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This book presents a comprehensive description of the physics of free-electron lasers starting from the fundamentals and proceeding through detailed derivations of the equations describing electron trajectories, and spontaneous and stimulated emission. Linear and nonlinear analyses are described, as are detailed explanations of the nonlinear simulation of a variety of configurations including amplifiers, oscillators, self-amplified spontaneous emission, high-gain harmonic generation, and optical klystrons. Theory and simulation are anchored using comprehensive comparisons with a wide variety of experiments.
This volume describes the theory and practical implementation of three techniques for the generation of blue-green light: nonlinear frequency conversion of infrared lasers, upconversion lasers, and wide bandgap semiconductor diode lasers. In addition, it looks at the various applications that have driven the development of compact sources of blue-green light, and reflects on the recent application of these lasers in high-density data storage, color displays, reprographics, and biomedical technology.
Advances in Lasers and Applications opens with tutorial reviews of the underpinning science of diode pumped lasers, optical parametric oscillators, and ultrafast pulse generation. The book proceeds to the more specialized areas of waveguide lasers, ultrafast parametric amplification, visible solid-state lasers, materials, and diode pumps. The final sections present the applications of these sources to medicine, remote sensing and ranging, materials processing, and the widening set of applications for ultrashort pulses.
This book presents studies of complex nanostructures with unique optical responses from both theoretical and experimental perspectives. The theory approaches the optical response of a complex structure from both quantum-mechanical and semiclassical frameworks, and is used to understand experimental results at a fundamental level as well as to form a quantitative model to allow the design of custom nanostructures. The experiments utilize scanning transmission electron microscopy and its associated analytical spectroscopies to observe nanoscale optical effects, such as surface plasmon resonances, with nanometer-scale spatial resolution. Furthermore, there is a focus in the dissertation on the combination of distinct techniques to study the difficult-to-access aspects of the nanoscale response of complex nanostructures: the combination of complementary spectroscopies, the combination of electron microscopy and photonics, and the combination of experiment and theory. Overall, the work demonstrates the importance of observing nanoscale optical phenomena in complex structures, and observing them directly at the nanoscale.
With the increasing interest in holography for 3D imaging applications, there is a need to develop and use hologram compression techniques for the efficient storage and transmission of holographic data. This book gives a broad overview of the state-of-the-art techniques for the efficient compression and representation of digital holographic data, addressing both still and moving data sequences.
In these engaging memoirs of a maverick, Theodore H. Maiman describes the life events leading to his invention of the laser in 1960. Maiman succeeded using his expertise in physics and engineering along with an ingenious and elegant design not anticipated by others. His pink ruby laser produced mankind's first-ever coherent light and has provided transformational technology for commerce, industry, telecom, the Internet, medicine, and all the sciences. Maiman also chronicles the resistance from his employer and the ongoing intrigue by competing researchers in industry and academia seeking to diminish his contribution in inventing the first laser. This work will appeal to a wide readership, from physicists and engineers through science enthusiasts to general readers. The volume includes extensive photos and documentary materials related to Maiman's life and accomplishments never before published. "No one beat Maiman to the laser. How important is the laser? How important are all lasers? That is how important we have to regard Maiman's contribution.He and the laser changed all of our lives, everyone's!"Dr. Nick Holonyak, Jr., Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Physics, University of Illinois at Champaigne-Urbana, and inventor of the light-emitting diode (LED) and co-inventor of the transistor laser "More than five decades later, we can safely conclude that Theodore Maiman's groundbreaking discovery changed the world. Our modern life just as scientific research would be quite different without the laser."Dr. Ferenc Krausz, Director, Max Planck Institute for Quantum Optics, Garching, Germany, and Professor of Physics, Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich, and pioneer in attosecond lasers and attophysics "Maiman had the stroke of genius needed to take a different approach [from his competitors]. The sheer elegance and simplicity of his design belies the intellectual achievement it represents. If his invention seems obvious to some today, it was far from obvious in 1960."Jeff Hecht, authoritative science writer on the historical development of the laser, author of books on lasers and fiber optics
This thirteenth volume in the PUILS series covers a broad range of topics from this interdisciplinary research field, focusing on atoms, molecules, and clusters interacting in intense laser field and high-order harmonics generation and their applications. The series delivers up-to-date reviews of progress in ultrafast intense laser science, the interdisciplinary research field spanning atomic and molecular physics, molecular science, and optical science, which has been stimulated by the developments in ultrafast laser technologies. Each volume compiles peer-reviewed articles authored by researchers at the forefront of each their own subfields of UILS. Typically, each chapter opens with an overview of the topics to be discussed, so that researchers unfamiliar to the subfield, as well as graduate students, can grasp the importance and attractions of the research topic at hand; these are followed by reports of cutting-edge discoveries.
