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This book describes in detail the main concepts of theoretical spectroscopy of transition metal and rare-earth ions. It shows how the energy levels of different electron configurations are formed and calculated for the ions in a free state and in crystals, how group theory can help in solving main spectroscopic problems, and how the modern DFT-based methods of calculations of electronic structure can be combined with the semi-empirical crystal field models. The style of presentation makes the book helpful for a wide audience ranging from graduate students to experienced researchers. Performance of optical materials crucially depends on the impurity ions intentionally introduced into the crystalline host materials. The color of these materials, their emission and absorption spectra can be understood by analyzing the relations between the electronic properties of impurity ions and host crystal structure, which constitutes the main content of this book. It describes in detail the main concepts of theoretical spectroscopy of transition metal and rare earth ions.
In this book emphasis is laid on laser including its operation, different types, properties like coherence and monochromaticity, beam propagation, theoretical treatment of atom-field interaction, semi-classical laser theory, non-linear effects, quantum properties, photon concept and coherent states etc. Please note: Taylor & Francis does not sell or distribute the Hardback in India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka.
This book provides a thorough presentation of the methods, mathematics, systems and applications which comprise the subject of close range photogrammetry, which uses accurate imaging techniques to analyse the three-dimensional shape of a wide range of manufactured and natural objects. Close range photogrammetry, for the most part entirely digital, has become an accepted, powerful and readily available technique for engineers and scientists who wish to utilise images to make accurate 3-D measurements of complex objects. After an introduction, the book provides fundamental mathematics, including orientation, digital imaging processing and 3-D reconstruction methods, as well as presenting a discussion of imaging technology including targeting and illumination, hardware and software systems. Finally it gives a short overview of photogrammetric solutions for typical applications in engineering, manufacturing, medical science, architecture, archaeology and other fields.
This 1996 volume provided the first comprehensive overview of the use of ultraviolet laser radiation in the processing of materials. Lasers operating at ultraviolet wavelengths combine the ability to vaporise the most refractory of materials with the precision to ablate micron-sized holes in polymers and remove thin layers from the cornea for corrective surgery of the human eye. This book explores the use of UV laser radiation for the ablation and deposition of metals, insulating solids, polymers, semiconductors and superconductors. Emphasis has been placed on understanding the physical mechanisms accompanying these processes and the conversion of intense UV radiation to photothermal and photochemical energy in irradiated materials. This will be an invaluable source-book of current information in the rapidly developing field of laser applications for engineers, scientists, researchers and students in universities, government laboratories and the private sector, and will also form a valuable supplementary text for graduate courses in materials science.
The semiconductor laser, invented over 50 years ago, has had an enormous impact on the digital technologies that now dominate so many applications in business, commerce and the home. The laser is used in all types of optical fibre communication networks that enable the operation of the internet, e-mail, voice and skype transmission. Approximately one billion are produced each year for a market valued at around $5 billion. Nearly all semiconductor lasers now use extremely thin layers of light emitting materials (quantum well lasers). Increasingly smaller nanostructures are used in the form of quantum dots. The impact of the semiconductor laser is surprising in the light of the complexity of the physical processes that determine the operation of every device. This text takes the reader from the fundamental optical gain and carrier recombination processes in quantum wells and quantum dots, through descriptions of common device structures to an understanding of their operating characteristics. It has a consistent treatment of both quantum dot and quantum well structures taking full account of their dimensionality, which provides the reader with a complete account of contemporary quantum confined laser diodes. It includes plenty of illustrations from both model calculations and experimental observations. There are numerous exercises, many designed to give a feel for values of key parameters and experience obtaining quantitative results from equations. Some challenging concepts, previously the subject matter of research monographs, are treated here at this level for the first time.
This book computes the first- and second-order derivative matrices of skew ray and optical path length, while also providing an important mathematical tool for automatic optical design. This book consists of three parts. Part One reviews the basic theories of skew-ray tracing, paraxial optics and primary aberrations - essential reading that lays the foundation for the modeling work presented in the rest of this book. Part Two derives the Jacobian matrices of a ray and its optical path length. Although this issue is also addressed in other publications, they generally fail to consider all of the variables of a non-axially symmetrical system. The modeling work thus provides a more robust framework for the analysis and design of non-axially symmetrical systems such as prisms and head-up displays. Lastly, Part Three proposes a computational scheme for deriving the Hessian matrices of a ray and its optical path length, offering an effective means of determining an appropriate search direction when tuning the system variables in the system design process.
