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Understanding Investment Law in Zambia deals with both the domestic law and international legal norms pertaining to foreign direct investment. A wide array of topics is covered in this book, including the contractual, legislative and treaty-based protections available to investors as they consider entrusting their capital to another jurisdiction. These protections are considered through the prism of the Zambian investment climate, and give a glimpse into both historical and current issues.
Why, and how, do states obey international law? This engaging book tackles this very question head on via its examination of the conflicting and conciliating processes of the Chinese approach to litigation and the Western approach to legal orientation in the field of the WTO dispute settlement mechanism. The authors examine the normative framework of WTO rule implementation in a globalised international economic order. They further explore the notion of the rule of law in China's Confucian system, and how it interacts with a rule-based world trading system. Topics discussed include theorising the WTO implementation regime, the Chinese approach to law, China and the WTO dispute settlement system, and Chinese Confucianism and compliance. With its focus on international economic law and political science, this book will be accessible to students, policy makers, practitioners and academics looking to understand China and the rule of law in a global context
The effects of globalisation, together with the increase in foreign investment and resource development within the developing world, have created a context for human rights abuses by States in which transnational corporations are complicit. This timely book considers how these `governance gaps', as identified by Professor John Ruggie, may be closed. Simon Baughen examines the status of corporations under international law, the civil liability of corporations for their participation in international crimes and self-regulation through voluntary codes of conduct, such as the 2011 UN Guiding Principles. The book includes in-depth analysis of the key legal issues and examines a variety of scenarios including: the Alien Tort Statute litigation against transnational corporations (TNCs) in the US; the use of customary international law as a cause of action in jurisdictions outside the US; and tort litigation against TNCs in the US and UK. The author evaluates how governance gaps may be closed, building on a critical analysis of the place of home States, host States and TNCs under international law and of the UN Guiding Principles and other `soft law' initiatives. This book will be essential reading for postgraduate students and academics in human rights and corporate governance. It will also provide comprehensive insights for practitioners in NGO.
International investment law has often been seen as an obstacle to sustainable development. While the connections between investment and development are plain, for a long time there has been relatively little scholarship exploring them. Combining critical reflection and detailed analysis, this book addresses the relationship between contemporary investment law and development. The book is organized around two competing visions of investment and development - as working either harmoniously or in conflict with one another. The expert contributors reflect on both of these views and analyse the social dimensions of development and its impact on investment law. Coverage includes in-depth discussion on such issues as human rights, poverty reduction, labor standards, and indigenous peoples. Students and scholars of international investment law will benefit from the informed analysis of the links between investment and development. This book will also be of use to practitioners and experts of development law who are looking for an up-to-date perspective of the field.
Documents Annex: http://www.nyupress.org/justtradeannex/index.html While modern trade law and human rights law constitute two of the most active spheres in international law, follow similar intellectual trajectories, and often feature the same key actors and arenas, neither field has actively engaged with the other. They co-exist in relative isolation at best, peppered by occasional hostile debates. It has come to be a given that pro-trade laws are not good for human rights, and legislation that protects human rights hampers vibrant international trade. In a bold departure from this canon, Just Trade makes a case for reaching a middle-ground between these two fields, acknowledging their co-existence and the significant points at which they overlap. Using examples from many of the 35 nations of the Western Hemisphere, Berta Esperanza Hernandez-Truyol and Stephen J. Powell combine their expertise to examine human rights policies involving conscripted child labor, sustainable development, promotion of health, equality of women, human trafficking, indigenous peoples, poverty, citizenship, and economic sanctions, never overlooking the very real human rights problems that arise from international trade. However, instead of viewing the two kinds of law as polar and sometimes hostile opposites, the authors make powerful suggestions for how these intersections may be navigated to promote an international marketplace that embraces both liberal trade and liberal protection of human rights.
How substantive competition rules are enforced plays a crucial role in achieving their goals. This thoughtful book examines procedural issues that have arisen from the increased enforcement of competition law worldwide. Such issues are reviewed by expert contributors in Europe and around the globe. Special attention is paid to certain rights including the right to be heard, the right to defence, the right to protection of business secrets and the right to judicial review. The overarching structure of the book proposes an agenda for the solution of procedural fairness within competition proceedings for the future. This astute work will be a useful point of reference for scholars, practitioners and policy makers alike, who will benefit from the critical insight into how best to attain procedural fairness in the enforcement of competition law.
