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The use of lasers which emit infra-red radiation and sophisticated
detectors of IR radiation is increasing dramatically: they are
being used for long-distance fibre-optic communications and remote
environmental monitoring and sensing. Thus they are of interest to
the telecommunications industry and the military in particular.
This book has been designed to bring together what is known on
these devices, using an international group of contributors.
This book provides in-depth knowledge about the fundamental physical properties of bulk and low dimensional semiconductors (LDS). It also explains their applications to optoelectronic devices. The book incorporates two major themes. The first theme, starts from the fundamental principles governing the classification of solids according to their electronic properties and leads to a detailed analysis of electronic band structure and electronic transport in solids. It then focuses on the electronic transport and optical properties of semiconductor compounds, size quantization and the analysis of abrupt p-n junctions where a full analysis of the fundamental properties of intrinsic and doped semiconductors is given. The second theme is device-oriented. It aims to provide the reader with understanding of the design, fabrication and operation of optoelectronic devices based on novel semiconductor materials, such as high-speed photo detectors, light emitting diodes, multi-mode and single-mode lasers and high efficiency solar cells. The book appeals to researchers and high-level undergraduate students.
Explains the circuit design of silicon optoelectronic integrated circuits (OEICs), which are central to advances in wireless and wired telecommunications. The essential features of optical absorption are summarized, as is the device physics of photodetectors and their integration in modern bipolar, CMOS, and BiCMOS technologies. This information provides the basis for understanding the underlying mechanisms of the OEICs described in the main part of the book. In order to cover the topic comprehensively, Silicon Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits presents detailed descriptions of many OEICs for a wide variety of applications from various optical sensors, smart sensors, 3D-cameras, and optical storage systems (DVD) to fiber receivers in deep-sub-m CMOS. Numerous detailed illustrations help to elucidate the material.
This volume describes the theory and practical implementation of three techniques for the generation of blue-green light: nonlinear frequency conversion of infrared lasers, upconversion lasers, and wide bandgap semiconductor diode lasers. In addition, it looks at the various applications that have driven the development of compact sources of blue-green light, and reflects on the recent application of these lasers in high-density data storage, color displays, reprographics, and biomedical technology.
This revised and updated edition of the well-received book by C. Klingshirn provides an introduction to and an overview of all aspects of semiconductor optics, from IR to visible and UV. It has been split into two volumes and rearranged to offer a clearer structure of the course content. Inserts on important experimental techniques as well as sections on topical research have been added to support research-oriented teaching and learning. Volume 1 provides an introduction to the linear optical properties of semiconductors. The mathematical treatment has been kept as elementary as possible to allow an intuitive approach to the understanding of results of semiconductor spectroscopy. Building on the phenomenological model of the Lorentz oscillator, the book describes the interaction of light with fundamental optical excitations in semiconductors (phonons, free carriers, excitons). It also offers a broad review of seminal research results augmented by concise descriptions of the relevant experimental techniques, e.g., Fourier transform IR spectroscopy, ellipsometry, modulation spectroscopy and spatially resolved methods, to name a few. Further, it picks up on hot topics in current research, like quantum structures, mono-layer semiconductors or Perovskites. The experimental aspects of semiconductor optics are complemented by an in-depth discussion of group theory in solid-state optics. Covering subjects ranging from physics to materials science and optoelectronics, this book provides a lively and comprehensive introduction to semiconductor optics. With over 120 problems, more than 480 figures, abstracts to each chapter, as well as boxed inserts and a detailed index, it is intended for use in graduate courses in physics and neighboring sciences like material science and electrical engineering. It is also a valuable reference resource for doctoral and advanced researchers.
In two volumes, this book presents a detailed, systematic treatment of electromagnetics with application to the propagation of transient electromagnetic fields (including ultrawideband signals and ultrashort pulses) in dispersive attenuative media. The development in this expanded, updated, and reorganized new edition is mathematically rigorous, progressing from classical theory to the asymptotic description of pulsed wave fields in Debye and Lorentz model dielectrics, Drude model conductors, and composite model semiconductors. It will be of use to researchers as a resource on electromagnetic radiation and wave propagation theory with applications to ground and foliage penetrating radar, medical imaging, communications, and safety issues associated with ultrawideband pulsed fields. With meaningful exercises, and an authoritative selection of topics, it can also be used as a textbook to prepare graduate students for research. Volume 2 presents a detailed asymptotic description of plane wave pulse propagation in dielectric, conducting, and semiconducting materials as described by the classical Lorentz model of dielectric resonance, the Rocard-Powles-Debye model of orientational polarization, and the Drude model of metals. The rigorous description of the signal velocity of a pulse in a dispersive material is presented in connection with the question of superluminal pulse propagation. The second edition contains new material on the effects of spatial dispersion on precursor formation, and pulse transmission into a dispersive half space and into multilayered media. Volume 1 covers spectral representations in temporally dispersive media.
White organic light-emitting devices (WOLED's) are of considerable interest owing to their attractive characteristics and potential application to flat panel display and solid-state lighting source. Currently WOLED's are the new increasing point in the area of organic optoelectronics due to their high power efficiency. After a brief overview of the WOLED's operating principles and basic emitting structure, this book presents a review of recent progress in WOLED's structure and materials.
