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What every neuroscientist should know about the mathematical modeling of excitable cells. Combining empirical physiology and nonlinear dynamics, this text provides an introduction to the simulation and modeling of dynamic phenomena in cell biology and neuroscience. It introduces mathematical modeling techniques alongside cellular electrophysiology. Topics include membrane transport and diffusion, the biophysics of excitable membranes, the gating of voltage and ligand-gated ion channels, intracellular calcium signalling, and electrical bursting in neurons and other excitable cell types. It introduces mathematical modeling techniques such as ordinary differential equations, phase plane, and bifurcation analysis of single-compartment neuron models. With analytical and computational problem sets, this book is suitable for life sciences majors, in biology to neuroscience, with one year of calculus, as well as graduate students looking for a primer on membrane excitability and calcium signalling.
Both children and adults who experience chronic peer victimization are at considerable risk for a host of adverse psychological consequences, including depression, aggression, even suicidal ideation. "Bullying, Rejection, and Peer Victimization" is the only book that addresses bullying across the developmental spectrum, covering child, adolescent, and adult populations.
The contributors offer in-depth analyses on traditional aggression and victimization (physical bullying) as well as social rejection (emotional bullying). Peer and family relationships, relational aggression, and cyber-bullying are just a few of the important topics discussed.
Key Features: Analyzes both perpetrator's and victim's sides of the peer victimization experience Explores how gender traits influence aggression Investigates how family dynamics influence chronic peer victimization Examines the relationships between social status, power, and aggression
This text offers a wealth of insight into the experiences of victims of peer bullying, using cutting-edge theoretical perspectives, including social cognition, social ecology, genetics and genetic-environment interactions, and social cognitive neuroscience.
When the famous South African fish scientist Professor JLB Smith published Old Fourlegs - The Story of the Coelacanth in 1956 he created an international sensation. After all, this 400-million-year-old fish, known only from fossil remains, was thought to have become extinct around 66 million years ago! JLB Smith’s dramatic account of the discovery of the first and second coelacanths in 1938 and 1952 turned him into a cult figure and put South African science on the world map. His book was eventually published in six English editions and translated into nine foreign languages.
Mike Bruton’s The Annotated Old Fourlegs includes a facsimile reprint of the original book, to which he has added notes and images in the margins that provide an interesting and revealing commentary on Smith’s text, as well as new introductory and explanatory chapters that bring the coelacanth story up to date.
At once far flung and intimate, a fascinating look at how finding our way make us human. In this compelling narrative, O'Connor seeks out neuroscientists, anthropologists and master navigators to understand how navigation ultimately gave us our humanity. Biologists have been trying to solve the mystery of how organisms have the ability to migrate and orient with such precision--especially since our own adventurous ancestors spread across the world without maps or instruments. O'Connor goes to the Arctic, the Australian bush and the South Pacific to talk to masters of their environment who seek to preserve their traditions at a time when anyone can use a GPS to navigate. O'Connor explores the neurological basis of spatial orientation within the hippocampus. Without it, people inhabit a dream state, becoming amnesiacs incapable of finding their way, recalling the past, or imagining the future. Studies have shown that the more we exercise our cognitive mapping skills, the greater the grey matter and health of our hippocampus. O'Connor talks to scientists studying how atrophy in the hippocampus is associated with afflictions such as impaired memory, dementia, Alzheimer's Disease, depression and PTSD. Wayfinding is a captivating book that charts how our species' profound capacity for exploration, memory and storytelling results in topophilia, the love of place. "O'Connor talked to just the right people in just the right places, and her narrative is a marvel of storytelling on its own merits, erudite but lightly worn. There are many reasons why people should make efforts to improve their geographical literacy, and O'Connor hits on many in this excellent book--devouring it makes for a good start." --Kirkus Reviews
** AN IDEAL STOCKING FILLER FOR ANY SCIENCE LOVER. ** Part of the ALL-NEW LADYBIRD EXPERT SERIES. ____________ Are other animals, or even plants, conscious? Can we create conscious robots? Are we able to assume the consciousness of someone else? We all experience the world differently. REALITY is shaped by our individual memories. So we respond to THE WORLD in our own ways. Our UNIQUE EXPERIENCE underpins what it means to be CONSCIOUS. This raises so many questions such as where does consciousness live? And what is it for? Discover the answers and more inside Hannah Critchlow's Ladybird Expert - Consciousness, the thrilling and accessible account that explains what it means to be conscious - from what defines it, to questioning the existence of free will.
