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Informed by international law, international relations and environment management scholarship, this interdisciplinary analysis of environmental regimes in Asian subregions proposes a new regime for the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau based on China's cooperation with its south Asian neighbors. After evaluating the nine existing environmental regimes across the subregions of southwest, central, southeast and northeast Asia, Simon Marsden proposes a tenth regime for the cross subregion in south and east Asia known as the Third Pole. The role of China in connection with each of the existing agreements - as lender, dialogue partner or Party - is a key aspect of the analysis, considering it in developmental, legal and political contexts. Conclusions recommend future research to progress efforts in developing such a regime and caution the need for context in any legal transplant. This book will have a strong appeal for international environmental law and environmental planning and management researchers. Meanwhile those in international relations or international politics will find valuable insights in the book's exploration of relationships between the states of each subregion and China, whilst coverage of the regulation of oil and gas, hydroelectricity and exploitation of other resources will be of great interest to energy law scholars and practitioners.
Water is an essential resource for mankind, yet many countries around the world are currently facing mounting freshwater management challenges, with climate change and new regional imbalances threatening to aggravate this situation further. This timely book offers a unique interdisciplinary inquiry into the issues and challenges water regulation will face in the coming years. The book brings together economists, political scientists, geographers, and legal scholars to offer a number of proposals for the future of water regulation. The contributions in this book are grouped around specific themes. In the Part I, the contributions address the challenges which water poses to public international law. In Part II, the authors explore the most pressing ethical, legal, and social issues. Finally, the discussion in Part III covers the economic drivers shaping the future of water. This discerning book covers all of the primary actors in the water world, including governments, companies, international organizations, and citizens. With an original introduction by the editor and bringing a diverse collection of perspectives into a single collection, the book will be an essential resource for scholars and practitioners in legal and policy fields such as trade and investment, human rights and the environment, as well as in international relations.
The quality and the strength of an environmental legal system is a reflection of the conceptual foundations upon which it is constructed. The Research Handbook on Fundamental Concepts of Environmental Law illuminates key aspects of environmental governance through the lens of their underlying dimensions: for example, the form, structure and language of international, regional and national instruments; the function of norms, objectives and standards; and the relevance of economic analysis and of integrated policy formulation. The topical chapters in this timely Handbook include analyses of human rights, constitutional rights, property rights, sustainable development, environmental impact assessment and precaution. Perceptive contributions examine the emerging roles played by various concepts, values and objectives in environmental governance. The nature of these emerging concepts and their relationship with traditional rights and duties, which are typically reactive in nature, is of particular significance. The concepts examined go to the heart of environmental law: the capacity of a system of environmental governance to be judicially recognized and enforced. This insightful Handbook will be a valuable resource for all students and researchers in environmental law and governance. It will be essential reading for policymakers, legal drafters and anyone needing to understand the foundations of the modern environmental legal system.
REDD+ (Reducing Emissions of greenhouse gases from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) is an important tool under the UNFCCC for incentivizing developing countries to adopt and scale up climate mitigation actions in the forest sector and for capturing and channeling the financial resources to do so. This Handbook eloquently examines the methodological guidance and emerging governance arrangements for REDD+, analysing how and to what extent it is embedded in the international legal framework. Organized coherently into five parts, contributions from legal experts, international relations scholars, climate change negotiators and activists explore the history and design of REDD+ in the UN climate regime, as well as linkages between REDD+ and other international agreements. The book also considers global governance for REDD+, its financial dimensions including markets and investment and future developments and legal challenges. Detailed analysis from a range of angles illustrates the interplay of international norms and institutions and maps out a legal research agenda for identifying best practice solutions. Shedding light on one of the most vibrant and fast-moving fields in international law, this comprehensive Handbook is essential reading for scholars of international law and international relations, policy makers in the area of climate change, REDD+ and land sector experts and NGOs.
