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A compelling portrait of a group of boys as they navigate the complexities of being both American teenagers and good Muslims This book provides a uniquely personal look at the social worlds of a group of young male friends as they navigate the complexities of growing up Muslim in America. Drawing on three and a half years of intensive fieldwork in and around a large urban mosque, John O'Brien offers a compelling portrait of typical Muslim American teenage boys concerned with typical teenage issues--girlfriends, school, parents, being cool--yet who are also expected to be good, practicing Muslims who don't date before marriage, who avoid vulgar popular culture, and who never miss their prayers. Many Americans unfamiliar with Islam or Muslims see young men like these as potential ISIS recruits. But neither militant Islamism nor Islamophobia is the main concern of these boys, who are focused instead on juggling the competing cultural demands that frame their everyday lives. O'Brien illuminates how they work together to manage their "culturally contested lives" through subtle and innovative strategies--such as listening to profane hip-hop music in acceptably "Islamic" ways, professing individualism to cast their participation in communal religious obligations as more acceptably American, dating young Muslim women in ambiguous ways that intentionally complicate adjudications of Islamic permissibility, and presenting a "low-key Islam" in public in order to project a Muslim identity without drawing unwanted attention. Closely following these boys as they move through their teen years together, Keeping It Halal sheds light on their strategic efforts to manage their day-to-day cultural dilemmas as they devise novel and dynamic modes of Muslim American identity in a new and changing America.
Russians in Iran seeks to challenge the traditional narrative regarding Russian involvement Iran and to show that whilst Russia's historical involvement in Iran is longstanding it is nonetheless much misunderstood. Russia's influence in Iran between 1800 and the middle of the twentieth century is not simply a story of inexorable intrusion and domination: rather, it is a complex and interactive process of mostly indirect control and constructive engagement. Drawing on fresh archival material, the contributors provide a window into the power and influence wielded in Iran not just by the Russian government through it traditional representatives but by Russian nationals operating in Iran in a variety of capacities, including individuals, bankers, and entrepreneurs. Russians in Iran reveals the multifaceted role that Russians have played in Iranian history and provides an original and important contribution to the history and international relations of Iran, Russia and the Middle East.
Mohammed bin Salman's purge of prominent figures, and his stated campaign to modernise and reform Saudi Arabia's laws and economy, have encountered both support and opposition globally and domestically. The Kingdom's potential to engage more effectively in the international community remains challenged by its political incapacity and its regional competition with Iran, including the Saudi-led war in Yemen. In this examination of Saudi Arabia's foreign policy, Gulf expert Neil Partrick and other analysts address the Kingdom's relations with established and emergent global powers, and with other important states across four continents. The book also investigates how factors from identity politics to the prospect of Iranian nuclear weapons determine Saudi foreign policy. As countries and companies battle for advantage in a changing international order, an understanding of the Kingdom is more important than ever. For students of the Middle East and international relations, this book provides indispensable insight into Saudi Arabia's engagement with its region and the world.
The importance of the role of Abd al-Rahman Azzam Pasha, the first Secretary-General of the Arab League from 1945 to 1952, has long been recognized in studies of Arab nationalism in Egypt. Nevertheless, the nature of the Arab nationalism embraced by Azzam and other Egyptians between the two world wars remains unclear, the subject of scholarly debates that have persisted for half a century. This work addresses some of the most persisting questions about the development of this nationalism through a richly textured study of Azzam's early years, including his student activism in Egypt, London, and Istanbul before World War I, his participation in the Libyan resistance to Italian imperialism during and after the war, and his emergence as a pioneer advocate of Arab nationalism within Egypt in the interwar period. Coury believes that Egyptian Arab nationalism drew upon long-lived elements of Egyptian culture, including a sense of kinship based on the Arabic language. However, he rejects the idea, so prominent in Western scholarship, that this nationalism represented the reassertion of a temporarily repressed Arab/Islamic identity that renounced Western liberalism and rationalism. According to Coury, Egyptian Arab nationalism was developed by thinkers and activists of varied political and intellectual orientations who, for the most part, reflected the needs, interests, and perspectives of middle and upper class strata confronting a new conjuncture of social, economic, and political factors. These Egyptian Arab nationalists were becoming increasingly aware of Egyptian opportunities and responsibilities within the Arab world, and they sought to devise a strategy for political and socio-economic development that would nevertheless contain revolutionary impulses.