The concept of sustainable development has become a fundamental discourse in international decision making. To enable pragmatic sustainable development governance, legally coherent, mutually supportive multilateral treaties are both necessary and important. This timely book provides an accessible insight into how the concept of sustainable development can be made operational for coherent law making through its translation into legal terms. The book is split into two informative points of inquiry. The first part of the book explores the origins of the sustainable development debate and sheds light on how the international community has inadequately operationalized the concept to utilize its full potential. In this view, Elisabeth Burgi Bonanomi illustrates how sustainable development can facilitate coherent international law making when it is understood as a multidimensional legal principle and methodical norm. The second part of the book adopts this notion as an analytical lens on the WTO Agreement on Agriculture, placing the focus specifically on food security and food sustainability. The overarching discussion contributes to one of the most intricate debates of international food governance and investigates the unresolved question of what a sustainable and coherent agricultural trade agreement could look like. Providing a comprehensive overview of sustainable development law, its origins, and its current theories, scholars and students with a background in international public law, trade, and investment law, development and human rights law, international relations, and environmental policy will find this book a valuable reference tool. Practitioners and policy makers will benefit from the insight into the search for politically coherent and sustainable legal agreements.
Although the assessment and management of risk has always been an integral part of government and private decision-making, it has acquired particular importance in contemporary politics. Developments such as the global financial crisis of 2008, the ensuing Eurozone crisis, the rise in international terrorism, and natural disasters have brought to the fore the importance of risk management. As the competence of the EU has expanded, the presence of EU law in risk control has increased significantly. This book seeks to provide an analysis of EU risk regulation in various sectors, examining some key concepts and transversal themes, as well as focusing on sector specific regulation. The contributors explore the social epistemology of risk observation and management, risk modelling, the role of science in political and judicial decision-making, in addition to transnational risk regulation and contractual governance. They examine EU regulation, among others, in the field of terrorism prevention, external relations, food regulation and financial supervision. This book will be of interest to law scholars, social scientists and students, whilst lawmakers and lawyers will also benefit from the practical insights of its expert authors.
Trade secret protection has long been of critical strategic importance to business interests and globalization of commerce has driven an increasing need to govern the preservation of confidentiality in international business transactions. This book offers an authoritative and unparalleled resource on US and international trade secret law and identifies optimal practices for securing trade secrets in varying jurisdictions. Defined as the international standard for trade secret protection, the United States' trade secret laws are explained in depth, illustrating their capacity and impediments. The proposed EU Trade Secret Directive and the impact this will have on international transactions is also closely examined, along with overviews of the laws in common law, civil law and mixed-law countries. The book combines detailed substantive analysis with clear practical guidance on questions such as how businesses can avoid misappropriation and maintain data exclusivity when engaging in global commerce, through the utilization of alternative self-help strategies. Key features: * Presents a roadmap for understanding trade secrets, including requirements for, defences to, and remedies. * Covers both business-to-business and employment relationships. * Authoritative commentary on US and EU trade secrecy laws in addition to coverage of the UK, India, China, Mexico, Brazil, Canada and Japan. * Dependable analysis from two leading scholars in the field. * Practical advice on overcoming the challenges businesses face when engaging in international transactions, including strategies for avoiding misappropriation. * Clear guidance on enforcement mechanisms and litigation procedure. This well-organized reference work will benefit legal practitioners in the commercial field across many jurisdictions, particularly those advising on business transactions or implementing protection strategies for trade information. Policymakers will find the definition of trade secret law characteristics for multiple countries, alongside the consideration of the proposed EU Trade Secret Directive, pragmatic and informative.
What is the level of convergence between the international investment law framework and the international legal regime regulating intellectual property rights? This discerning book examines the interface between intellectual property and foreign direct investments. Taking a multi-disciplinary approach, the author scrutinizes the circumstances in which, and the extent to which, international investment law's traditional protective standards apply to intellectual property rights investments. After concluding that the TRIPS agreement has shortcomings in this respect, the author analyses intellectual property rights in the context of international investment law in light of traditional standards of protection including the protection against indirect expropriation, the National Treatment Principle, the Most-Favoured Nation clause, fair and equitable treatment, and the prohibition of performance requirements, while emphasizing the importance of transfers of technology within and to developing countries. These explorations contribute to the debates surrounding the fragmentation of international law arising from its expansion and diversification. Scholars, students and practitioners in the field of international investment law, as well as those interested in the protection of intellectual property rights at an international level, will find this book to be a useful and informative read.
Emissions trading is an economic legal framework designed to address the global environmental crisis of climate change. This book analyses the broader impacts of these frameworks - particularly the relationship between emissions trading schemes and the WTO. Felicity Deane focuses primarily on the rules of the WTO as a tool to demonstrate where the boundaries exist for acceptable interface with international trade. She explores the meaning of goods and products, services, subsidies and border adjustments within the context of the WTO rules and considers the impacts of these definitions on emissions trading frameworks. Academics and students with an interest in the WTO and the convergence of trade and environment will find this an insightful book. The points raised will also be useful to legal professionals, economists and policymakers involved in emissions trading practices.
