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The early years of Zimbabwe’s independence were blighted by conflict and bloodshed, culminating in the Gukurahundi massacres of 1983 and 1984. Historian Stuart Doran explores these events in unprecedented detail, drawing on thousands of previously unpublished documents, including classified records from Mugabe’s Central Intelligence Organisation, apartheid South Africa, the UK, USA, Australia and Canada.
This groundbreaking book charts the development of an intense rivalry between two nationalist parties – Mugabe’s Zanu and Nkomo’s Zapu – and reveals how Zanu’s victory in the 1980 elections was followed by a carefully orchestrated five-year plan, driven by Mugabe, which sought to smash all forms of political opposition and impose a one-party state. Doran shows not only what happened during Zimbabwe’s darkest chapter, but also why this cataclysm occurred. In an expansive narrative saturated with new findings, he documents a culture of political intolerance in which domination and subjugation became the only options, and traces the rise of key proponents of this supremacist ideology.
Kingdom, Power, Glory is the most comprehensive history of Zimbabwe’s formative years and is essential reading for anyone hoping to understand the Mugabe regime, then and now.
Scholars agree that a direct correlation can be made between poor governance and the emergence of extremist movements. As UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres puts it: ‘I am convinced that the creation of open, equitable, inclusive and pluralist societies, based on the full respect of human rights and with economic opportunities for all, represents the most tangible and meaningful alternative to violent extremism.’ This book challenges both the efficacy and wisdom of purely militarised responses to extremist movements typified by the Global War on Terror, as well as the cursory replication of international counter-terrorism frameworks promulgated by the United Nations and European Union in Africa.
Emphasis is given to the importance of understanding local history, culture and regional geopolitics, among a variety of context-specific factors to truly understand and thereby effectively address the emergence and spread of extremisms in Africa. As such, it draws on contributions from a range of thematic and regional experts, including security-sector specialists, conflict analysts, journalists, international relations and governance specialists, political scientists, social anthropologists, psychologists and theologians, among others. A diverse range of extremist movements on the continent are examined, from radicalised religious groups to race-based organisations.
These case studies provide in-depth insight into answering why and how these movements came to be, while thematic chapters address issues pertinent to addressing them, such as public perceptions of extremism, methods of recruitment and radicalization among marginalised communities, supporting survivors of extremism and former combatants, strategic approaches to counter-terrorism and the role of governance, among others.
This is an introductory anthology and the first of its kind on this topic to be authored and published in the African continent.
Providing wide-ranging coverage and clear explanations, European Union Law is a trusted guide to the subject with a no-fuss style. Written in its trademark concise prose, the text distils complex ideas without sacrificing academic integrity. Focusing on the key debates surrounding EU law, this is the book for the thinking student; critiquing and applying the law throughout to give a contextual approach to the subject. Students are invited to consider the key concepts in the law and to think for themselves with self-test questions and numerous suggestions for further reading. This text is accompanied by an Online Resource Centre which features a range of resources including updates to the law, an interactive map and timeline showing the development of the EU, and archive video footage from the European Commission.
This brand new textbook provides a concise and informative overview of environmental policy and politics in the European Union. It includes a thorough analysis of the traditional areas of environmental concern such as pollution and natural resources, as well as newer environmental issues, including GMOs and climate change. Throughout this clear and readable introduction, the authors emphasize the interdependence between EU environmental policy and changes at the global level, focusing in particular on the EU's role in global environmental governance. The authors' didactic approach means this text will be invaluable to undergraduate and postgraduate students of environmental politics, policies and governance in the EU as well as MA programmes with a global focus, including international relations and EU studies.
