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The ionization of atoms and molecules in strong laser fields is an
active field in modern physics and has versatile applications in
such as attosecond physics, X-ray generation, inertial confined
fusion (ICF), medical science and so on. "Classical Trajectory
Perspective of Atomic Ionization in Strong Laser Fields" covers the
basic concepts in this field and discusses many interesting topics
using the semiclassical model of classical trajectory ensemble
simulation, which is one of the most successful ionization models
and has the advantages of a clear picture, feasible computing and
accounting for many exquisite experiments quantitatively. The book
also presents many applications of the model in such topics as the
single ionization, double ionization, neutral atom acceleration and
other timely issues in strong field physics, and delivers useful
messages to readers with presenting the classical trajectory
perspective on the strong field atomic ionization. The book is
intended for graduate students and researchers in the field of
laser physics, atom molecule physics and theoretical physics. Dr.
Jie Liu is a professor of Institute of Applied Physics and
Computational Mathematics, China and Peking University.
The optically pumped laser has made an enormous contribution to research in the part of the electromagnetic spectrum known as the far infrared, or submillimetre region. I hope that this book will be useful to both practising and prospective workers in the field, since it contains an up-to-date catalogue of measurements of the main properties of submillimetre lasers as well as an introductory review of the measurement techniques themselves. Wavelength and frequency measurements have been exhaustively compiled (in Part II of this book) along with molecule and pump identification. Part I contains a short review of the relevant measurement techniques in each of these areas and, in addition, a review of power measurements. Working in this field, as in any other, one's satisfaction is determined largely by the colleagues one has and the friends one makes along the way. I am very grateful to Dr G. Dodel, Dr L. C. Robinson and Dr G. F. Brand for introducing me to the field. Dr I. S. Falconer and Dr P. A. Krug have been good colleagues and friends. For this book in particular I am grateful to Dr Dodel, Dr K. M. Evenson, Dr H. Figger, Prof. M. Fourrier, P. Kempf, Dr K. J. Siemsen and Dr M. S. Tobin for their comments, and to Dr D. J. E. Knight for a great deal of help, including data from unpublished or obscure sources which he had gathered for his own compilation.
Femtosecond lasers opened up new avenue in materials processing due to its unique features of ultrashort pulse width and extremely high peak intensity. One of the most important features of femtosecond laser processing is that strong absorption can be induced even by materials which are transparent to the femtosecond laser beam due to nonlinear multiphoton absorption. The multiphoton absorption allows us to perform not only surface but also three-dimensionally internal microfabrication of transparent materials such as glass. This capability makes it possible to directly fabricate three-dimensional microfluidics, micromechanics, microelectronics and microoptics embedded in the glass. Further, these microcomponents can be easily integrated in a single glass microchip by the simple procedure using the femtosecond laser. Thus, the femtosecond laser processing provides some advantages over conventional methods such as traditional semiconductor processing or soft lithography for fabrication of microfluidic, optofludic and lab-on-a-chip devices and thereby many researches on this topic are currently being carried out. This book presents a comprehensive review on the state of the art and future prospects of femtosecond laser processing for fabrication of microfluidics and optofludics including principle of femtosecond laser processing, detailed fabrication procedures of each microcomponent and practical applications to biochemical analysis.
This work addresses time-delay in complex nonlinear systems and, in particular, its applications in complex networks; its role in control theory and nonlinear optics are also investigated. Delays arise naturally in networks of coupled systems due to finite signal propagation speeds and are thus a key issue in many areas of physics, biology, medicine, and technology. Synchronization phenomena in these networks play an important role, e.g., in the context of learning, cognitive and pathological states in the brain, for secure communication with chaotic lasers or for gene regulation. The thesis includes both novel results on the control of complex dynamics by time-delayed feedback and fundamental new insights into the interplay of delay and synchronization. One of the most interesting results here is a solution to the problem of complete synchronization in general networks with large coupling delay, i.e., large distances between the nodes, by giving a universal classification of networks that has a wide range of interdisciplinary applications.