The crowdsourcing of work - the 'gig economy' - has been hailed as a 'sharing' revolution, enabling 'micro-entrepreneurs' to enjoy greater autonomy and flexibility in taking on 'gigs', 'rides', or 'tasks', while customers benefit from the ease, convenience, and affordability of 'work on demand'. Is this the future of work? What are the benefits and challenges of crowdsourced work? Is the gig economy fundamentally different to existing models of work and should it be kept outside the scope of employment law, as many platforms claim? Humans as a Service offers an engaging and critical account of the gig economy. It charts the industry's dramatic growth, explores the diverse platforms that comprise it, and describes how they operate. In scrutinising the competing narratives about 'gig' work, the book demonstrates the importance of language: how claims of 'disruptive innovation' and 'micro-entrepreneurship' often obscure the realities of highly precarious work and the strict algorithmic surveillance and control to which workers are subject. And yet, far from being radically new, the book shows that the gig economy is but the latest (and perhaps most extreme) example of labour market practices that have existed for centuries. Turning to how the law should respond to the on-demand economy, it argues that regulators can and must bring this work within the scope of employment law, adapting existing norms where necessary, in order to protect both customers and workers. Finally, it explores the wider implications of the gig economy for markets and consumers, assessing oppprtunities and challenges - if this is the future of work, how can it be made sustainable?
Investors must be held to account for their flawed contributions or otherwise wrongful conduct, but exactly what 'holding to account' means remains an enigma. Opinions vary on whether such circumstances are relevant to admissibility, jurisdiction, liability, or remedies. Reasoning from certain proposed axioms, this book suggests that such circumstances are only relevant to liability, meaning that the legal concepts that they activate, contributory fault and illegality, are defences. Three defences are identified: mismanagement, investment reprisal, and post-establishment illegality. While they might lack formal recognition, arbitral tribunals have implicitly applied them in multiple investment arbitrations. In detailing their legal content, special attention is paid to resolving the problems that they raise relating to causation, apportionment of liability, distinguishing these defences from their conceptual cousins, and arbitral tribunals' jurisdiction over pleas based on investor misconduct. The result is a restatement of the rules on contributory fault and investor misconduct applicable in investment arbitrations.
Sustainable development remains a high priority in international politics and commerce. This timely book explores how the contours and facets of economic, environmental and social sustainability are reflected in the legal norms that govern trade, investment and finance. Examining a range of issues arising from private initiatives, national conduct and international organisations, the chapters interrogate the role of powerful global actors in the pursuit of sustainable development: China, the United States and the EU are all recognised as significant actors in a wider context of global partnership. The authors identify and investigate challenges to the realisation of a coherent sustainable development policy, engaging with the complex interactions of international, regional and national mechanisms that pose significant problems for the future of the planet, its people and their prosperity. Offering interdisciplinary insights on legal frameworks through the lens of sustainability, this discerning book will appeal to a range of academics interested in sustainability, trade, investment and finance, while also offering crucial insights for policy-makers into specific areas of regulation.
The Dispute Settlement Reports are the WTO authorized and paginated reports in English. An essential addition to the library of all practicing and academic trade lawyers and needed by students worldwide taking courses in international economic or trade law. DSR 2016: Volume 3 reports on Colombia - Measures Relating to the Importation of Textiles, Apparel and Footwear (WT/DS461).
The Crisis behind the Euro-Crisis encourages dialogue among scholars across the social sciences in an attempt to challenge the narrative that regarded the Euro-crisis as an exceptional event. It is suggested instead that the Euro-crisis, along with the subsequent crises the EU has come to face, was merely symptomatic of deeper systemic cracks. This book's aim is to uncover that hidden systemic crisis - the 'crisis behind the Euro-crisis'. Under this reading it emerges that what needs to be questioned is not only the allegedly purely economic character of the Euro-crisis, but, more fundamentally, its very classification as an 'emergency'. Instead, the Euro-crisis needs to be regarded as expressive of a chronic, dysfunctional, but 'normal' condition of the EU. By following this line of analysis, this book illuminates not only the causes of contemporary turbulences in the European project, but perhaps the 'true' nature of the EU itself.
