), ranging from Volterra's fundamental contributions and the resulting classical theory to more recent developments that include Volterra functional integral equations with various kinds of delays, VIEs with highly oscillatory kernels, and VIEs with noncompact operators. It will act as a 'stepping stone' to the literature on the advanced theory of VIEs, bringing the reader to the current state of the art in the theory. Each chapter contains a large number of exercises, extending from routine problems illustrating or complementing the theory to challenging open research problems. The increasingly important role of VIEs in the mathematical modelling of phenomena where memory effects play a key role is illustrated with some 30 concrete examples, and the notes at the end of each chapter feature complementary references as a guide to further reading.
This textbook is about generalized functions and some of their integral tra forms in one variable. It is based on the approach introduced by the Japanese mathematician Mikio Sato. We mention this because the term hyperfunction that Sato has given to his generalization of the concept of function is sometimes used today to denote generalized functions based on other approaches (distributions, Mikusinski's operators etc. ). I have written this book because I am delighted by the intuitive idea behind Sato's approach which uses the classical complex fu tion theory to generalize the notion of function of a real variable. In my opinion, Sato'swayofintroducingthegeneralizedconceptofafunctionislessabstractthan the one of Laurent Schwartz who de?nes his distributions as linear functionals on some space of test functions. On the other hand, I was quickly led to recognize that very few colleagues (mathematicians included) knew anything about Satos's approach. PerhapsSato andhis schoolis not entirelyblamelessfor this state of  fairs. For severaldecades no elementary textbook addressinga wider audience was available (at least in English). Zealots delighted by the appealing intuitive idea of the approach have probably found their enthusiasm rapidly diminished because of the adopted style of exposition and the highly ambitious abstract mathematical concepts used in the available books and articles. Fortunately, some years ago, I found Isac Imai's Book Applied Hyperfunction Theory which explains and applies Sato's hyperfunctions in a concrete, but nontrivial way, and thereby reveals their computational power.
This classroomtested text is intended for a onesemester course in Lebesgue's theory. With over 180 exercises, the text takes an elementary approach, making it easily accessible to both upperundergraduate and lowergraduatelevel students. The three main topics presented are measure, integration, and differentiation, and the only prerequisite is a course in elementary real analysis. In order to keep the book selfcontained, an introductory chapter is included with the intent to fill the gap between what the student may have learned before and what is required to fully understand the consequent text. Proofs of difficult results, such as the differentiability property of functions of bounded variations, are dissected into small steps in order to be accessible to students. With the exception of a few simple statements, all results are proven in the text. The presentation is elementary, where algebras are not used in the text on measure theory and Dini's derivatives are not used in the chapter on differentiation. However, all the main results of Lebesgue's theory are found in the book. http://online.sfsu.edu/sergei/MID.htm
The subject of this book stands at the crossroads of ergodic theory and measurable dynamics. With an emphasis on irreversible systems, the text presents a framework of multiresolutions tailored for the study of endomorphisms, beginning with a systematic look at the latter. This entails a whole new set of tools, often quite different from those used for the "easier" and welldocumented case of automorphisms. Among them is the construction of a family of positive operators (transfer operators), arising naturally as a dual picture to that of endomorphisms. The setting (close to one initiated by S. Karlin in the context of stochastic processes) is motivated by a number of recent applications, including wavelets, multiresolution analyses, dissipative dynamical systems, and quantum theory. The automorphismendomorphism relationship has parallels in operator theory, where the distinction is between unitary operators in Hilbert space and more general classes of operators such as contractions. There is also a noncommutative version: While the study of automorphisms of von Neumann algebras dates back to von Neumann, the systematic study of their endomorphisms is more recent; together with the results in the main text, the book includes a review of recent related research papers, some by the coauthors and their collaborators.
This text is a rigorous introduction to ergodic theory, developing the machinery of conditional measures and expectations, mixing, and recurrence. Beginning by developing the basics of ergodic theory and progressing to describe some recent applications to number theory, this book goes beyond the standard texts in this topic. Applications include Weyl's polynomial equidistribution theorem, the ergodic proof of Szemeredi's theorem, the connection between the continued fraction map and the modular surface, and a proof of the equidistribution of horocycle orbits. "Ergodic Theory with a view towards Number Theory" will appeal to mathematicians with some standard background in measure theory and functional analysis. No background in ergodic theory or Lie theory is assumed, and a number of exercises and hints to problems are included, making this the perfect companion for graduate students and researchers in ergodic theory, homogenous dynamics or number theory.
This book introduces random currents by presenting underlying mathematical methods necessary for applications. The theory of currents is an advanced topic in geometric measure theory that extends distribution to linear functionals within the space of differential forms of any order. Methods to extend random distributions to random currents are introduced and analyzed in this book. Beginning with an overview of mathematical aspects of the theory of currents, this book moves on to examine applications in medicine, material science, and image analysis. Applied researchers will find the practical modern mathematical methods along with the detailed appendix useful to stimulate new applications and research.
This is the revised and enlarged 2nd edition of the authors' original text, which was intended to be a modest complement to Grenander's fundamental memoir on stochastic processes and related inference theory. The present volume gives a substantial account of regression analysis, both for stochastic processes and measures, and includes recent material on Ridge regression with some unexpected applications, for example in econometrics. The first three chapters can be used for a quarter or semester graduate course on inference on stochastic processes. The remaining chapters provide more advanced material on stochastic analysis suitable for graduate seminars and discussions, leading to dissertation or research work. In general, the book will be of interest to researchers in probability theory, mathematical statistics and electrical and information theory. 
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