Metallic quantum clusters belonging to intermediate size regime between two and few hundred of atoms, represent unique building blocks of new materials. Nonlinear optical (NLO) characteristics of liganded silver and gold quantum clusters reveal remarkable features which can be tuned by size, structure and composition. The two-photon absorption cross sections of liganded noble metal quantum clusters are several orders of magnitude larger than that of commercially-available dyes. Therefore, the fundamental photophysical understanding of those two-photon processes in liganded clusters with few metal atoms deserve special attention, in particularly in context of finding the mechanisms responsible for these properties. A broad range of state-of-the-art experimental methods to determine nonlinear optical properties (i.e. two-photon absorption, two-photon excited fluorescence and second harmonic generation) of quantum clusters are presented. The experimental setup and underlying physical concepts are described. Furthermore, the theoretical models and corresponding approaches are used allowing to explain the experimental observations and simultaneously offering the possibility to deduce the key factors necessary to design new classes of nanoclusters with large NLO properties. Additionally, selected studied cases of liganded silver and gold quantum clusters with focus on their NLO properties will be presented as promising candidates for applications in imaging techniques such as fluorescence microscopy or Second-Harmonic Generation microscopy.
The Laser Cutting Process: Analysis and Applications presents a comprehensive understanding of the laser cutting process and its practical applications. The book includes modeling, such as thermal and stress analysis, along with lamp parameter analysis for kerf width predictions and their practical applications, such as laser cutting of metallic and non-metallic materials and assessment of quality. The book provides analytical considerations for laser cutting, the importance of the affecting parameters, stress levels formed in the cutting section, cutting efficiency and cut morphology and metallurgy. It is designed to be used by individuals working in laser machining and high energy processing.
This monograph provides an introductory discussion of evanescent waves and plasmons, describes their properties and uses, and shows how they are fundamental when operating with nanoscale optics. Far field optics is not suitable for the design, description, and operation of devices at this nanometre scale. Instead one must work with models based on near-field optics and surface evanescent waves. The new discipline of plasmonics has grown to encompass the generation and application of plasmons both as a travelling excitation in a nanostructure and as a stationary enhancement of the electrical field near metal nanosurfaces. The book begins with a brief review of the basic concepts of electromagnetism, then introduces evanescent waves through reflection and refraction, and shows how they appear in diffraction problems, before discussing the role that they play in optical waveguides and sensors. The application of evanescent waves in super-resolution devices is briefly presented, before plasmons are introduced. The surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) are then treated, highlighting their potential applications also in ultra-compact circuitry. The book concludes with a discussion of the quantization of evanescent waves and quantum information processing. The book is intended for students and researchers who wish to enter the field or to have some insight into the matter. It is not a textbook but simply an introduction to more complete and in-depth discussions. The field of plasmonics has exploded in the last ten years, and most of the material treated in this book is scattered in original or review papers. A short comprehensive treatment is missing; this book is intended to provide just that.
Due to their unique flexibility and high reproducibility, lasers have been traditionally used in processes such as cutting, drilling, machining, welding or cladding. In recent years, with the development of ultrafast laser sources, (ie: laser sources emitting pulses with durations ranging from picoseconds to femtoseconds), lasers also emerged as a new and promising tool for the texturing of virtually all kinds of surfaces. In Chapter One, a brief overview of the lasers and techniques utilised in micro- and nano-surface modifications is presented, followed by a detailed discussion of the surface chemistry and topography effect on bacteria aggregation and adhesion. Also, the role of the laser-induced superficial patterns on the response and sensitivity of bio-implants will be explored in depth. Chapter Two reports on cardiovascular laser application by using the open-irrigated ELMA catheter RytmoLas as an intriguing alternative for catheter ablation of arrhythmias. Chapter Three describes a novel feature designed for ELAI in which different colouration codes for the different metals are applied, enabling a good regional allocation of a specific metal within the tissues. Chapter Four focuses on laser ablation processing of metallic and polymeric thin films used in microelectromechanical systems technology for the fabrication of microfluidic devices with integrated electrodes on printed circuit boards (PCB-MEMS). Chapter Five presents typical micro and nanotextured surfaces created by direct irradiation under stationary and non-stationary conditions and the mechanisms behind their development and growth are discussed. Chapter Six describes a novel three-dimensional (3-D) fabrication process of micro-scale shell resonator made of single-crystal diamond (SCD). Chapter Seven discusses the data about structural and morphological characteristics of nano-sized transition-metal oxides of zirconium and molybdenum produced by laser ablation in water.