This timely and important intervention in the debates concerning Europe in Ireland begins with the 1916 Centenary celebration. The Brexit decision of June 2016 has fundamentally altered Ireland's relationship with the European Union and has exponentially increased interest in European matters in public debates. Yet, public discussions regarding Ireland's closer links with the European Union often remain purely utilitarian and economic, or take place solely within academia. There is an urgent need to broaden the debate towards the cultural and social spheres, which includes highlighting the inherently European quality of Irish culture and society, in the past as much as the present. The most extensive interventions on these issues in recent years have come from the President of Ireland. This edition collects all of the major speeches on the topic of Europe since 2016. They encompass interventions on historical aspects, bilateral cultural links, citizens' involvement in the European project, workers' rights and ecological concerns. The present Covid-19 crisis will further move the European Union into the limelight, in particular its role in helping member states cope with the consequences of this unprecedented disaster. President Higgins addresses the Great Flu Epidemic of 1918-19 from a speech made in May 2019 and considers the role of European leaders in a letter to the President of the Hellenic Republic in April 2020. These speeches are marked by the President's particular and personal stamp, while also expressing central concerns on behalf of Irish citizens. The speeches are enhanced by a Foreword written by President Michael D. Higgins.
This timely and engaging book explores the role of European political entrepreneurship in debating, shaping and implementing the Europe 2020 strategy. Insightful chapters analyse the content, conditions and consequences of Europe 2020, investigating the plan for a future prosperous EU economy. Focussing on how European political entrepreneurship functions in times of crisis, Smart, Sustainable and Inclusive Growth considers these crises as potential windows of opportunity. The expert contributors highlight how the 2020 strategy has been debated, decided on, and then implemented from a governance perspective with multiple actors, and look ahead to necessary future developments. Further to this, multi-level governance is discussed as a way to address the demanded socio-economic goals across the EU in order to effect smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. Entrepreneurship and public policy scholars, particularly those with an interest in European affairs, will find this book to be an interesting read. It will also prove to be a powerful resource for politicians and public servants working within the Europe 2020 strategy.
The Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) is one of the central institutions of the EU and has played a decisive role in European integration. As one of the most powerful international courts, at a time when political systems around the world are becoming more judicialized, it is a key actor to understand in world affairs. Yet it is not without controversy. As both an interpreter of law and as a political power influencing policy-making through its bold case law, it has become increasingly criticized in recent years for its perceived activism and distance from the European people. Combining the perspectives of a legal scholar and a political scientist, this important new text gives a uniquely broad-ranging account of the CJEU. It introduces readers to the role and function of the Court and explains how it fits into the broader political system and historical evolution of the European Union. It examines the constitutional contributions made by the Court and the part it plays in policy-making, in areas such as the environment, gender equality and human rights. Drawing on the latest research, the book takes full account of recent changes to the place of the Court in the European political system, and shows how new forms of governance, such as the open method of coordination, have had a significant impact on the role the Court is able to play.
The global financial crisis in 2008 brought central banking to the centre stage, prompting questions about the role of national central banks and - in Europe - of the multi-country European Central Bank. What can central banks do, and what are their limitations? How have they performed? Currency, Credit and Crisis seeks to provide a coherent perspective on the functions of a central bank in a small country by assessing the way in which Ireland's financial crisis from 2010 to 2013 was handled. Drawing on his experiences as Governor of the Central Bank of Ireland and in research and policy work at the World Bank, Patrick Honohan offers a detailed analytical narrative of the origins of the crisis and of policy makers' conduct during its most fraught moments.
The European Commission is at the very heart of the European integration process and, with the Council, is one of the two central institutions of the European Union. Its activist role under Jacques Delors led to a dramatic increase in its activity and influence and contributed to a crisis of confidence in its effectiveness and its lack of adequate financial controls which culminated in the resignation of the entire Commission under Jacques Santer in 1999. What progress has the Commission made in addressing these issues under Romano Prodi? What are its prospects in face of the new challenges of Eastward enlargement? How great is its influence and how does this vary according to issues and circumstances? What are the implications of its hybrid character as a political and administrative body? How much has the Commission changed over time and how much - and how - does it need to change now? Written by a leading authority and author of the best-selling introductory text on the EU, this major new text provides the definitive introduction to, and assessment of the Commission, its evolution, composition, organisation, character, functioning and role. Comprehensive, up to date and based on extensive original research it will be essential reading for students of European integration; politicians, policy makers and functionaries; and anyone with a serious interest in the European Union, its current character and future prospects.