The crucial importance of biodiversity law to future human welfare is only now being fully appreciated. This wide-ranging Handbook presents a range of perspectives from leading international experts reflecting up-to-date research thinking on the vital subject of biodiversity and its interaction with law. Through a rigorous examination of the principles, procedures and practices that characterise this area of law, this timely volume effectively highlights its objectives, implementation, achievements, and prospects. More specifically, the work addresses the regulatory challenges posed by the principal contemporary threats to biological diversity, the applicable general principles of international environmental law and the visions, values and voices that are shaping the development of the law. Presenting thematic rather than regime-based coverage, the editors demonstrate the state-of-the-art of current research and identify future research needs and directions. This comprehensive and authoritative Handbook will be an indispensable resource for legal scholars, students and practitioners alike.
Elgar Advanced Introductions are stimulating and thoughtful introductions to major fields in the social sciences and law, expertly written by the world's leading scholars. This accessible and concise introduction provides a salient overview of contemporary international environmental law as well as a critical assessment of the controversies that arise when trying to achieve environmental protection through international law. Covering the origins, content, institutional structure and accountability mechanisms of international environmental law, in their social-economic and political context, Ellen Hey discusses substantive and procedural fairness, thus exploring questions of distributive justice, accountability and legitimacy. Providing an invaluable entry point to this complex area of the law, this book enables a rapid understanding of the core principles of this multi-faceted topic. Key features include: * Concise and compact overview * Discusses contemporary developments * Examines IEL's relationship to other areas of international law * Considers the social-economic context.
International energy law is an elusive but important concept. There is no body of law called `international energy law', nor is there any universally accepted definition for it, yet many specialised areas of international law have a direct relationship with energy policy. The Research Handbook on International Energy Law examines various aspects of international energy law and offers a comprehensive account of its basic concepts and processes. Adopting a practical approach, the Handbook traces the wide and somewhat informal notion of international energy law and covers the latest developments in the field. The expert contributors offer original research and analysis on pertinent topics such as energy investment, international energy disputes and energy trade. In addition to examining public international law issues and their application to energy activities, the Handbook also includes studies focused on private contractual arrangements and provides an angle on the human rights aspects of energy. This book will be a valuable tool for the expert audience - both academics and practitioners - and will provide students and early career practising lawyers with a good understanding of what `international energy law' really means.
The concept of sustainable development has become a fundamental discourse in international decision making. To enable pragmatic sustainable development governance, legally coherent, mutually supportive multilateral treaties are both necessary and important. This timely book provides an accessible insight into how the concept of sustainable development can be made operational for coherent law making through its translation into legal terms. The book is split into two informative points of inquiry. The first part of the book explores the origins of the sustainable development debate and sheds light on how the international community has inadequately operationalized the concept to utilize its full potential. In this view, Elisabeth Burgi Bonanomi illustrates how sustainable development can facilitate coherent international law making when it is understood as a multidimensional legal principle and methodical norm. The second part of the book adopts this notion as an analytical lens on the WTO Agreement on Agriculture, placing the focus specifically on food security and food sustainability. The overarching discussion contributes to one of the most intricate debates of international food governance and investigates the unresolved question of what a sustainable and coherent agricultural trade agreement could look like. Providing a comprehensive overview of sustainable development law, its origins, and its current theories, scholars and students with a background in international public law, trade, and investment law, development and human rights law, international relations, and environmental policy will find this book a valuable reference tool. Practitioners and policy makers will benefit from the insight into the search for politically coherent and sustainable legal agreements.
The predicament of uncontrolled growth in a finite world puts the global commons - such as oceans, atmosphere, and biosphere - at risk. So far, states have not found the means to protect what, essentially, is outside their jurisdiction. However, the jurisprudence of international law has matured to a point that makes global governance beyond state-negotiated compromises both possible and desirable. This book makes an ambitious, yet well-researched and convincing, case for trusteeship governance. Earth Governance shows how the United Nations, together with states, can draw from their own traditions to develop new, effective regimes of environmental trusteeship. Klaus Bosselmann argues that the integrity of the earth's ecological system depends on institutional reform, and that only an ethic of stewardship and trusteeship will create the institutions, laws and policies powerful enough to reclaim and protect the global commons. This comprehensive exploration of environmental governance will appeal to scholars and students of environmental law, and international law and relations, as well as to UN and government officials and policymakers.