The traditional approach to business and public management assumes that management decisions and outcomes will remain the same, irrespective of the environment in which they are applied. However, the value systems operating within a society can also influence the principles that govern modern management within organizations. Principles and Fundamentals of Islamic Management examines the concept of business and public management from the viewpoint of Islam, with close reference to the Quran and other illuminating Islamic sources. Seyed Mohammad Moghimi provides key insights from an Islamic perspective across a comprehensive range of management topics, including planning, decision making and policy making, organizing, human resources management, directing and organizational control. The book concludes by analyzing the role of a company director within an Islamic context. Through this in-depth exploration of Islamic management principles and fundamentals, the author creates a modern and practical framework suitable for use by international business managers. Providing a much-needed insight into the practicalities of management operations in an Islamic context, this book is essential reading for researchers, managers, and for students of Islamic management at both undergraduate and graduate levels.
The spread of Islam eastward into South and Southeast Asia was one of the most significant cultural shifts in world history. As it expanded into these regions, Islam was received by cultures vastly different from those in the Middle East, incorporating them into a diverse global community that stretched from India to the Philippines. In Islam Translated, Ronit Ricci uses the Book of One Thousand Questions-from its Arabic original to its adaptations into the Javanese, Malay, and Tamil languages between the sixteenth and twentieth centuries-as a means to consider connections that linked Muslims across divides of distance and culture. Examining the circulation of this Islamic text and its varied literary forms, Ricci explores how processes of literary translation and religious conversion were historically interconnected forms of globalization, mutually dependent, and creatively reformulated within societies making the transition to Islam.
Drawing upon the teachings and writings of the Sudanese reformer, Mahmoud Mohamed Taha, this study aims to provide the intellectual foundations for a total reinterpretation of the nature and meaning of Islamic public law.
This exceptionally successful survey text introduces the teachings and practice of Islam from its earliest origins up to its contemporary practice. John L. Esposito, an internationally renowned expert on Islam, traces the development of Islam and its impact on world history and politics. Lucidly written and expansive in scope, Islam: The Straight Path, Updated Fifth Edition, provides keen insight into one of the world's least understood religions. It is ideally suited for use in courses on Islam, world religions, comparative religions, and Middle East history and culture. A FREE 6-month subscription to Oxford Islamic Studies Online (www.oxfordislamicstudies.com), edited by John L. Esposito, is included with the purchase of every new copy of this text.
Whether Islam is compatible with democracy is an increasingly asked question, but ultimately a misguided one. In this book, Asef Bayat proposes that democratic ideals have less to do with the essence of any religion than with how it is practiced. He offers a new approach to Islam and democracy, outlining how the social struggles of student organizations, youth and women's groups, the intelligentsia, and other social movements can make Islam democratic. Making Islam Democratic examines in detail those social movements that have used religion to unleash social and political change, either to legitimize authoritarian rule or, in contrast, to construct an inclusive faith that embraces a democratic polity. It provides a fresh analysis of Iran's 1979 Islamic revolution-how it has evolved into the pervasive, post-Islamist reform movement of the early twenty-first century, and how it differed from Egypt's religious "passive revolution." Focusing on events from the Iranian Revolution to the current day, with a comparative focus on Islamism, post-Islamism, and active religious expression across the region, Bayat explores the highly contested relationship between religion, politics, and the quotidian in the Middle East. His book provides an important understanding of the great anxiety of our time-the global march of "Muslim rage"-and offers a hopeful picture of a democratic Middle East.