This new edition of the leading reader on European Integration makes conveniently available to students the key texts of politicians and scholars. The first section, presents the key visions of the primary shapers of the union now including the reflections of current European leaders on the crisis in Europe. The second and third sections bring together the seminal work of early scholars as they struggled to understand postwar European integration and influential work from the 1980s and 1990s. The final - comprehensively revised and updated - section explores recent theoretical developments in scholarship.
From trade relations to greenhouse gases, from shipwrecks to cybercrime, treaties structure the rights and obligations of states, international organizations, and individuals. For centuries, treaties have regulated relations among nation states. Today, they are the dominant source of international law. Thus, being adept with treaties and international agreements is an indispensable skill for anyone engaged in international relations, including international lawyers, diplomats, international organization officials, and representatives of non-governmental organizations. The Oxford Guide to Treaties provides a comprehensive guide to treaties, shedding light on the rules and practices surrounding the making, interpretation, and operation of these instruments. Leading experts provide essays designed to introduce the law of treaties and offer practical insights into how treaties actually work. Foundational issues are covered, including what treaties are and when they should be used, alongside detailed analyses of treaty formation, application, interpretation, and exit. Special issues associated with treaties involving the European Union and other international organizations are also addressed. These scholarly treatments are complimented by a set of model treaty clauses. Real examples illustrate the approaches treaty-makers can take on topics such as entry into force, languages, reservations, and amendments. The Oxford Guide to Treaties thus provides an authoritative reference point for anyone studying or involved in the creation or interpretation of treaties or other forms of international agreement.
Citizenship is an ever-evolving and expanding concept. European citizenship is all the more so. This book considers the role that the institutional design of the European Union plays in extending the rights of EU citizens. With chapters from leading researchers in the field, Democratic Empowerment in the European Union outlines the core themes relating to democratic empowerment in the EU. It examines the channels that are being made available by EU policy makers to help increase democratic participation, as well as the hindrances to, and the problems associated with, democratic empowerment. With its groundbreaking account of the ways in which EU citizens are hampered in exercising their democratic citizenship, and proposals for how they might be further empowered to do so, this book is an important addition to the literature on the subject, and offers an excellent introduction to this crucial issue. Democratic Empowerment in the European Union will be essential reading for students of politics and both social and public policy with interests in democracy and citizenship, as well as European policy makers seeking to understand and encourage democratic engagement.
In the late sixties and early seventies, black separatist movements were sweeping across the United States. This was the era of "The Autobiography of Malcolm X, " Stokely Carmichael's and Charles Hamilton's "Black Power, " and Eldridge Cleaver's "Soul on Ice." In 1969 a group of distinguished African American intellectuals met at Haverford College in order to devise strategies to dissuade young blacks from adopting a separatist political agenda. The participants included some of the most prominent figures of the civil rights era--Ralph Ellison, John Hope Franklin, and J. Saunders Redding, to name only a notable few. Although these discussions were recorded, transcribed, and edited, they were never published because the funding for them was withdrawn. This volume at last makes the historic Haverford discussions available, rescuing for the modern reader some of the most eloquent voices in the intellectual history of black America.
Michael Lackey has edited and annotated the transcript of this lively exchange, and Alfred E. Prettyman has supplied an afterword. While acknowledging the importance of the black power and separatist movements, Lackey's introduction also sheds light on the insights offered by critics of those movements. Despite the frequent characterization of the dissenting integrationists as Uncle Toms or establishment intellectuals, a misrepresentation that has marginalized them in the intervening decades, Lackey argues that they had their own compelling vision for black empowerment and sociopolitical integration.