The book explains the classification of a set of Walsh functions into distinct self-similar groups and subgroups, where the members of each subgroup possess distinct self-similar structures. The observations on self-similarity presented provide valuable clues to tackling the inverse problem of synthesis of phase filters. Self-similarity is observed in the far-field diffraction patterns of the corresponding self-similar filters. Walsh functions form a closed set of orthogonal functions over a prespecified interval, each function taking merely one constant value (either +1 or 1) in each of a finite number of subintervals into which the entire interval is divided. The order of a Walsh function is equal to the number of zero crossings within the interval. Walsh functions are extensively used in communication theory and microwave engineering, as well as in the field of digital signal processing. Walsh filters, derived from the Walsh functions, have opened up new vistas. They take on values, either 0 or phase, corresponding to +1 or -1 of the Walsh function value.
This book presents the main research advances in the field of photofunctional rare earth hybrid materials. The first chapter discusses the fundamental principles, ranging from rare earth, rare earth luminescence, luminescent rare earth compounds and photofunctional rare earth hybrid materials. The main body of the book consists of six chapters exploring different kinds of photofunctional hybrid materials, such as hybrids based on organically modified silica; organically modified mesoporous silica; functionalized microporous zeolite and metal-organic frameworks; polymer or polymer/silica composite; and multi-component assembly of hybrids. It also includes a chapter introducing the photofunctional application of these hybrid materials. It is a valuable resource for a wide readership in various fields of rare earth chemistry, chemical science and materials science.
This book reviews recent advances in the synthesis, characterization, and physico-chemical properties of anisotropic nanomaterials. It highlights various emerging applications of nanomaterials, including sensing and imaging, (bio)medical applications, environmental protection, plasmonics, catalysis, and energy. It provides an excellent and comprehensive overview of the effect that morphology and nanometric dimension has on the physico-chemical properties of various materials and how this leads to novel applications.
The study of fibre lasers is an advanced field of modern science entering all branches of science. This field continues to vastly expend with state-of-the-art developments across the entire spectrum of scientific, military, medical, industrial and commercial applications ranging from spectroscopy to material cutting, welding and marking. This book is a self-contained collection of scholarly papers targeting an audience of practicing researchers, academics, Ph.D. students and other scientists. This book describes advanced research and applications of the rapidly developing field of fibre laser technology filling the very important role of providing students, researchers, and technology managers with valuable, timely, and unbiased information on the subject. The objective of this book is to highlight recent progress and trends in fibre laser technology. The authors hope that this book will be useful for students, researchers, and professionals who are working in the area of fibre lasers. This book will serve also as an interesting and valuable reference that will impact, stimulate and promote further advances in the area of fiber lasers. In summary, the book discusses some of the most important topics that have made a tremendous impact in the growth of science and technology today.
This book systematically introduces readers to laser imaging target detection principles and techniques. It covers the fundamentals of laser imaging and presents an extensive, up-to-date analysis of how to best use laser imaging to detect targets. This is followed by a comprehensive discussion of laser imaging target detection principles, laser imaging generation, and target detection methods. The book offers an invaluable resource for researchers, especially those who are engaged in the fields including target detection based on a laser imaging system, target detection and identification, remote sensing imaging and image processing. Additionally, it can be used as a reference book for advanced undergraduates and postgraduates of relevant majors.
This thesis demonstrates and investigates novel dual-polarization interferometric fiber-optic gyroscope (IFOG) configurations, which utilize optical compensation between two orthogonal polarizations to suppress errors caused by polarization nonreciprocity. Further, it provides a scheme for dual-polarization two-port IFOGs and details their unique benefits. Dual-polarization IFOGs break through the restriction of the "minimal scheme," which conventional IFOGs are based on. These innovative new IFOGs have unique properties: They require no polarizer and have two ports available for signal detection. As such, they open new avenues for IFOGs to achieve lower costs and higher sensitivity.