South Beirut has recently become a vibrant leisure destination with a plethora of cafes and restaurants that cater to the young, fashionable, and pious. What effects have these establishments had on the moral norms, spatial practices, and urban experiences of this Lebanese community? From the diverse voices of young Shi'i Muslims searching for places to hang out, to the Hezbollah officials who want this media-savvy generation to be more politically involved, to the religious leaders worried that Lebanese youth are losing their moral compasses, "Leisurely Islam" provides a sophisticated and original look at leisure in the Lebanese capital.
What makes a cafe morally appropriate? How do people negotiate morality in relation to different places? And under what circumstances might a pious Muslim go to a cafe that serves alcohol? Lara Deeb and Mona Harb highlight tensions and complexities exacerbated by the presence of multiple religious authorities, a fraught sectarian political context, class mobility, and a generation that takes religion for granted but wants to have fun. The authors elucidate the political, economic, religious, and social changes that have taken place since 2000, and examine leisure's influence on Lebanese sociopolitical and urban situations.
Asserting that morality and geography cannot be fully understood in isolation from one another, "Leisurely Islam" offers a colorful new understanding of the most powerful community in Lebanon today."
"As Professor Fazlur Rahman shows in the latest of a series of
important contributions to Islamic intellectual history, the
characteristic problems of the Muslim modernists--the adaptation to
the needs of the contemporary situation of a holy book which draws
its specific examples from the conditions of the seventh century
and earlier--are by no means new. . . . In Professor Rahman's view
the intellectual and therefore the social development of Islam has
been impeded and distorted by two interrelated errors. The first
was committed by those who, in reading the Koran, failed to
recognize the differences between general principles and specific
responses to 'concrete and particular historical situations.' . . .
This very rigidity gave rise to the second major error, that of the
secularists. By teaching and interpreting the Koran in such a way
as to admit of no change or development, the dogmatists had created
a situation in which Muslim societies, faced with the imperative
need to educate their people for life in the modern world, were
forced to make a painful and self-defeating choice--either to
abandon Koranic Islam, or to turn their backs on the modern
world."--Bernard Lewis, "New York Review of Books"
How does a group that operates terror cells and espouses violence
become a ruling political party? How is the world to understand and
respond to Hamas, the militant Islamist organization that
Palestinian voters brought to power in the stunning election of
"Saddam Hussein and Islam, 1968-2003, " offers an intellectual history of the Bathi Party from the 1940s through 2003. Amatzia Baram focuses on the transition from its early insistence on "unity, freedom, and socialism" to its Islamization by the time it was toppled by U.S. forces in 2003, a change largely impelled by the need to rally Iraqis against Iran during their war of 1980-88. Baram reveals signs that Saddam Hussein himself became some sort of born-again Muslim, though these signs are inconclusive.
Sources include open source material but also internal secret files and highly classified audiotapes of Saddam Hussein that were made available to researchers at the Conflict Records Research Center at National Defense University and some documents at the Hoover Institution.
Anyone who wants to understand what militant Muslims think has
to understand what they read-and they read Sayyid Qutb, the
intellectual father of Islamic fundamentalism. Qutb, an Egyptian
literary critic and philosopher who was appalled by American
decadence, gained prominence in the Muslim Brotherhood, was
imprisoned by Nasser, and hanged in 1966. Through his death and
prolific writings he became a martyr for the cause of political
Islam. His work is virtually unknown outside the Muslim world, but
Qutb is at the heart of the intellectual rationale for jihad and
violence in the name of Islam.
The Sayyid Qutb Reader is the first collection of his selected works available to the general public. As such, this valuable introduction to Qutb's core intellectual ideas should be read by anyone who wants to understand one of the most important conflicts of our age.
"An excellent presentation, clearly written, with much information. . . . Sure to earn a prominent position among the few scholarly based, intelligently presented analyses of the political aspects of the reaction of this civilization called Islam to the ideological and material encroachments of the West".--American-Arab Affairs.