The centrality of natural resources to global economic growth has placed the debate over their ownership and control at the forefront of legal, territorial and political disputes. Combining both legal and policy expertise with academic and practitioner perspectives this book considers the dimensions of natural resource governance at a time when disputes over their use grow more acute. Focusing on the law, regulation and governance of natural resources, this timely work examines in detail the conflicts and contradictions arising at the intersection between international economic law, sustainable development and other areas of international law, most notably human rights law and environmental law. Exploring the views of different stakeholder groups in the natural resources sectors, key chapters consider whether their differing interests and concerns are adequately addressed under national and international law. This book will appeal to scholars of law, political science and development studies. It will also benefit policy practitioners and advocacy specialists in development NGOs, research institutes and international organisations.
At a time when developments in WTO law have made this field increasingly complex, this concise and non-technical introduction provides a timely and carefully considered overview of the substantive rules and institutional arrangements of the WTO. A variety of text features enables a rich understanding of the law: illustrative examples clarify important issues of the law and demonstrate the law's practical application; boxed summaries of key rulings in WTO case law highlight the interpretation of the relevant provisions and lead readers to a deep understanding of the meaning and application of legal rules; and recommendations for further reading allow readers to engage with current debates. Online resources include links to useful sources of information for work and research within the field. Co-written by a leading authority in the field, this is essential reading for anyone who wants to get to grips with this fascinating yet challenging field of law.
Antidumping trade protection is one of the most frequent and ubiquitous trade policies in the global economy. This volume brings together the key reference pieces in the antidumping literature that have critically defined and shaped what we know about this important and unique form of trade protection. An introductory chapter by the editors, both scholars in this area, critically analyzes the literature and discusses its future directions. This is an important reference volume not only for new and established scholars in international economics, but also policymakers and legal intellectuals.
This insightful and accessible introduction provides students and practitioners with a comprehensive overview of the increasingly important discipline of international investment law. Focusing primarily on the legal principles contained in the growing body of international investment agreements, this book covers the core concepts of the discipline with attention given to their relation to each other and to the manner in which they have been developed through arbitration case law. The context of each legal principle is explored along with a consideration of some of the major debates and emerging criticisms. Avoiding extensive case extracts, this book adopts an engaging and succinct narrative style which allows readers to advance their understanding of the topic while examining the legal principles with academic rigour and discerning commentary.
The Dispute Settlement Reports are the WTO authorized and paginated reports in English. An essential addition to the library of all practicing and academic trade lawyers and needed by students worldwide taking courses in international economic or trade law. DSR 2016: Volume 4 reports on Russia - Tariff Treatment of Certain Agricultural and Manufacturing Products (WT/DS485) and India - Certain Measures Relating to Solar Cells and Solar Modules (WT/DS456).
Updated and expanded for the second edition, this volume provides attorneys, academics and students with a detailed yet accessible overview of the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG). Adopted by more than eighty nations and governing a significant portion of international sales, the CISG regulates contract formation, performance, risk of loss, conformity to contractual requirements and remedies for breach. This volume explains the CISG doctrines and their ambiguities, and appraises the extent to which the doctrines reduce transaction costs for commercial actors. Its topic-based approach will be ideal for those pursuing academic analysis or subject-specific research.
The ability of countries to promote and protect their domestic industries in the face of stiff global competition is an important consideration in any trading agreement. Member states of the World Trade Organization are expected to adhere to the WTO Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures, but to what extent do the WTO Members have policy space to subsidize their industries? Using an economically informed framework, Caiado examines the flexibilities countries may find at the WTO to grant subsidies and impose tariffs to protect designated industries. By testing the Treaty system of entitlements and enforcement mechanisms against the theory of incomplete contract, this work offers a comprehensive analysis of the capacity of the SCM Agreement to achieve its goal: the concomitant regulation of opportunistic behavior and assurance of ex post flexibility.
WTO Ministerial Conferences: Key Outcomes contains all the key outcomes from WTO Ministerial Conferences since the organization was established in 1995. Covering eleven Ministerial Conferences held between 1996 and 2017, the key outcomes include Ministerial Decisions and Declarations as well as Chairpersons' statements. This publication also reproduces relevant ministerial outcomes of the Uruguay Round adopted in connection with the establishment of the WTO. This publication complements The WTO Agreements, recently published by Cambridge University Press and the WTO, which contains the Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the WTO and its Annexes.
Many constitutions include provisions intended to limit the discretion of governments in economic policy. In times of financial crises, such provisions often come under pressure as a result of calls for exceptional responses to crisis situations. This volume assesses the ability of constitutional orders all over the world to cope with financial crises, and the demands for emergency powers that typically accompany them. Bringing together a variety of perspectives from legal scholars, economists, and political scientists, this volume traces the long-run implications of financial crises for constitutional order. In exploring the theoretical and practical problems raised by the constitutionalization of economic policy during times of severe crisis, this volume showcases an array of constitutional design options and the ways they channel governmental responses to emergency.
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