How we filter out what is irrelevant so we can focus on what we need to know. We are surrounded by a world rich with visual information, but we pay attention to very little of it, filtering out what is irrelevant so we can focus on what we think we need to know. Advertisers, web designers, and other "attention architects" try hard to get our attention, promoting products with videos on huge outdoor screens, adding flashing banners to websites, and developing computer programs with blinking icons that tempt us to click. Often they succeed in distracting us from what we are supposed to be doing. In HowAttention Works, Stefan Van der Stigchel explains the process of attention and what the implications are for our everyday lives. The visual attention system is efficient, Van der Stigchel writes, because it doesn't waste energy processing every scrap of visual data it receives; it gathers only relevant information. We focus on one snippet of information and assume that everything else is stable and consistent with past experience; that's why most people miss even the most glaring continuity errors in films. If an object doesn't meet our expectations, chances are we won't see it. Van der Stigchel makes his case with examples from real life, explaining, among other things, the limitations of color perception (and why fire trucks shouldn't be red); the importance of location (security guards and radiologists, for example, have to know where to look); the attention-getting properties of faces and spiders; what we can learn from someone else's eye movements; why we see what we expect to see (magicians take advantage of this); and visual neglect and unattended information.
This is the first comprehensive textbook on the use of MRI in psychiatry covering imaging techniques, brain systems and a review of findings in different psychiatric disorders. The book is divided into three sections, the first of which covers in detail all the major MRI-based methodological approaches available today, including fMRI, EEG-fMRI, DTI, and MR spectroscopy. In addition, the role of MRI in imaging genetics and combined brain stimulation and imaging is carefully explained. The second section provides an overview of the different brain systems that are relevant for psychiatric disorders, including the systems for perception, emotion, cognition, and reward. The final part of the book presents the MRI findings that are obtained in all the major psychiatric disorders using the previously discussed techniques. Numerous carefully chosen images support the informative text, making this an ideal reference work for all practitioners and trainees with an interest in this flourishing field.
Berwick and Chomsky draw on recent developments in linguistic theory to offer an evolutionary account of language and humans' remarkable, species-specific ability to acquire it. "A loosely connected collection of four essays that will fascinate anyone interested in the extraordinary phenomenon of language." -New York Review of Books We are born crying, but those cries signal the first stirring of language. Within a year or so, infants master the sound system of their language; a few years after that, they are engaging in conversations. This remarkable, species-specific ability to acquire any human language-"the language faculty"-raises important biological questions about language, including how it has evolved. This book by two distinguished scholars-a computer scientist and a linguist-addresses the enduring question of the evolution of language. Robert Berwick and Noam Chomsky explain that until recently the evolutionary question could not be properly posed, because we did not have a clear idea of how to define "language" and therefore what it was that had evolved. But since the Minimalist Program, developed by Chomsky and others, we know the key ingredients of language and can put together an account of the evolution of human language and what distinguishes us from all other animals. Berwick and Chomsky discuss the biolinguistic perspective on language, which views language as a particular object of the biological world; the computational efficiency of language as a system of thought and understanding; the tension between Darwin's idea of gradual change and our contemporary understanding about evolutionary change and language; and evidence from nonhuman animals, in particular vocal learning in songbirds.
***30th Anniversary Edition*** Cover note: Each copy of the anniversary edition of The Blind Watchmaker features a unique biomorph. No two covers are exactly alike. Acclaimed as the most influential work on evolution written in the last hundred years, The Blind Watchmaker offers an inspiring and accessible introduction to one of the most important scientific discoveries of all time. A brilliant and controversial book which demonstrates that evolution by natural selection - the unconscious, automatic, blind yet essentially non-random process discovered by Darwin - is the only answer to the biggest question of all: why do we exist?