Organic lasers are broadly tunable coherent sources, potentially compact, convenient and manufactured at low-costs. Appeared in the mid 60's as solid-state alternatives for liquid dye lasers, they recently gained a new dimension after the demonstration of organic semiconductor lasers in the 90's. More recently, new perspectives appeared at the nanoscale, with organic polariton and surface plasmon lasers. After a brief reminder to laser physics, a first chapter exposes what makes organic solid-state organic lasers specific. The laser architectures used in organic lasers are then reviewed, with a state-of-the-art review of the performances of devices with regard to output power, threshold, lifetime, beam quality etc. A survey of the recent trends in the field is given, highlighting the latest developments with a special focus on the challenges remaining for achieving direct electrical pumping of organic semiconductor lasers. A last chapter covers the applications of organic solid-state lasers.
The PUILS series delivers up-to-date reviews of progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science, a newly emerging interdisciplinary research field spanning atomic and molecular physics, molecular science, and optical science, which has been stimulated by the recent developments in ultrafast laser technologies. Each volume compiles peer-reviewed chapters authored by researchers at the forefront of each their own subfields of UILS. Every chapter begins with an overview of the topics to be discussed, so that researchers unfamiliar to the subfield, as well as graduate students, can grasp the importance and attractions of the research topic at hand; these are followed by reports of cutting-edge discoveries. This seventh volume covers a broad range of topics from this interdisciplinary research field, focusing on the ionization of atoms and molecules, ultrafast responses of protons and electrons within a molecule, molecular alignment, high-order harmonics and attosecond pulse generation, and acceleration of electrons and ions in laser plasmas.
Glasses containing metallic nanoparticles exhibit very promising linear and nonlinear optical properties, mainly due to the surface plasmon resonances (SPRs) of the nanoparticles. The spectral position in the visible and near-infrared range and polarization dependence of the SPR arecharacteristically determined by the nanoparticles shapes.
The focus of "Ultra-Short Pulsed Laser Engineered Metal-Glass Nanocomposites" is the interaction of intense ultra-short laser pulses with glass containing silver nanoparticles embedded in soda-lime glass, and nanostructural modifications in metal-glass nanocomposites induced by such laser pulses. In order to provide a comprehensive physical picture of the processes leading to laser-induced persistent shape transformation of the nanoparticles, series of experimental results investigating the dependences of laser assisted shape modifications of nanoparticles with laser pulse intensity, excitation wavelength, temperature are considered. In addition, the resulting local optical dichroism allows producing very flexibly polarizing optical (sub-) microstructures with well-specified optical properties. The achieved considerable progress towards technological application of this technique, in particular also for long-term optical data storage, is also discussed.
Terahertz science and technology is attracting great interest due to its application in a wide array of fields made possible by the development of new and improved terahertz radiation sources and detectors. This book focuses on the development and characterization of one such source - namely the semi-large aperture photoconducting (PC) antenna fabricated on Fe-doped bulk Ga0.69In0.31As substrate. The high ultrafast carrier mobility, high resistivity, and subpicosecond carrier lifetime along with low bandgap make Ga0.69In0.31As an excellent candidate for PC antenna based THz emitter that can be photoexcited by compact Yb-based multiwatt laser systems for high power THz emission. The research is aimed at evaluating the impact of physical properties of a semi-large aperture Ga0.69In0.31As PC antenna upon its THz generation efficiency, and is motivated by the ultimate goal of developing a high-power terahertz radiation source for time-domain terahertz spectroscopy and imaging systems.
This book shows an update in the field of micro/nano fabrications techniques of two and three dimensional structures as well as ultimate three dimensional characterization methods from the atom range to the micro scale. Several examples are presented showing their direct application in different technological fields such as microfluidics, photonics, biotechnology and aerospace engineering, between others. The effects of the microstructure and topography on the macroscopic properties of the studied materials are discussed, together with a detailed review of 3D imaging techniques.