The title of Susan Hirsch's study of disputes involving Swahili
Muslims in coastal Kenya reflects the image of gender relations
most commonly associated with Islamic law. Men need only
"pronounce" divorce to resolve marital conflicts, while embattled
and embittered wives must persevere by silently enduring marital
hardships. But Hirsch's observations of Islamic courts uncover how
Muslim women actively use legal processes to transform their
domestic lives, achieving victories on some fronts but reinforcing
their image as subordinate to men through the speech they produce
Rabi`a al-`Adawiyya is a figure shrouded in myth. Certainly a woman by this name was born in Basra, Iraq, in the eighth century, but her life remains recorded only in legends, stories, poems and hagiographies. The various depictions of her - as a deeply spiritual ascetic, an existentialist rebel and a romantic lover - seem impossible to reconcile, and yet Rabi`a has transcended these narratives to become a global symbol of both Sufi and modern secular culture. In this groundbreaking study, Rkia Elaroui Cornell traces the development of these diverse narratives and provides a history of the iconic Rabi`a's construction as a Sufi saint. Combining medieval and modern sources, including evidence never before examined, in novel ways, Rabi`a From Narrative to Myth is the most significant work to emerge on this quintessential figure in Islam for more than seventy years.
This book provides a rare and authoritative glimpse at the splendid decorative military art of the Ottomans, and art that is both insufficiently known and insufficiently appreciated. Professor Zygulski describes in detail masterpieces from collections around the world, including the Topkapi Saray Museum in Istanbul, the National Museum In Cracow, the Freer Gallery of Art in Washington D.C., the Nationalbibliothek in Vienna, and elsewhere.
Islam in this twenty-first century is caught between three inter-related forces - globalization, international terrorism and the rise of the American Empire. This book examines those forces from the perspective of the rise and fall of civilizations. If Edward Gibbon and Arnold Toynbee could trace the decline of the Roman Empire to the challenge of Christianity, should we now anticipate the decline of the American Empire through the challenge of Islam? Ali Mazrui analyses the stresses and strains of relations between Islam and the West in this era of tense globalization. Issues of church and state within societies interact with issues of ideology and power in foreign relations. ALI A. MAZRUI is Director of the Institute of Global Cultural Studies at the State University of New York at Binghamton and Senior Scholar in African Studies at Cornell University North America: Africa World Press; Kenya: EAEP
Throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, as Americans increasingly came into contact with the Islamic world, U.S. diplomatic, cultural, political, and religious beliefs about Islam began to shape their responses to world events. In Sacred Interests, Karine V. Walther excavates the deep history of American Islamophobia, showing how negative perceptions of Islam and Muslims shaped U.S. foreign relations from the Early Republic to the end of World War I. Beginning with the Greek War of Independence in 1821, Walther illuminates reactions to and involvement in the breakup of the Ottoman Empire, the efforts to protect Jews from Muslim authorities in Morocco, American colonial policies in the Philippines, and American attempts to aid Christians during the Armenian Genocide. Walther examines the American role in the peace negotiations after World War I, support for the Balfour Declaration, and the establishment of the mandate system in the Middle East. The result is a vital exploration of the crucial role the United States played in the Islamic world during the long nineteenth century--an interaction that shaped a historical legacy that remains with us today.
When Mona Kanwal Sheikh stepped into the volatile conflict zones of Pakistan to interview the Taliban, she encountered many challenging situations. Once, shortly after she declined to meet a militant at Islamabad's Marriott Hotel-a symbol of American dominance-a terrorist bomb targeted the hotel killing 53 people. The fact that she was shadowed by intelligence agencies also impeded her endeavour to get close to the Taliban. Undeterred, Sheikh interviewed several militants often depicted by the Western media as highly secretive, ruthless, and unapproachable. She had hours of conversation with Taliban militants and their supporters, ate mangoes with them, joined them in prayers, and listened to emotional anthems about the necessity to join jihad. Years of first-hand research later, she offers the most comprehensive account of the Pakistani Taliban and their religious justifications for jihad. This book explains how the Taliban, who view themselves as guardians of God, think it is their holy mission to protect Islam from the armies of the 'wrong' faiths. Paradoxically, their violent defence of the sacred encompasses worldly concerns such as social justice, peace, and political order. Guiding us to a finer understanding of the Taliban worldview, Sheikh builds a case for dialogue with an enemy that may choose to lay down arms if its grievances are correctly understood.
