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The work described here investigates the advantages and limitations of using laser light for the deep in-vivo illumination and micromanipulation of the neuronal system in zebrafish. To do so, it combines and develops novel optical methods such as optogenetics, light sheet microscopy and optical micromanipulation. It also demonstrates, for the first time, that directional and focused laser beams can successfully be used to target large objects at considerable depth in a living organism to exert purely optical force - in this case on otoliths (ear stones) - and create fictive vestibular stimuli in a stationary animal. The behavioural study and simultaneous imaging of the whole brain reveal the location of the brain cells specific to each ear stone. Elucidating these fundamental neural processes holds substantial value for basic neuroscience researchers, who still have only a vague grasp of how brain circuits mediate perception. As such, it represents highly innovative research that has already led to high-impact publications and is now being intensively pursued.
This book focuses on the development and implementation of the longitudinal, angular and frequency controls of the Advanced Virgo detector, both from the simulation and experimental point of view, which contributed to Virgo reaching a sensitivity that enabled it to join the LIGO-Virgo O2 run in August 2017. This data taking was very successful, with the first direct detection of a binary black hole merger (GW170814) using the full network of three interferometers, and the first detection and localization of a binary neutron star merger (GW170817). The second generation of gravitational wave detector, Advanced Virgo, is capable of detecting differential displacements of the order of 10-21m. This means that it is highly sensitive to any disturbance, including the seismic movement of the Earth. For this reason an active control is necessary to keep the detector in place with sufficient accuracy.
This multidisciplinary book is intended to serve as a reference for postgraduate students and researchers working in the fields of charged particle optics or other finite-element-related applications. It is also suitable for use as a graduate text. For the non-specialist in charged particle optics, the opening chapters provide an introduction to the kinds of field problems that occur in charged particle beam systems. A new and comprehensive approach to the subject is taken. The finite element method is placed within a wider framework than strictly charged particle optics. Concepts developed in fluid flow and structural analysis, not hitherto used in charged particle optics, are presented. Benchmark test results provide a way of comparing the finite element method to other field-solving methods. The book also reports on some high-order interpolation techniques and mesh generation methods that will be of interest to other finite element researchers. Additional coverage includes: field theory and field solutions for charged particle optics; aspects of the finite difference method related to the finite element method; finite element theory and procedure, including detailed formulation of local and global matrices; higher-order elements, which can be an effective way of improving finite element accuracy; the finite element method in three dimensions; ways to formulate scalar and vector problems for magnetic fields; and significant reduction of truncation errors using higher-order elements and extrapolation methods.
Since the invention of the first laser 30 years ago, the frequency conversion of laser radiation in nonlinear optical crystals has become an important technique widely used in quantum electronics and laser physics for solving various scientific and engineering problems. The fundamental physics of three-wave light interactions in nonlinear optical crystals is now well understood. This has enabled the production of various harmonic generators, sum-and difference frequency generators, and optical parametric oscillators based on nonlinear optical crystals that are now commercially available. At the same time, scientists continue an active search for novel, highly efficient nonlinear optical materials. Therefore, in our opinion, there is a great need for a handbook of nonlinear optical crystals, intended for specialists and practitioners with an engineering background. This book contains a complete description of the properties and applications of all nonliner optical crystals of practical importance reported in the literature up to the beginning of 1990. In addition, it contains the most important equations for calculating the main parameters (such as phase-matching direction, effective nonlinearity, and conversion efficiency) of nonlinear frequency converters. Dolgoprudnyi, Yerevan, Troitzk v. G. Dmitriev USSR G. G. Gurzadyan October 1990 D. N. Nikogosyan Contents 1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Optics of Nonlinear Crystals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 . . . . . ."