Semiconductor heterostructures represent the backbone for an increasing variety of electronic and photonic devices, for applications including information storage, communication and material treatment, to name but a few. Novel structural and material concepts are needed in order to further push the performance limits of present devices and to open up new application areas. This thesis demonstrates how key performance characteristics of three completely different types of semiconductor lasers can be tailored using clever nanostructure design and epitaxial growth techniques. All aspects of laser fabrication are discussed, from design and growth of nanostructures using metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy, to fabrication and characterization of complete devices.
Confocal Raman Microscopy is a relatively new technique that allows chemical imaging without specific sample preparation. By integrating a sensitive Raman spectrometer within a state-of-the-art microscope, Raman microscopy with a spatial resolution down to 200nm laterally and 500nm vertically can be achieved using visible light excitation. Recent developments in detector and computer technology as well as optimized instrument design have reduced integration times of Raman spectra by orders of magnitude, so that complete images consisting of tens of thousands of Raman spectra can be acquired in seconds or minutes rather than hours, which used to be standard just one decade ago. The purpose of this book is to provide the reader a comprehensive overview of the rapidly developing field of Confocal Raman Microscopy and its applications.
The transmission speed of data communication systems is forecast to increase exponentially over the next decade. Development of both Si-based high-speed drivers as well as III-V-semiconductor-based high-speed vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) are prerequisites for future ultrahigh data-rate systems. This thesis presents: - a survey of the present state of the art of VCSELs - a systematic investigation of the various effects limiting present VCSELs - a catalogue of solutions to overcome present limits - detailed progress in modelling, fabricating and testing the currently most advanced VCSELs at the two commercially most important wavelengths.
This book features tutorial-like chapters on ultrafast intense laser science by world-leading scientists who are active in the rapidly developing interdisciplinary research field. It is written to give a comprehensive survey of all the essential aspects of ultrafast intense laser science. The volume covers theories of atoms and molecules in intense laser fields, high intensity physics scaled to long wavelength, pulse shaping techniques, non-linear optics in the XUV region, ultrafast X-ray spectroscopy, quantum emission and applications, filamentation, and ultraintense-laser matter interaction.
In fluid mechanics, non-intrusive measurements are fundamental in order to improve knowledge of the behavior and main physical phenomena of flows in order to further validate codes.The principles and characteristics of the different techniques available in laser metrology are described in detail in this book.Velocity, temperature and concentration measurements by spectroscopic techniques based on light scattered by molecules are achieved by different techniques: laser-induced fluorescence, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering using lasers and parametric sources, and absorption spectroscopy by tunable laser diodes, which are generally better suited for high velocity flows. The size determination of particles by optical means, a technique mainly applied in two-phase flows, is the subject of another chapter, along with a description of the principles of light scattering.For each technique the basic principles are given, as well as optical devices and data processing. A final chapter reminds the reader of the main safety precautions to be taken when using powerful lasers.
This book introduces laser drilling processes including modelling, quality assessment of drilled holes, and laser drilling applications. It provides insights into the laser drilling process and relation among the drilling parameters pertinent to improved end product quality. This book is written for engineers and scientists working on laser machining, particularly laser drilling.
Miniaturization and high precision are rapidly becoming a requirement for many industrial processes and products. As a result, there is greater interest in the use of laser microfabrication technology to achieve these goals. This book composed of 16 chapters covers all the topics of laser precision processing from fundamental aspects to industrial applications to both inorganic and biological materials. It reviews the sate of the art of research and technological development in the area of laser processing.