The permanent five (P5) members of the United Nations Security Council - China, France, Russia, the UK, and the USA - have a firm duty to prevent genocide in light of the due diligence standard under conventional, customary, and peremptory international law. This perceptive book explores the positive obligations of these states to act both within and without the Security Council context to prevent or suppress imminent or ongoing genocide. John Heieck successfully argues why the duty to prevent genocide is not only a customary, but also an absolute norm of international law, and analyses the scope of the due diligence standard regarding the duty to prevent genocide. In doing so, he considers the ramifications of this on the actions of the P5 members of the Security Council, both inside and outside of this eminent body. Significantly, Heieck proposes a legal test for identifying jus cogens norms, and explores the effect of these on the actions and omissions of specifically identified members of the United Nations (UN). Topical and insightful, A Duty to Prevent Genocide will be an important read for both academics and students of international law and politics who wish to further understand the legal nature of the duty of the P5 members to prevent genocide. It will also provide valuable insights for policy makers of the P5 member states.
Drawing on both theory and practice, this insightful book offers a comprehensive analysis of the relationship between the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) and the International Criminal Court (ICC), centered on the referral mechanism. Arguing that the legal nature of the referral must be conceptualized as a conferral of powers from the UNSC to the ICC, the author explores the complex legal relationship between interacting international organizations. With a novel approach to the relationship between the UNSC and the ICC, this book addresses important questions raised in practice. In particular, Gabriel M. Lentner explores issues regarding any limits and conditions for referral under the UN Charter and the Rome Statute, and the legal effects on heads-of-state immunity, as well as the validity of jurisdictional exemptions for other specific categories of nationals. This is a persuasive study into the powers of the UNSC with respect to international criminal law. With its timely focus on an important topic, this book will be vital reading for academics in international institutional law, international criminal law, and human rights law. ICC judges and lawyers, as well as lawyers involved in the UN, governments, and non-governmental organizations will also benefit from this book.
As international organizations become ever more prominent in global politics it is increasingly urgent to understand their power, their limits, and their effects. Now in its fourth edition, this leading textbook provides the definitive introduction to modern international organizations, from the legal charters of their beginnings, to the issues they engage with in the contemporary world. In his analysis of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the International Criminal Court and ten other prominent global institutions, Hurd combines legal, empirical, and theoretical approaches in an accessible and cohesive package. Fully revised and updated, this latest edition includes topical cases and controversies involving international organizations, such as Brexit, trade wars, environmentalism, forced migration and border disputes. It will be of interest to undergraduate and graduate students taking courses in international organizations, international institutions, global governance, and international law.
Support for civil society has become a major concern for development agencies. However, there has been confusion about the role of non-governmental development organizations (NGOs) in civil society. Sometimes, the funding of NGOs has simply been re-phased as support for civil society. Yet NGOs form only one group of organizations within civil society. Often they are funded from external sources and lack local legitimacy and accountability. This book contains papers by practitioners and researchers that examine the role of NGOs in civil society. It includes general thematic papers on civil society, case studies from Africa, Asia and Latin America and Eastern Europe, and papers that analyze initiatives undertaken by Northern NGOs and donors in democratization programmes in the South. The stimulus for this book was an INTRAC workshop to reflect on the implications of the new civil society policy agenda for NGOs, especially for countries undergoing major political transition.
This book is a unique guide to making the world a better place. Experts apply a critical eye to the United Nations' Sustainable Development agenda, also known as the Global Goals, which will affect the flow of $2.5 trillion of development aid up until 2030. Renowned economists, led by Bjorn Lomborg, determine what pursuing different targets will cost and achieve in social, environmental and economic benefits. There are 169 targets, covering every area of international development - from health to education, sanitation to conflict. Together, these analyses make the case for prioritizing the most effective development investments. A panel of Nobel Laureate economists identify a set of 19 phenomenal development targets, and argue that this would achieve as much as quadrupling the global aid budget.