This book covers recent developments in laser plasma physics such as absorption, instability, energy transport and radiation from the standpoint of theory and simulation for plasma corona, showing how the elements for the high density compression depend on the interaction physics and heat transport.
Integrated Lasers on Silicon provides a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art use of lasers on silicon for photonic integration. The authors demonstrate the need for efficient laser sources on silicon, motivated by the development of on-board/on-chip optical interconnects and the different integration schemes available. The authors include detailed descriptions of Group IV-based lasers, followed by a presentation of the results obtained through the bonding approach (hybrid III-V lasers). The monolithic integration of III-V semiconductor lasers are explored, concluding with a discussion of the different kinds of cavity geometries benchmarked with respect to their potential integration on silicon in an industrial environment.
This book explores the early-stage detection of cancer using polarized light. It discusses the diverse properties of the light (temporal and spatial coherence, polarization, fluorescence, etc.) that can be used non-invasively as an optical technique for recognizing precancerous lesions, which could become a reliable and accurate method for cancer screening. The search for the effective means for cancer screening is of particular interest to scientific and medical communities, because cancer takes its toll around the globe with no respect for age or gender. Early detection of the disease is a key factor in increasing the survival rate and patients' quality of life.
Department of Defense (DOD) development work on high-energy military lasers, which has been underway for decades, has reached the point where lasers capable of countering certain surface and air targets at ranges of about a mile could be made ready for installation on Navy surface ships over the next few years. More powerful shipboard lasers, which could become ready for installation in subsequent years, could provide Navy surface ships with an ability to counter a wider range of surface and air targets at ranges of up to about 10 miles. This book focuses on potential Navy shipboard lasers for countering surface, air, and ballistic missile threats.
This is the first detailed description in English of radiation and
polymeric material interaction and the influences of thermal and
optical material properties. As such, it provides comprehensive
information on material and process characteristics as well as
applications regarding plastic laser welding.
High-resolution x-ray diffraction and scattering is a key tool for structure analysis not only in bulk materials but also at surfaces and buried interfaces from the sub-nanometer range to micrometers. This book offers an overview of diffraction and scattering methods currently available at modern synchrotron sources and illustrates bulk and interface investigations of solid and liquid matter with up-to-date research examples. It presents important characteristics of the sources, experimental set-up, and new detector developments. The book also considers future exploitation of x-ray free electron lasers for diffraction applications.
This book provides an overview on the evolution of laser scanning technology and its noticeable impact in the structural engineering domain. It provides an up-to-date synthesis of the state-of-the-art of the technology for the reverse engineering of built constructions, including terrestrial, mobile, and different portable solutions, for laser scanning. Data processing of large point clouds has experienced an important advance in the last years, and thus, an intense activity in the development of automated data processing algorithms has been noticed. Thus, this book aims to provide an overview of state-of-the-art algorithms, different best practices and most recent processing tools in connection to particular applications. Readers will find this a comprehensive book, that updates the practice of laser scanning for researchers and professionals not only from the geomatic domain, but also other fields such as structural and construction engineering. A set of successful applications to structural engineering are illustrated, including also synergies with other technologies, that can inspire professionals to adopt laser scanning in their day-to-day activity. This cutting-edge edited volume will be a valuable resource for students, researchers and professional engineers with an interest in laser scanning and its applications in the structural engineering domain.
Optical Holography: Materials, Theory and Applications provides researchers the fundamentals of holography through diffraction optics and an overview of the most relevant materials and applications, ranging from computer holograms to holographic data storage. Dr. Pierre Blanche leads a team of thought leaders in academia and industry in this practical reference for researchers and engineers in the field of holography. This book presents all the information readers need in order to understand how holographic techniques can be applied to a variety of applications, the benefits of those techniques, and the materials that enable these technologies. Researchers and engineers will gain comprehensive knowledge on how to select the best holographic techniques for their needs.