The growth of Internet traf?c in recent years surpassed the prediction of one decade ago. Data stream in individual countries already reached terabit/s level. To cope with the petabit class demands of traf?c in coming years the communication engineers are required to go beyond the incremental improvement of today's technology. A most promising breakthrough would be the introduction of modulation f- mats enabling higher spectral ef?ciency than that of binary on-off keying scheme, virtually the global standard of ?ber-optic communication systems. In wireless communication systems, techniques of high spectral density modulation have been well developed, but the required techniques in optical frequency domain are much more complicated because of the heavier ?uctuation levels. Therefore the past trials of coherent optical modulation/detection schemes were not successful. However, the addition of high-speed digital signal processing technology is the fundam- tal difference between now and two decades ago, when trials of optical coherent communication systems were investigated very seriously. This approach of digital coherent technology has attracted keen interest among communication specialists, as indicated by the rapid increase in the pioneering presentations at the post-deadline sessions of major international conferences. For example, 32 terabit/s transmission in a ?ber experiment based on this technology was reported in post-deadline session of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2009. The advancement of the digital coherent technologies will inevitably affect the network architecture in terms of the network resource management for the new generation photonic networks, rather than will simply provide with huge transmission capacity.
Recent technological breakthrough in the field of Terahertz radiation has triggered new applications in biology and biomedicine. Particularly, biological applications are based on the specific spectroscopic fingerprints of biological matter in this spectral region. Historically with the discovery of new electromagnetic wave spectrum, we have always discovered new medical diagnostic imaging systems. The use of terahertz wave was not realized due to the absence of useful terahertz sources. Now after successful generation of THz waves, it is reported that a great potential for THz wave exists for its resonance with bio-molecules.
There are many challenging issues such as development of THz passive and active instrumentations, understanding of THz-Bio interaction for THz spectroscopy, THz-Bio nonlinear phenomena and safety guideline, and THz imaging systems. Eventually the deeper understanding of THz-Bio interaction and novel THz systems enable us to develop powerful THz biomedical imaging systems which can contribute to biomedical industry.
This is a truly interdisciplinary field and convergence technology where the communication between different disciplines is the most challenging issue for the success of the great works. One of the first steps to promote the communications in this convergence technology would be teaching the basics of these different fields to the researchers in a plain language with the help of "Convergence of Terahertz Science in Biomedical Systems" which is considered to be 3-4th year college students or beginning level of graduate students. Therefore, this type of book can be used by many people who want to enter or understand this field. Even more it can be used for teaching in universities or research institutions.
The technology surrounding the design and fabrication of optical microresonators has matured to a point where there is a need for commercialization. Consequently, there is a need for device research involving more advanced architectures and more esoteric operating principles. Photonic Microresonator Research and Applications explores advances in the fabrication process that enable nanometer waveguide separations, exceptionally smooth surfaces essential to reach Q factors in the order of 106- 108 and high index contrast materials.
This thesis provides deep insights into currently controversial questions in laser filamentation, a highly complex phenomenon involving nonlinear optical effects and plasma physics. First, based on the concrete picture of a femtosecond laser beam which self-pinches its radial intensity distribution, the thesis delivers a novel explanation for the remarkable and previously unexplained phenomenon of pulse self-compression in filaments. Moreover, the work addresses the impact of a non-adiabatic change of both nonlinearity and dispersion on such an intense femtosecond pulse transiting from a gaseous dielectric material to a solid one. Finally, and probably most importantly, the author presents a simple and highly practical theoretical approach for quantitatively estimating the influence of higher-order nonlinear optical effects in optics. These results shed new light on recent experimental observations, which are still hotly debated and may completely change our understanding of filamentation, causing a paradigm change concerning the role of higher-order nonlinearities in optics.