Emissions trading is an economic legal framework designed to address the global environmental crisis of climate change. This book analyses the broader impacts of these frameworks - particularly the relationship between emissions trading schemes and the WTO. Felicity Deane focuses primarily on the rules of the WTO as a tool to demonstrate where the boundaries exist for acceptable interface with international trade. She explores the meaning of goods and products, services, subsidies and border adjustments within the context of the WTO rules and considers the impacts of these definitions on emissions trading frameworks. Academics and students with an interest in the WTO and the convergence of trade and environment will find this an insightful book. The points raised will also be useful to legal professionals, economists and policymakers involved in emissions trading practices.
The rapidly increasing human pressure on the biosphere is pushing biodiversity into the sixth mass extinction event in the history of life on Earth. The organisms being exterminated are integral working parts of our planet's life support system, and their loss is permanent. Like climate change, this irreversible loss has potentially devastating consequences for humanity. As we come to recognise the many ways in which we depend on nature, this can pave the way for a new ethic that acknowledges the importance of co-existence between humans and other species. Biological Extinction features chapters contributed by leading thinkers in diverse fields of knowledge and practice, including biology, economics, geology, archaeology, demography, architecture and intermediate technology. Drawing on examples from various socio-ecological systems, the book offers new perspectives on the urgent issue of biological extinction, proposing novel solutions to the problems that we face.
Drawing on political science, economics, philosophy, theology, social anthropology, history, management studies, law, and other subject areas, In Search of Good Energy Policy brings together leading academics from across the social sciences and humanities to offer an innovative look at why science and technology, and the type of quantification they champion, cannot alone meet the needs of energy policy making in the future. Featuring world-class researchers from the University of Cambridge and other leading universities around the world, this innovative book presents an interdisciplinary dialogue in which scientists and practitioners reach across institutional divides to offer their perspectives on the relevance of multi-disciplinary research for 'real world' application. This work should be read by anyone interested in understanding how multidisciplinary research and collaboration is essential to crafting good energy policy.
This textbook presents key theoretical approaches to understanding issues of sustainability and environmental management, perfectly bridging the gap between engineering and environmental science. It begins with the fundamentals of environmental modelling and toxicology, which are then used to discuss qualitative and quantitative risk assessment methods, and environmental assessments of product design. It discusses how business and government can work towards sustainability, focusing on managerial and legal tools, before considering ethics and how decisions on environmental management can be made. Students will learn quantitative methods while also gaining an understanding of qualitative, legal, and ethical aspects of sustainability. Practical applications are included throughout, and there are study questions at the end of each chapter. PowerPoint slides and jpegs of all the figures in the book are provided online. This is the perfect textbook on environmental studies for engineering and applied science students.
The World Ocean Assessment - or, to give its full title, The First Global Integrated Marine Assessment - is the outcome of the first cycle of the United Nations' Regular Process for Global Reporting and Assessment of the State of the Marine Environment, including Socioeconomic Aspects. The Assessment provides vital, scientifically-grounded bases for the consideration of ocean issues, including climate change, by governments, intergovernmental agencies, non-governmental agencies and all other stakeholders and policymakers involved in ocean affairs. Together with future assessments and related initiatives, it will support the implementation of the recently adopted 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, particularly its ocean-related goals. Moreover, it will also form an important reference text for marine science courses.
Facts and feelings constitute a complex tension in modern science. Not only can public opinion deviate from scientific knowledge, but that knowledge itself can be lacunose or contradicting. Managing Facts and Feelings in Environmental Governance examines this internal friction, between the need to engage the public in the importance of environmental governance and the demand of professional expertise to address the issues that arise. This timely and insightful book acknowledges the growing role of behavioural science in the determination of environmental policy, regulation and decision-making, providing astute guidance to decision makers regarding how to balance the needs of public participation procedures and professional expertise. Its multidisciplinary approach provides new insights in the field of public participation, enabling further analysis of environmental psychology, equality law and fundamental rights and offering concrete guidance on how to approach natural science in court. Engaging with the role that the precautionary principle can play in balancing tensions between public and academic spheres, this book includes a state-of-the-art account of the precautionary approach under EU and International Law. Combining law in action with academic approaches, this book is a must-read for scholars of environmental law, governance and regulation. It also offers valuable guidance for decision-makers and NGOs active in environmental protection, as well as environmental lawyers at national, European and international levels.