This book introduces readers to the principles of laser interaction with biological cells and tissues with varying degrees of organization. In addition to considering the problems of biomedical cell diagnostics, and modeling the scattering of laser irradiation of blood cells for biological structures (dermis, epidermis, vascular plexus), it presents an analytic theory based on solving the wave equation for the electromagnetic field. It discusses a range of mathematical modeling topics, including optical characterization of biological tissue with large-scale and small-scale inhomogeneities in the layers; heating blood vessels using laser irradiation on the outer surface of the skin; and thermo-chemical denaturation of biological structures based on the example of human skin. In this second edition, a new electrodynamic model of the interaction of laser radiation with blood cells is presented for the structure of cells and the in vitro prediction of optical properties. The approach developed makes it possible to determine changes in cell size as well as modifications in their internal structures, such as transformation and polymorphism nucleus scattering, which is of interest for cytological studies. The new model is subsequently used to calculate the size distribution function of irregular-shape particles with a variety of forms and structures, which allows a cytological analysis of the observed deviations from normal cells.
This book presents an in-depth discussion of the semiconductor-laser gain medium. The optical and electronic properties of semiconductors, particularly semiconductor quantum-well systems, are analzyed in detail, covering a wide variety of near-infrared systems with or without strain, as well as wide-gap materials such as the group-III nitride compounds or the II-VI materials. The important bandstructure modifications and Coulomb interaction effects are discussed, including the solution of the longstanding semiconductor laser lineshape problem. Quantitative comparisons between measured and predicted gain/absorption and refractive index spectra for a wide variety of semiconductor-laser materials enable the theoretical results to be used directly in the engineering of advanced laser and amplifier structures. A wealth of examples for many different material combinations bestow the book with quantitative and predictive value for a wide variety of applications.
The European Community regards training as a priority area and has therefore developed a series of programmes in the field of vocational training. This book is the result of a pilot project selected under two of these Community Action Programmes. It was initially selected under the COMETT programme, concerned with the development of continuing vocational training in the European Community. Moreover, it was one of the few selected projects to receive further funding under a second selection in the context of the LEONARDO DA VINCI Action Programme for the implementation of a European Community Vocational Training policy. It is with great pleasure that I present the outcome of this project which embodies one of the fundamental objectives of the LEONARDO DA VINCI Programme - training for new technologies in SMEs, which make a significant contribution to economic development in Europe. K DRAXLER Director Directorate General XXII European Commission x Acknowledgements The Volume Editor gratefully acknowledges funding by the LEONARDO DA VINCI Programme of the Commission of the European Community and by the Austrian Federal Ministry of Science and Transport whose financial support has made the EuroLaser Academy a reality and has led directly to the generation of this handbook. He is also indebted to Director Dr. Klaus Draxler, Head of the LEONARDO DA VINCI Programme, DG XXII of the Commission of the European Community, moreover to Director General Raul Kneucker, Minister's Advisor Helmut Schacher and Mrs. Friederike Pranckl-Kloepfer from the Austrian Federal Ministry of Science and Transport.
Distributed feedback (DFB) semiconductor lasers emit light in a single mode which is essential to providing the carrier in long haul high bit-rate optical communication systems. This comprehensive research monograph provides: thorough analysis of the operation and design of DFB lasers a high level of tutorial discussion with many valuable appendices the first full account of time-domain numerical modelling techniques applicable to future optical systems as well as present devices Web access to a suite of MATLAB programs (student version MATLAB 4 or higher). It is essential reading for those studying optical communications at graduate and advanced under-graduate level, and a key book for industrial designers of opto-electronic devices.
This book contains most, but regrettably not all, the papers that were presented at The Advanced Research Workshop, held July 1-5, 1997, at Smolenice Castle, Slovak Republic. The problem of angular divergence is of great importance in quantum electronics: low divergence is required not only in most of practical laser applications, but also for achieving high efficiency of parametric laser frequency conversion, and harmonic generation. The large volume of available studies aimed at improving the pump systems and the spectroscopic properties of lasing media, brought about no more than 2-3 fold increases in laser efficiency, while concurrent studies of angular divergence and the implementation of the findings, resulted in several order of magnitude of increases in radiance. The spatial beam structure that is formed in the laser cavity together with the active element constitute the most critical laser elements. The engineering devices, such as excitation systems, lasing gas circulation systems, etc., are usually at the top of the agenda of scientific meetings and of gatherings of engineering experts. The divergence problem has never been discussed by a broad community of experts in this field.