The Laser world consists basically of two areas, which are necessary and in many cases also sufficient for effective innovation: The right laser for the right application. For the individual application that means the determination of optimized process parameters in terms of laser power, peak power/ intensity, focus geometry and dimension, pulse length, pulse repetition rate and wavelength to name only the six most important ones. Once these parameters are identified, the corresponding Laser has to be selected on the basis of commercial availability. Obviously there is no such thing than "One Laser for all." The situation is rather comparable with electrical power, were depending on the demand of the application in terms of voltage, current and time corresponding power supplies need to be tailored, however, with the difference that in the case of the Laser the variety of parameters is even higher, thus the technology is more complex but on the other hand much more flexible in terms optimizing the source to the application.As a consequence it is suggested to generate two volumes on Lasers and Applications named "Tailored Light."
This book presents the recent progress in the field of nanophotonics. It contains review-like chapters focusing on various but mutually related topics in nanophotonics written by the world's leading scientists. Following the elaboration of the idea of nanophotonics, much theoretical and experimental work has been carried out, and several novel photonic devices, high-resolution fabrication, highly efficient energy conversion, and novel information processing have been developed in these years. Novel theoretical models describing the nanometric light-matter interaction, nonequilibrium statistical mechanical models for photon breeding processes and near-field-assisted chemical reactions as well as light-matter interaction are also explained in this book. It describes dressed photon technology and its applications, including implementation of nanophotonic devices and systems, fabrication methods and performance characteristics of ultrathin, ultraflexible organic light-emitting diodes, organic solar cells and organic transistors.
Additive Manufacturing (AM), popularly known as 3D printing, is playing an increasingly significant role in the manufacturing arena. AM has revolutionized how prototypes are to be made and small batch manufacturing should be carried out. Due to high flexibility and high efficiency of lasers, laser-assisted Manufacturing (LAM) and AM technologies are recently getting much attention over traditional methods.This textbook is a timely information resource for undergraduates, postgraduates and researchers who are interested in this emerging technology. The book will cover the basics of lasers, optics and materials used for manufacturing and 3D printing. It will also include several case studies for readers to apply their understanding of the topics, provide sufficient theoretical background and insights to today's key laser-assisted AM processes and conclude with the future prospects of this exciting technology.This is the first textbook tailored specifically for Lasers in 3D Printing and Manufacturing with detailed explanations. The book will focus on laser-assisted 3D printing and Additive Manufacturing (AM) from basic principles of lasers, optics and AM materials to advanced AM technologies, including in-depth discussion on critical aspects throughout the laser-assisted AM processes, such as optical system design, laser-material interaction and laser parameters' optimization.
In continuation of the FRINGE Workshop Series this Proceeding contains all contributions presented at the 7. International Workshop on Advanced Optical Imaging and Metrology. The FRINGE Workshop Series is dedicated to the presentation, discussion and dissemination of recent results in Optical Imaging and Metrology. Topics of particular interest for the 7. Workshop are: - New methods and tools for the generation, acquisition, processing, and evaluation of data in Optical Imaging and Metrology (digital wavefront engineering, computational imaging, model-based reconstruction, compressed sensing, inverse problems solution) - Application-driven technologies in Optical Imaging and Metrology (high-resolution, adaptive, active, robust, reliable, flexible, in-line, real-time) - High-dynamic range solutions in Optical Imaging and Metrology (from macro to nano) - Hybrid technologies in Optical Imaging and Metrology (hybrid optics, sensor and data fusion, model-based solutions, multimodality) - New optical sensors, imaging and measurement systems (integrated, miniaturized, in-line, real-time, traceable, remote) Special emphasis is put on new strategies, taking into account the active combination of physical modeling, computer aided simulation and experimental data acquisition. In particular attention is directed towards new approaches for the extension of existing resolution limits that open the gates to wide-scale metrology, ranging from macro to nano, by considering dynamic changes and using advanced optical imaging and sensor systems.
This book highlights the various topics in which luminescence and electrochemistry are intimately coupled. The topic of this book is clearly at the frontier between several scientific domains involving physics, chemistry and biology. Applications in these various fields naturally also need to be mentioned, especially concerning displays and advanced investigation techniques in analytical chemistry or for biomedical issues.
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