Optical Spectroscopy is an interdisciplinary science dedicated to generating and building knowledge in the field of spectroscopy and as a tool for practical investigations. This book has been elaborated for the use of specialists, students and young scientists interested in material characterization and direct investigation of various technological processes. As the title shows, the project of this book is ambitious and challenging. The topics have been selected to supply the physical background needed to understand the main spectroscopic principles and, at the same time, to reveal new potentiality for applications. Subjects like Reflectance Spectroscopy, Infrared Attenuated Total Reflection or Photoreflectance Spectroscopy provide an overview of classical methods in spectroscopy in contexts of new applications and reveal possibilities in new domains such as medicine, environmental investigations, etc. Various spectroscopic measurement methods embedded in characterization of materials, devices or technological processes are extensively presented.
Over the past decade, plasmonic nanoparticles have been the subject of extensive research, owing to their remarkable optical properties. These properties arise from a collective oscillation of the conductive electrons at the nanoparticle surface under light irradiation, known as localized surface plasmon (LSP). LSP is characterized by (i) a strong absorption and scattering of the light depending on the geometrical parameters of the nanoparticles and (ii) a strong amplification of the local field in the vicinity of the nanoparticles. Quite recently, it was shown that the activation and the initiation of chemical reactions or physical processes can be facilitated using LSP excitation. Such exploitation presents two main advantages: an enhanced yield and a fine control of chemical reactions at the nanoscale. These topics have become very active and are in line with molecular plasmonics. This book explores this new field and provides a broad view on the exploitation of plasmonics in chemical and biological fields.
Motivates students by challenging them with real-life applications of the somtimes esoteric aspects of quantum mechanics that they are learning. Offers completely original excerices developed at teh Ecole Polytechnique in France, which is know for its innovative and original teaching methods. Problems from modern physics to help the student apply just-learnt theory to fields such as molecular physics, condensed matter physics or laser physics.
Femtosecond optics involves the study of ultra-short pulses of
light. Understanding the behaviour of these light pulses makes it
possible to develop ultra-fast lasers with a wide range of
applications in such areas as medical imaging, chemical analysis
and micro-machining. Written by two leading experts in the field,
this book reviews the theory of the interaction of femtosecond
light pulses with matter, femtosecond lasers and laser systems, and
the principles of femtosecond coherent spectroscopy of impurity
Semiconductor lasers have important applications in numerous
fields, including engineering, biology, chemistry and medicine.
They form the backbone of the optical telecommunications
infrastructure supporting the internet, and are used in information
storage devices, bar-code scanners, laser printers and many other
everyday products. Semiconductor lasers: Fundamentals and
applications is a comprehensive review of this vital technology.
Comprehensive in scope, this book covers the latest progresses of theories, technologies and applications of LEDs based on III-V semiconductor materials, such as basic material physics, key device issues (homoepitaxy and heteroepitaxy of the materials on different substrates, quantum efficiency and novel structures, and more), packaging, and system integration. The authors describe the latest developments of LEDs with spectra coverage from ultra-violet (UV) to the entire visible light wavelength. The major aspects of LEDs, such as material growth, chip structure, packaging, and reliability are covered, as well as emerging and novel applications beyond the general and conventional lightings. This book, written by leading authorities in the field, is indispensable reading for researchers and students working with semiconductors, optoelectronics, and optics. Addresses novel LED applications such as LEDs for healthcare and wellbeing, horticulture, and animal breeding; Editor and chapter authors are global leading experts from the scientific and industry communities, and their latest research findings and achievements are included; Foreword by Hiroshi Amano, one of the 2014 winners of the Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on light-emitting diodes.
Laser Experiments for Beginners provides the perfect blueprint for those who wish to work with one of the most remarkable research tools of the twentieth century: the laser. Ideally suited for high school and university science teachers, the experiments in this book require only a low-cost, low-power red laser (readily available for under $100). This book presents a series of hands-on experiments that can be used for in-class demonstrations or student activities. Included are quick-reference instructions to help the reader identify needed equipment; follow recommended safety practices; and select the desired experiment(s), each of which is rated according to conceptual and experimental difficulty. Developed by renowned Stanford researcher Richard Zare in collaboration with Bertrand Spencer, Dwight Springer, and Matthew Jacobson, Laser Experiments for Beginners will introduce the student to state-of-the-art laser research techniques. It is designed to enhance existing courses in chemistry, physics, and biology.