Laser-Beam Interactions with Materials treats, from a physicist's point of view, the wide variety of processes that lasers can induce in materials. Physical phenomena ranging from optics to shock waves are discussed, as are applications in such diverse fields as semiconductor annealing, hole drilling and fusion plasma production. The approach taken emphasizes the fundamental ideas and their interrelations. The newcomer is given the necessary important background material, while the active research worker finds a critical and comprehensive review of the field.
A uniquely practical book, this monograph is the first to describe basic and applied spectroscopic techniques for the study of physical processes in high frequency, electrodeless discharge lamps. Special attention is given to the construction and optimization of these lamps, a popular source of line spectra and an important tool in ultraprecise optical engineering. Highlights include discussions of: high precision measurements of gas pressures spectral source lifespan and more.
There is a consistent trend towards miniaturization of deviees and systems in many fields of engineering, in order to achieve significant reductions in size, weight, power consumption and cost. This trend is especially evident in optics and optoelectronics, where recent years have seen rapid growth in such new or renewed areas as rnicrooptics, integrated optics, integrated optoelectronics, and diffractive optics. In November 1996, an international group of scientists convened in Eriee, Sicily, for a meeting on the subject of "Diffractive Opties and Optieal Mierosystems." This Conference was the 20th Course of the International School of Quantum Electronies, under the auspices of the "Ettore Majorana Center for Scientific Culture" and was directed by Prof. Franeo Gori of the Third University of Rome, Italy, and Prof. Giancarlo Righini of the "Nello Carrara" Institute of Research on Electromagnetic Waves (IROE-CNR) in Florence, Italy. This book presents the Proceedings of this Conference, providing a fundamental introduction to the topie as weIlas reports on recent research results.
The introduction of GaAs/ AIGaAs double heterostructure lasers has opened the door to a new age in the application of compound semiconductor materials to microwave and optical technologies. A variety and combination of semiconductor materials have been investigated and applied to present commercial uses with these devices operating at wide frequencies and wavelengths. Semiconductor modulators are typical examples of this technical evolutions and hsve been developed for commercial use. Although these have a long history to date, we are not aware of any book that details this evolution. Consequently, we have written a book to provide a comprehensive account of semiconductor modulators with emphasis on historical details and experimantal reports. The objective is to provide an up-to-date understanding of semiconductor modulators. Particular attention has been paid to multiple quantum well (MQW) modulators operating at long wavelengths, taking into account the low losses and dispersion in silica fibers occuring at around 1.3 and 1.55 mm. At the present time, MQW structures have been investigated but these have not been sufficiently developed to provide characteristic features which would be instructive enough for readers. One problem is the almost daily publication of papers on semiconductor modulators. Not only do these papers provide additional data, but they often modify the interpretations of particular concepts. Almost all chapters refer to the large number of published papers that can be consulted for future study.
Proceedings of a NATO ASI held in Edime, Turkey, September 5-16, 1994
Examining distributed feedback (DFB) laser diodes, this title covers the underlying theory, commercial applications, necessary design criteria and future direction of this technology. The authors offer a description of the various effects that determine DFB laser diode behaviour, and also present modelling approaches, describe DFB laser performance aspects, lay out critical guidelines for DFB laser devices and their use in emerging, high-capacity optical transmission systems.
A Guide to Laser Safety is a practical guide to the safe use of lasers in science, education, industry, telecommunications, medicine and entertainment. It explains the nature of laser hazards, the requirement of international safety standards and the effective implementation of safety controls. A Guide to Laser Safety is divided into three sections. Part One gives an overview of the essentials of laser safety, briefly describing the nature of laser technology, the hazards of laser radiation, the system of laser classification and general approaches to hazard control. Part Two presents the background to laser safety in greater detail, discussing laser operations, the measurement of laser emission and exposure, the biological effects of laser radiation, the management of health and safety, and the quantitative assessment of laser hazards. Part Three considers the practical implementation of laser safety in specific areas of application, covering the use of lasers in science and engineering, industrial processing, medicine, telecommunications and entertainment.