This book examines the role of Muhammad Ibn Abd al-Wahhab (1703-1792) and his successors in reconsolidating the religious principles of Wahhabism. It explains the role of the Saudi princes in crystallizing the core of the SaudiWahhabi political entity within their tribal society. Key to this explanation is the interrelation between sedentary and nomadic populations and the consequent impact on the development of Saudi political entities prior to the emergence of the Saudi Kingdom. Texts of Wahhabi scholars are compared with those of the early Hanbali scholars, pinpointing the new religious elements introduced to foster the Wahhabi creed. Discussion focuses on the first and second generations of Wahhabi scholars who maintained the Wahhabi creed with great success, keeping its hegemony as the main doctrine in Saudi Arabia, and developing a takfiri discourse (accusing people of being infidels) which by the nineteenth century had become the main religious and political weapon by which the Wahhabis mobilized supporters against their political and religious adversaries. To better understand this development, the meaning of kufr (heresy) in Islam and its implications in various Islamic doctrines is examined closely. The focus on the role of Wahhabi scholars in the nineteenth century sheds new lights on the principles of continuity and discontinuity in the historical development of Saudi political entities and explains the origin of the modern Saudi State. Although major socio-economic and cultural change is now taking place under the leadership of Prince Muhammad ibn Salman, the main religious structures of the state remain firmly in place. It remains to be seen how two diametric societal viewpoints will integrate or clash. This work is essential reading for all scholars and students of religious, cultural, social and political history of Saudi Arabia and Islam in the Middle East.
Those coming to the study of Islamic history for the first time face a baffling array of rulers and dynasties in the many different areas of Islam. This book provides a comprehensive and reliable reference source for all students of history and culture. It lists by name the rulers of all the principal Islamic dynasties with Hijri and Common Era dates. Each dynastic list is followed by a brief assessment of its historical significance, and by a short bibliography. Fully updated and substantially revised and expanded for a modern audience, this handbook is based upon Bosworth's renowned The Islamic Dynasties, first published in 1967 and revised in 1980. As well as increasing the number of dynasties covered from 82 to 186, innovations in the new edition include much more extensive listings of honorific titles and of filiations, allowing genealogical connections within dynasties to be made. Key Features: * Only reliable chronological and genealogical listing available * Covers all the areas of the Islamic world including Afghanistan, the Arabian peninsula, Central Asia, East Africa, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Iran, North Africa, Persia, South East Asia, Spain, Syria, Turkey and West Africa * Includes 186 dynasties * Records those rulers who issued coins -- of great interest to Islamic numismatics
Conquered in 1492 and colonized by invading Castilians, the city and kingdom of Granada faced radical changes imposed by its occupiers throughout the first half of the sixteenth century - including the forced conversion of its native Muslim population. Written by Francisco Nunez Muley, one of Granada's New Christians, this extraordinary letter lodges a clear-sighted, impassioned protest against the unreasonable and strongly assimilationist laws that required all Granadans to dress, speak, eat, marry, celebrate festivals, and bury their dead exactly as the Castilian settler population did. Rendered into faithful English prose by Vincent Barletta, Nunez Muley's account is an invaluable example of how Granada's former Muslims made active use of the written word to challenge and openly resist the progressively intolerant policies of the Spanish Crown. Timely and resonant - given current debates concerning Islam, minorities, and cultural and linguistic assimilation - this edition provides scholars in a range of fields with a vivid and early example of resistance in the face of oppression.
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