The use of lasers in the processing of electronic and photonic
material is becoming increasingly widespread, with technological
advances reducing costs and increasing both the quality and range
of novel devices which can be produced. Laser growth and processing
of photonic devices is the first book to review this increasingly
Since its invention in 1962, the semiconductor laser has come a long way. Advances in material purity and epitaxial growth techniques have led to a variety of semiconductor lasers covering a wide wavelength range of 0. 3- 100 ILm. The development during the 1970s of GaAs semiconductor lasers, emitting in the near-infrared region of 0. 8--0. 9 ILm, resulted in their use for the first generation of optical fiber communication systems. However, to take advantage of low losses in silica fibers occurring around 1. 3 and 1. 55 ILm, the emphasis soon shifted toward long-wavelength semiconductor lasers. The material system of choice in this wavelength range has been the quaternary alloy InGaAsP. During the last five years or so, the intense development effort devoted to InGaAsP lasers has resulted in a technology mature enough that lightwave transmission systems using InGaAsP lasers are currently being deployed throughout the world. This book is intended to provide a comprehensive account of long-wave length semiconductor lasers. Particular attention is paid to InGaAsP lasers, although we also consider semiconductor lasers operating at longer wave lengths. The objective is to provide an up-to-date understanding of semicon ductor lasers while incorporating recent research results that are not yet available in the book form. Although InGaAsP lasers are often used as an example, the basic concepts discussed in this text apply to all semiconductor lasers, irrespective of their wavelengths.
This volume contains papers presented at the Tenth International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena held at Del Coronado, California, from May 28 to June 1, 1996. The biannual Ultrafast Phenomena Conferences provide a forum for the discussion of the latest advances in ultrafast optics and their applications in science and engineering. The Ultrafast Phenomena Conference maintains a broad international representation with 391 participants from 18 countries, including 94 students attending the conference. The multidisciplinary character of this meeting provides a cross-fertilization of ultrafast concepts and techniques among various scientific and engineering disciplines. The enthusiasm of the paticipants, the originality and quality of the papers that they presented, and the beautiful conference site combined to produce a very successful and enjoyable meeting. Progress was reported in the technology of generating ultrashort pulses, in cluding new techniques for improving laser-pulse duration, output power, wave length range, and compactness. Ultrafast spectroscopy continues to impact on and expand the knowledge base of fundamental processes in physics, chemistry, biol ogy and engineering. In addition ultrafast phenomena now extends to real-world applications in biology, high-speed communication, and material diagnostics. The Tenth Ultrafast Phenomena Conference was highlighted by a 'special event' in which the developments of the previous conferences were reviewed in a panel discussion by G. Mourou, E. Ippen, A. Migus, A. Laubereau and R. Hochstrasser."
Solid-state lasers have seen a fast and steady development and are the ubiquitous tool both for research and industrial applications. The author's monograph Solid-State Lasers has become the most-used reference book in this area. The present graduate text on solid-state lasers takes advantage of this rich source by focusing on the needs at the graduate level and those who need an introduction. Numerous exercises with hints for solution, new text and updated material where needed make this text very accessible.
This book is the result of two decades of research work which started with an accidental observation. One of my students, Dipl. phys. Volkmar Lenz, - ticed that the speckle pattern of laser light scattered by a cuvette containing diluted milk performed a strange motion every time he came near the cuvette with his thumb. After thinkingabout this e?ect we came to the conclusion that this motion can only be caused by scatteringparticles with di?erent velocities, as in the case of the di?raction pattern of an optical grating: A linear motion of the grating does not change the pattern whereas a rotation of the grating does. The observed speckle motion could then be explained qualitatively as produced by the inhomogeneous velocity of the convection within the cuvette which was produced by the heat of the thumb. The theoretical treatment of this e?ect revealed that the velocity gradient of the light scattering medium is responsible for the speckle motion. The idea to use this e?ect for developingmeasurement techniques for velocity gradients arose almost immediately. For that purpose we had to develop not only experimental set-ups to measure the pattern velocity but also the theory which describes the connection between this velocity and the velocity gradient. The result of this work together with the description of a method developed by another group forms the contents of this book. I am indebted to the students who worked in my laboratory and developed the measurement techniques. These were, in temporal order, Dr.
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