This thesis describes the design, development, characterisation and clinical translation of three novel devices for optical endoscopic imaging. Over the past decade, rapid innovation in optics and photonics has led to the availability of low-cost and high-performance optical technologies that can be exploited for biomedical applications, but relatively few have been translated into clinic. The work presented outlines for the first time, a comprehensive analysis of the common barriers and unique challenges associated with the translation of optical imaging techniques. To assist developers streamline translation of optical imaging devices in future, a roadmap to clinical translation is outlined, and key translational characteristics are defined. Guided by these, subsequent development of endoscopic devices resulted in preparation and approval of endoscopes for first in human trials in the oesophagus, for early detection of cancer, and in the brain, for delineation of tumour during surgical resection. The thesis culminates in the presentation of results from the first in human use of a compact multispectral endoscope for imaging endogenous tissue contrast in the oesophagus. With continuation of the work as outlined at the end of this thesis, the novel techniques described have the potential to improve the standard of care in their respective indications.
Lasers are employed throughout science and technology, in fundamental research, the remote sensing of atmospheric gases or pollutants, communications, medical diagnostics and therapies, and the manufacturing of microelectronic devices. Understanding the principles of their operation, which underlie all of these areas, is essential for a modern scientific education. This text introduces the characteristics and operation of lasers through laboratory experiments designed for the undergraduate curricula in Chemistry and Physics. Introductory chapters describe the properties of light, the history of laser invention, the atomic, molecular and optical principles behind how lasers work, and the kinds of lasers available today. Other chapters include the basic theory of spectroscopy and computational chemistry used to interpret laser experiments. Experiments range from simple in-class demonstrations to more elaborate configurations for advanced students. Each chapter has historical and theoretical background, as well as options suggested for variations on the prescribed experiments. The text will be useful for undergraduates students in advanced lab classes, for instructors designing these classes, or for graduate students beginning a career in laser science.
A solid-state laser use and gain medium that is a solid, rather than a liquid such as dye lasers or a gas such as gas lasers. Semiconductor-based lasers are also in the solid state, but are generally considered separately from solid-state lasers. Generally, the active medium of a solid-state laser consists of a glass or crystalline host material to which is added a dopant such as neodymium, chromium, erbium, or other ions. Many of the common dopants are rare earth elements, because the excited states of such ions are not strongly coupled with thermal vibrations of the crystalline lattice (phonons), and the lasing threshold can be reached at relatively low brightness of pump. There are many hundreds of solid-state media in which laser action has been achieved, but relatively few types are in widespread use. Of these, probably the most common type is neodymium doped YAG. Neodymium-doped glass (Nd:glass) and Ytterbium-doped glasses and ceramics are used in solid-state lasers at extremely high power (terawatt scale), high energy (megajoules) multiple beam systems for inertial confinement fusion. Titanium doped sapphire is also widely used for its broad tunability. This book gathers new research in the field.
Nanoscale Semiconductor Lasers focuses on specific issues relating to laser nanomaterials and their use in laser technology. The book presents both fundamental theory and a thorough overview of the diverse range of applications that have been developed using laser technology based on novel nanostructures and nanomaterials. Technologies covered include nanocavity lasers, carbon dot lasers, 2D material lasers, plasmonic lasers, spasers, quantum dot lasers, quantum dash and nanowire lasers. Each chapter outlines the fundamentals of the topic and examines material and optical properties set alongside device properties, challenges, issues and trends. Dealing with a scope of materials from organic to carbon nanostructures and nanowires to semiconductor quantum dots, this book will be of interest to graduate students, researchers and scientific professionals in a wide range of fields relating to laser development and semiconductor technologies.
It is expected that ongoing advances in optics will revolutionise the 21st century as they began doing in the last quarter of the 20th. Such fields as communications, materials science, computing and medicine are leaping forward based on developments in optics. This series presents leading edge research on optics and lasers from researchers spanning the globe.
Microwave photonics and information optics provide high bandwidth and precision along with ultrafast speed at a low cost. In order to reduce noise at the communication trans-receivers, scattering in the devices needs to be decreased, which can be achieved by replacing optoelectronic devices with photonic devices because in the latter only photons propagate electromagnetic waves. Contemporary Developments in High-Frequency Photonic Devices is a crucial research book that examines high-frequency photonics and their applications in communication engineering. Featuring coverage on a wide range of topics such as metamaterials, optoelectronic devices, and plasmonics, this book is excellent for students, researchers, engineers, and professionals.
This book explores the early-stage detection of cancer using polarized light. It discusses the diverse properties of the light (temporal and spatial coherence, polarization, fluorescence, etc.) that can be used non-invasively as an optical technique for recognizing precancerous lesions, which could become a reliable and accurate method for cancer screening. The search for the effective means for cancer screening is of particular interest to scientific and medical communities, because cancer takes its toll around the globe with no respect for age or gender. Early detection of the disease is a key factor in increasing the survival rate and patients' quality of life.
This thesis presents first successful experiments to carrier-envelope-phase stabilize a high-power mode-locked thin-disk oscillator and to compress the pulses emitted from this laser to durations of only a few-optical cycles. Moreover, the monograph introduces several methods to achieve power-scalability of compression and stabilization techniques. All experimental approaches are compared in detail and may serve as a guideline for developing high-power waveform controlled, few-cycle light sources which offer tremendous potential to exploit extreme nonlinear optical effects at unprecedentedly high repetition rates and to establish table-top infrared light sources with a unique combination of brilliance and bandwidth. As an example, the realization of a multi-Watt, multi-octave spanning, mid-infrared femtosecond source is described. The thesis starts with a basic introduction to the field of ultrafast laser oscillators. It subsequently presents additional details of previously published research results and establishes a connection between them. It therefore addresses both newcomers to, and experts in the field of high-power ultrafast laser development.
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