"Coherent Control of Four-Wave Mixing"" "discusses the frequency, temporal and spatial domain interplays of four-wave mixing (FWM) processes induced by atomic coherence in multi-level atomic systems. It covers topics in five major areas: the ultrafast FWM polarization beats due to interactions between multi-color laser beams and multi-level media; coexisting Raman-Rayleigh-Brillouin-enhanced polarization beats due to color-locking noisy field correlations; FWM processes with different kinds of dual-dressed schemes in ultra-thin, micrometer and long atomic cells; temporal and spatial interference between FWM and six-wave mixing (SWM) signals in multi-level electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) media; spatial displacements and splitting of the probe and generated FWM beams, as well as the observations of gap soliton trains, vortex solitons, and stable multicomponent vector solitons in the FWM signals.
The book is intended for scientists, researchers, advanced undergraduate and graduate students in Nonlinear Optics.
Dr. Yanpeng Zhang is a professor and Zhiqiang Nie is a Ph. D. student at the Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi'an Jiaotong University, China. Dr. Min Xiao is a professor of physics at the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, U.S.A.
This book discusses the physics of conductive channel development in space, air and vacuums and summarizes the attempts to create super-long conductive channels to study the upper atmosphere and to complete specific tasks related to energy transmission from the space to earth with high-voltage high repetition rate electrical sources. Conductive channels are produced by the laser jet engine vehicle-propulsion under the influence of powerful high repetition rate pulse-periodic laser radiation by CO2-laser, solid state Nd YAG,HF/DF laser systems generated with each pulse of the powerful laser conductive dust plasma. The book also presents the experimental and theoretical results of conductive canal modeling: the laser jet engine vehicle "Impulsar", which can reach the lower layers of the ionosphere in several hundred seconds. Further, the book explores the development of lightning protection systems. The so-called long laser spark is generated to provide the conditions for connecting a thunderstorm cloud with a grounded metal rod, i.e. a classical lightning rod. Such conductivity channels can be used for energy transmission, overvoltage protection systems, transport of charged particle beams and plasma antennas. It provides the theoretical and experimental basis of high repetition rate P-P mode of operation for high power lasers (COIL, HF/DF, CO2,Nd YAG). It describes high efficiency and excellent beam quality disk lasers used for numerous applications, including surface treatment of dielectric materials in microelectronics, cutting, drilling, welding, polishing and cleaning of the surface and other technological operations. Lastly it investigates how megawatt mono-module disk lasers could be used to solve various problems: small satellites launched by lasers, formation of super-long conducting channels in space and atmosphere, cleaning of the near-earth space from the space debris and related applications.
The Fundamentals and Applications of Light-Emitting Diodes: The Revolution in the Lighting Industry examines the evolution of LEDs, including a review of the luminescence process and background on solid state lighting. The book emphasizes phosphor-converted LEDs that are based on inorganic phosphors but explores different types of LEDs based on inorganic, organic, quantum dots, perovskite-structured materials, and biomaterials. A detailed description is included about the diverse applications of LEDs in fields such as lighting, displays, horticulture, biomedicine, and digital communication, as well as challenges that must be solved before using LEDs in commercial applications. Traditional light sources are fast being replaced by light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The fourth generation of lighting is completely dominated by LED luminaires. Apart from lighting, LEDs have extended their hold on other fields, such as digital communications, horticulture, medicine, space research, art and culture, display devices, and entertainment. The technological promises offered by LEDs have elevated them as front-runners in the lighting industry.
This book lies at the interface of machine learning - a subfield of computer science that develops algorithms for challenging tasks such as shape or image recognition, where traditional algorithms fail - and photonics - the physical science of light, which underlies many of the optical communications technologies used in our information society. It provides a thorough introduction to reservoir computing and field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). Recently, photonic implementations of reservoir computing (a machine learning algorithm based on artificial neural networks) have made a breakthrough in optical computing possible. In this book, the author pushes the performance of these systems significantly beyond what was achieved before. By interfacing a photonic reservoir computer with a high-speed electronic device (an FPGA), the author successfully interacts with the reservoir computer in real time, allowing him to considerably expand its capabilities and range of possible applications. Furthermore, the author draws on his expertise in machine learning and FPGA programming to make progress on a very different problem, namely the real-time image analysis of optical coherence tomography for atherosclerotic arteries.
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