'Data acquisition' is concerned with taking one or more analogue signals and converting them to digital form with sufficient accu racy and speed to be ready for processing by a computer. The increasing use of computers makes this an expanding field, and it is important that the conversion process is done correctly because information lost at this stage can never be regained, no matter how good the computation. The old saying - garbage in, garbage out - is very relevant to data acquisition, and so every part of the book contains a discussion of errors: where do they come from, how large are they, and what can be done to reduce them? The book aims to treat the data acquisition process in depth with less detailed chapters on the fundamental principles of measure ment, sensors and signal conditioning. There is also a chapter on software packages, which are becoming increasingly popular. This is such a rapidly changing topic that any review of available pro grams is bound to be out of date before the book reaches the read ers. For this reason, I have described the data handling which is available in various types of program and left it to the reader to select from whatever is on the market at the time."
There is currently a high level of interest in the field of nonlinear guided wave optics with the availability of nonlinear materials and their use in new areas of application. This is particularly the case for solitons and other types of nonlinear pulses in optical fibers, high capacity dispersion-free communications. Further, soliton-like beams in highly nonlinear materials, such as organic polymers, are being studied with a view to using them for fast-switching purposes in devices where the light creates its own guiding channel. Written by two authors who are at the forefront of this research, Solitons provides a thorough treatment of the applications of switching devices. It presents the results of the most up to date research on the subject in an accessible manner and adopts a unified approach to solitons in fibers and the devices which use them. The book is an essential reference work for both professional engineers working in optoelectronics and telecommunications companies and graduate students and researchers in the area.
Solid Freeform Fabrication is a set of manufacturing processes that are capable of producing complex freeform solid objects directly from a computer model of an object without part-specific tooling or knowledge. In essence, these methods are miniature manufacturing plants which come complete with material handling, information processing and materials processing. As such, these methods require technical knowledge from many disciplines; therefore, researchers, engineers, and students in Mechanical, Chemical, Electrical, and Manufacturing Engineering and Materials and Computer Science will all find some interest in this subject. Particular subareas of concern include manufacturing methods, polymer chemistry, computational geometry, control, heat transfer, metallurgy, ceramics, optics, and fluid mechanics. History of technology specialists may also find Chapter 1 of interest. Although this book covers the spectrum of different processes, the emphasis is clearly on the area in which the authors have the most experience, thermal laser processing. In particular, the authors have all been developers and inventors of techniques for the Selective Laser Sintering process and laser gas phase techniques (Selective Area Laser Deposition). This is a research book on the subject of Solid Freeform Fabrication.
1.1 Digital Optics as a Subject Improvement of the quality of optical devices has always been the central task of experimental optics. In modern terms, improvements in sensitivity and resolution have equated higher quality with greater informational throughput. For most of today's applications, optics and electronics have, in essence, solved the problem of generating high quality pictures with great informational ca pacity. Effective use of the enormous amount of information contained in the images necessitates processing pictures, holograms, and interferograms. The manner in which information might be extracted from optical entities has be come a topic of current interest. The informational aspects of optical signals and systems might serve as a basis for attacking this question by making use of information theory and signal communication theory, and by enlisting modern tools and methods for data processing (the most important and powerful of which are those of digi tal computation). Exploiting modern advances in electronics has allowed new wavelength ranges and new kinds of radiation to be used in optics. Comput ers have extended our knowledge of the informational essence of radiation. Thus, computerized optical devices enhance not only the optical capabilities of sight, but also its analytical capabilities as well, thus opening qualitatively new horizons to all the areas in which optical devices have found application."
Im Juni 1995 fand in MA1/4nchen die 12. Internationale Fachmesse mit Kongressen LASER 95 statt. Der fortschreitenden Spezialisierung der Lasertechnologie wird mit einer Aufteilung in nach Anwendungsschwerpunkten strukturierte Fachkongresse Rechnung getragen. Ziele dieser Kongresse sind der Informationstransfer fA1/4r potentielle Anwender der neuen Lasertechnologien, kritische Diskussion neuer Forschungs- und Entwicklungsergebnisse sowie eine Vorausschau auf kA1/4nftige Trends. Die Ergebnisse spiegeln eine aktuelle Standortbestimmung der Lasertechnik wider. Der Inhalt der VortrAge wird daher im vorliegenden Band der internationalen Fachwelt zugAnglich gemacht.