This timely book considers appropriate legal practices to use to promote conservation, protection and sustainable use of biological diversity in forest and marine areas. The breadth of issues explored across these two themes is immense, and the book identifies both key differences, and striking commonalities between them. Law-makers, managers and users often have little understanding of either the complexity or the true value of biological diversity and of what is needed to preserve forest and marine ecosystems, and to keep inter-relationships between species within them healthy. Regulators face significant and practical challenges, requiring the adoption of legal frameworks in the context of scientific uncertainty. This book provides critical and comparative reflections on the role of law in both of these biodiversity contexts. Key issues not previously addressed through the law are considered - for example, the lack of international governance of peat; and the moral problem of labelling certain species as `alien' or `invasive'. Learned contributors draw valuable lessons for those seeking to protect biodiversity and understand its governance, from analysis of experiences gained forging international and national legal frameworks. With a blend of local and global perspectives, across a wide range of countries and policies, the book will appeal to academics and students in law, international, regional and domestic policymakers, lawmakers, NGOs and conservation agencies.
The global energy transition from carbon-intensive to renewable fuels has increasingly demanded a better understanding of the causes and consequences of the rapid development of unconventional oil and gas. Focusing on key countries including the United States, Canada, China, Argentina, the United Kingdom and Australia, this book consists of case studies and in-depth analyses that weigh up the risks and rewards at regional, national and global scales. Explaining how and why unconventional fuels are transforming the global energy landscape, the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats are explored through a political, economic and governance-based perspective. Emphasis is placed on how to regulate the industry, encompassing local issues, stakeholder engagement and the social licence to operate. The new baseline studies and standards introduced in this book provide a timely insight into the trade-offs across the social, economic and environmental domains, making this ideal for researchers and policymakers in energy fields, and for graduate students.
This unique transdisciplinary publication is the result of collaboration between UNESCO's Local and Indigenous Knowledge Systems (LINKS) programme, the United Nations University's Traditional Knowledge Initiative, the IPCC, and other organisations. Chapters, written by indigenous peoples, scientists and development experts, provide insight into how diverse societies observe and adapt to changing environments. A broad range of case studies illustrate how these societies, building upon traditional knowledge handed down through generations, are already developing their own solutions for dealing with a rapidly changing climate and how this might be useful on a global scale. Of interest to policy-makers, social and natural scientists, and indigenous peoples and experts, this book provides an indispensable reference for those interested in climate science, policy and adaptation.
This highly topical book considers the important question of how best to protect the environment of the Third Pole - the area comprising the Hindu Kush Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau - using the tool of international law; specifically, international environmental law and the law of international watercourses. Following detailed analysis of weaknesses in current legal protections according to comparative legal theory, Simon Marsden recommends three potential options for implementation by policy and lawmakers. The first option is to transplant existing international law, including conventions from the UN Economic Commission for Europe and the Council of Europe. Secondly, transplantation of a comprehensive international treaty, based upon the Alpine and Carpathian regimes, is suggested. The overwhelmingly European focus of the first two options, and possible contextual constraints to implementation, informs a third option: the development of a new treaty, giving appropriate attention to the Asian context on one hand, and the need for access of information and public participation on the other, to ensure effective implementation and compliance. Taking a comparative, interdisciplinary approach, Protecting the Third Pole will be a key resource for legal and policy scholars. NGO's and practitioners will also benefit from its detailed analysis.
The Commentary on the Energy Charter Treaty (ECT) provides a unique, article-by-article, textual analysis of this important international agreement. The ECT outlines a multilateral framework for cross-border cooperation in the energy sector based on the principles of open competitive markets and sustainable development. By binding governments to commitments that guarantee open markets, non-discrimination, and access to foreign investment, the ECT aims to strengthen the global rule of law on energy issues and, in doing so, reduce the risks associated with energy-related investment and trade. Expert contributors provide commentary and analysis on the five primary areas of the ECT: investment promotion and protection, trade, transit, environmental protection, and dispute settlement. The optional protocols are also addressed, including issues such as energy efficiency and the environment. Clearly and logically organized, this commentary is an invaluable reference tool for those wanting to better understand the intricacies of the Treaty and its binding commitments. The Commentary will be an essential resource for practitioners, academics, and policymakers across the field of energy law and policy.