Workers, Collectivism and the Law offers a captivating historical account of worker democracy, from its beginnings in European guild systems to present-day labor unions, across the national legal systems of Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. Analysing these legal systems in light of a Habermasian concept of participatory democracy, Laura Carlson identifies ways to strengthen individual employee voice in claims against employers. Carlson highlights how employee voice and democracy, both collective and individual, assume different guises in each of these four labor law models. By tracing voice and democracy as components in the history of collective worker organizations, from guilds to journeymen associations to modern labor unions, Carlson demonstrates how history has shaped today's national labor law models. In the context of modern labor law's central focus on human rights, Carlson articulates the need for stronger legal defence of mechanisms of transparency and procedural due process, to enhance voice and democracy for union members in invoking rights and asserting protections for workers. This insightful book is indispensable reading for labor law academics and for those practicing in employment law, while those interested in the history of labor law will revel in its penetrating survey of the materials.
The budget has been among the most pressing topics facing Brussels throughout the history of the EU. Features and Challenges of the EU Budget proposes a timely analysis of the most pertinent issues surrounding the EU budget with a multidisciplinary approach that includes historical, political, legal and economic interpretations. This thought provoking book considers the history of the EU budget and the European integration process, offering insight into the broader political implications of the budget for both Member State governments and for their citizens. Features and Challenges of the EU Budget also explores the legal and economic repercussions of the EU budget, examines the framework that controls it, and interrogates the budget's effects on European growth and competitiveness alongside its significance to the structural balances of Member States. At a time of uncertainty for the EU, this book provides a critical investigation of how political factors will affect the future of the EU budget. Featuring the unique contributions of academics from a range of disciplinary backgrounds, this insightful work will be of great interest to scholars and students investigating the politics, structure and economics of the EU. This book will also be useful to institutions offering courses or programmes concerning the EU and its budget.
The concept of supranational European citizenship has become one of the core concepts of the EU's unique polity. It has, however, been one of the most difficult to actualise. This book examines the challenges of, and barriers to, exercising full citizenship rights for European citizens and considers how they might best be overcome. Drawing on cutting-edge research from interdisciplinary areas of study, this book examines the key issues surrounding EU citizenship. Reflecting on the diversity of European societies, it identifies, analyses and compares the many barriers that citizens face to fully exercising their rights. With chapters examining key issues from migration to democratic governance and social rights, Moving Beyond Barriers critically analyses concepts of citizenship and the way that EU citizenship is politically, legally, economically and socially institutionalised, and elaborates alternatives to the current paths of realising EU citizenship. Citizenship issues feature prominently in the European policy-making agenda and the insights offered by this book will be of benefit to those with an interest in EU law, social and public policy and administration. Policy-makers and practitioners will also benefit from the reflections on citizenship and the practical guidance on how to move beyond current issues regarding EU citizenship.
"Building a Global Civic Culture" is the first book to appear in the Syracuse Studies on Peace and Conflict Resolution series. Boulding's message in this work addresses the series' goals. Of particular interest is her argument that we should not feel that we can only deal with world issues through governmental organizations. Indeed, Boulding feels that it is through the thousands of non-governmental organizations, the Red Cross, Amnesty International, Boy Scouts, and Girl Scouts, among others, that we can best deal with the great civic issues of our time.
This broad-ranging text provides an analysis and assessment of the European Union's energy policy. It examines the components of the internal energy market alongside energy policy and politics on the international stage, and in doing so outlines the increasing importance of this global issue.
When considering the structures that drive the global diffusion of human rights norms, Brian Greenhill argues that we need to look beyond institutions that are explicitly committed to human rights and instead focus on the dense web of international government organizations (IGOs)-some big, some small; some focused on human rights; some not-that has arisen in the last two generations. While most of these organizations have no direct connection to human rights issues, their participation in broader IGO networks has important implications for the human rights practices of their member states. Featuring a rigorous empirical analysis, Transmitting Rights shows that countries tend to adopt similar human rights practices to those of their IGO partners, whether for better or worse. Greenhill argues that IGOs constitute a tightly-woven fabric of ties between states and that this network provides an important channel through which states can influence the behavior of others. Indeed, his analysis suggests that a policy of isolating "rogue" states is probably self-defeating given that this will reduce their exposure to some of the more positive IGO-based influences on their human rights. Greenhill's analysis of the role of IGOs in rights diffusion will not only increase our understanding of the international politics of human rights; it will also reshape how we think about the role of international institutions in world politics.
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