A benchmark publication, the first edition of the Phosphor Handbook, published in 1998, set the standard for references in the field. The second edition, updated and published in 2007, began exploring new and emerging fields. However, in the past fourteen years, since the second edition was published, many notable advances and broader phosphor applications have occurred. Completely revised, updated, and expanded into three separate volumes, this third edition of the Handbook covers the most recent developments in phosphor research, characterization, and applications. This volume on 'Luminescent and Applied Materials' elucidates the theoretical background and fundamental properties of luminescence as applied to solid-state phosphor materials. The book includes the chapters that cover: Basic principles of luminescence, the principal phosphor materials, and their optical properties. New developments in principal phosphors in nitrides, perovskite, and silicon carbide. Revised lanthanide level locations and its impact on phosphor performance. Detailed descriptions of energy transfer and upconversion processes in bulk and nano-scaled particles and core-shell structures. Rapid developing organic and polymer luminescent materials and devices.
A benchmark publication, the first edition of the Phosphor Handbook, published in 1998, set the standard for references in the field. The second edition, updated and published in 2007, began exploring new and emerging fields. However, in the past fourteen years, since the second edition was published, many notable advances and broader phosphor applications have occurred. Completely revised, updated, and expanded into three separate volumes, this third edition of the Handbook covers the most recent developments in phosphor research, characterization, and applications. This volume on 'Phototherapy, Bioimaging, and Information Storage' provides the descriptions of synthesis and optical properties of phosphors used in different applications including the novel phosphors for some newly developed applications. The chapter in this book cover: Various LED-based phosphors and their synthesis and applications Ingenious integrated smart phosphors and their novel optoelectronic and photonic devices Quantum dot, single crystalline, and glass phosphors Upconversion nanoparticles for super-resolution imaging and photonic and biological applications Special phosphors for laser, OLED, energy storage, quantum cutting, thermometry, photosynthesis, AC driven LED, and solar cells
A benchmark publication, the first edition of the Phosphor Handbook, published in 1998, set the standard for references in the field. The second edition, updated and published in 2007, began exploring new and emerging fields. However, in the past fourteen years, since the second edition was published, many notable advances and broader phosphor applications have occurred. Completely revised, updated, and expanded into three separate volumes, this third edition of the Handbook covers the most recent developments in phosphor research, characterization, and applications. This volume on 'Experimental Methods for Phosphor Evaluation and Characterization' addresses the theoretical and experimental methods for phosphor evaluation and characterization. The chapters in the book cover: * First principle and DFT analysis of optical, structural, and chemical properties of phosphors * Phosphor design and tuning through structure and solid solution * Design for IR, NIR, and narrowband emission and thermally stable phosphors and nanophosphors * Detailed illustration for measurement of the absolute photoluminescence quantum yield of phosphors * Phosphor analysis through photoionization, high pressure and synchrotron radiation studies
An impulse for writing this book has originated from the effort to sum marize and publicise the acquired results of a research team at the De partment of Automation of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and In formatics, Slovak Technical University in Bratislava. The research team has been involved for a long time with control problems for machine production mechanisms and, in recent (approximately 15) years, its effort was aimed mostly at the control of electrical servosystems of robots. Within this scope, the members of the authors' staff solved the State Re search Task Ultrasonic sensing of the position of a robot hand, which was coordinated by the Institute of Technical Cybernetics of the Slovak Academy of Sciences in Bratislava. The problem was solved in a complex way, i.e. from a conceptual de sign of the measurement, through the measurement and evaluation sys tem, up to connection to the control system of a robot. Compensation of the atmospheric influence on the precision of measurement, as well as on the electroacoustical transducers, were important parts of the solution. The solution was aimed at using the ultrasonic pulse method which en ables the measurement of absolute 3D position coordinates, contrary to the relative position measurements by the incremental pick-ups which are standard robotic equipment."
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