Coined barely two decades ago, the Anthropocene has become one of the most influential and controversial terms in environmental policy. Yet it remains an ambivalent and contested formulation, giving rise to a multitude of unexpected, and often uncomfortable, conversations. This book traces in detail a broad variety of such 'Anthropocene encounters': in science, philosophy and literary fiction. It asks what it means to 'think green' in a time when nature no longer offers a stable backdrop to political analysis. Do familiar political categories and concepts, such as democracy, justice, power and time, hold when confronted with a world radically transformed by humans? The book responds by inviting more radical political thought, plural forms of engagement, and extended ethical commitments, making it a fascinating and timely volume for graduate students and researchers working in earth system governance, environmental politics and studies of the Anthropocene.
Crimes associated with the illegal trade in wildlife, timber and fish stocks, and pollutants and waste have become increasingly transnational, organized and serious. They warrant attention because of their environmental consequences, their human toll, their impact on the rule of law and good governance, and their links with violence, corruption and a range of cross-over crimes. This ground-breaking, multi-disciplinary Handbook examines key transnational environmental crime sectors and explores its most significant conceptual, operational and enforcement challenges. Bringing together leading scholars and practitioners, this book presents in-depth analysis based on extensive academic research and operational and enforcement expertise. The sectors covered include illegal wildlife, timber, pollutant and waste trades, and crimes in the carbon market. The contextual chapters examine criminal networks and illicit chains of custody, local sociocultural, economic and political factors, the effectiveness of policy and operational responses, and international jurisdictional challenges. This Handbook will be an invaluable resource for students and scholars of global environmental politics, international environmental law, and environmental criminology as well as for regulatory and enforcement practitioners working to meet the challenges of transnational environmental crime.
Guaranteeing energy security is one of the most complex challenges of energy law and policy. Energy insecurity threatens economic development, social peace and stability. This book focuses on energy security in the strategically important region of Central Asia. Despite huge energy reserves, the region's energy systems are amongst the most inefficient and unreliable in the world, and require urgent reform. However, endemic corruption, discrimination and the strong centralization of power have so far blocked initiatives to reorganise energy supply. The case of Central Asia is uniquely relevant for understanding the informal constraints on energy law and policy. In addition, Central Asian energy insecurity illustrates the impact of geopolitics on the regulation of energy markets. The region is strategically located along the New Silk Road - China's ambitious infrastructure initiative - and its energy situation highlights the complex interactions between energy law, geopolitics and institutions.
This timely book makes an original and in-depth contribution to the debate about how to transform our energy governance systems into ones that support a fair, safe and sustainable society. It combines perspectives from leading scholars to provide a global outlook on alternative approaches to energy governance and innovative experiences. Taken as a whole, it offers a unique overview of some of the innovative and novel ways in which law can support the shift to sustainable and equitable energy systems. The first section lays the conceptual and theoretical foundations for alternative approaches to energy governance, including its constitutional foundations, the role of human rights, and an environmentally just system that seeks universal access to energy for all. The second section showcases concrete innovative experiences in energy governance from around the globe, including smart cities, the role of the courts, energy efficiency of buildings and the harnessing of energy from waste. Finally, the authors consider the social justice dimension, discussing the exploitation of energy resources by multinational companies in developing countries and the importance of agricultural production, distribution and consumption in energy transformation. This unique overview of state-of-the-art approaches to transformation of energy governance is vital reading for policy-makers and both legal and non-legal scholars concerned with energy law, sustainability and justice, as well as global governance.
This new and fully updated edition of Principles of International Environmental Law offers a comprehensive and critical account of one of the fastest growing areas of international law: the principles and rules relating to environmental protection. Introducing the reader to the key foundational principles, governance structures and regulatory techniques, Principles of International Environmental Law explores each of the major areas of international environmental regulation through substantive chapters, including climate change, atmospheric protection, oceans and freshwater, biodiversity, chemicals and waste regulation. The ever-increasing overlap with other areas of international law is also explored through examination of the inter-linkages between international environmental law and other areas of international regulation, such as trade, human rights, humanitarian law and investment law. Incorporating the latest developments in treaty and case law for key areas of environmental regulation, this text is an essential reference and textbook for advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students, academics and practitioners of international environmental law.
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