'This is a book of miracles. Fascinating... An absorbing compendium of unlikely recoveries from physical and mental ailments offers evidence that the brain can heal... brings Oliver Sacks to mind' Lisa Appignanesi, Observer The Brain's Way of Healing explores the astonishing advances in the discovery of neuroplasticity, showing that the brain has its own unique way of healing, only recently uncovered. Norman Doidge discusses a series of remarkable recoveries: patients told they would never improve have years of chronic pain alleviated or damage from debilitating strokes undone, and symptoms of multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, brain injury, autism or learning disorders are reversed. He also shows how the risk of dementia can be lowered by 60%. Using stories to present cutting-edge science, Doidge illustrates principles that everyone can apply to improve their brain's performance.
Since dyslexia was first described in the British Medical Journal in 1896, there has been debate about the definitions and diagnostic procedures used, with some casting doubt on its very existence. However, there is now a considerable body of research regarding the nature and characteristics of this relatively common learning disorder. The contemporary view of dyslexia has emerged from a century of research in medicine, psychology and more recently neuroscience, and we now understand enough about this learning disorder to guide policy and practice. This Very Short Introduction provides an accessible overview of this exciting field of research, beginning with its history, and drawing on testimony from people living with dyslexia. Considering the potential causes of dyslexia, and looking at both genetic and environment factors, Margaret Snowling shows how cross-linguistic studies have documented the prevalence of dyslexia in different languages. Discussing the various brain scanning techniques that have been used to find out if the brains of people with dyslexia differ in structure or function from those of typical readers, Snowling moves on to weigh up various strategies and interventions which can help people living with dyslexia today. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
The engrossing story of an extraordinary crisis that reverberated far beyond the shores of Lebanon as the first student protest in the Arab region. When chemistry professor Edwin Lewis praised Darwin's methods in his 1882 commencement speech at Beirut's Syrian Protestant College, he set off a fierce and extended battle over freedom of expression between liberals and conservative that over the next few years caused nearly half the senior faculty to resign, many students to be suspended, and enrollment to plunge. Although the conservative initially won adoption of a Christian "Declaration of Principles" mandatory for all faculty, it was repealed by 1902.
Speleobiology, the study of cave life, is a relatively new science.
The diversity of species that live in caves, springs, and aquifers
is just beginning to be documented, and much of the underground
world has yet to be explored. The surveys of cave life reported in
this book represent an important step forward in understanding the
biodiversity of caves in Oklahoma and Arkansas.
One of the world's most respected psychiatrists provides a much-needed new evolutionary framework for making sense of mental illness With his classic book Why We Get Sick, Randolph Nesse established the field of evolutionary medicine. Now he returns with a book that transforms our understanding of mental disorders by exploring a fundamentally new question. Instead of asking why certain people suffer from mental illness, Nesse asks why natural selection has left us with fragile minds at all. Drawing on revealing stories from his own clinical practice and insights from evolutionary biology, Nesse shows how negative emotions are useful in certain situations, yet can become excessive. Anxiety protects us from harm in the face of danger, but false alarms are inevitable. Low mood prevents us from wasting effort in pursuit of unreachable goals, but it often escalates into pathological depression. Other mental disorders, such as addiction and anorexia, result from the mismatch between modern environments and our ancient human past. Taken together, these insights and many more help to explain the pervasiveness of human suffering, and show us new paths for relieving it. Good Reasons for Bad Feelings will fascinate anyone who wonders how our minds can be so powerful, yet so fragile, and how love and goodness came to exist in organisms shaped to maximize Darwinian fitness.
Genetic science is about to radically alter our lives. Sooner than you can imagine, human beings will be capable of diagnosing their own illnesses, designating the sex of their children, even designing the food they eat -- all as easily as using a cell phone. Now is the time for every one of us to take control of our DNA, and one man is uniquely qualified to show us how: Glenn McGee, bioethicist at the University of Pennsylvania, pioneer in the study of "home genetics," and the acknowledged wunderkind of the exciting world found at the nexus of life science and computer technology.
One of the most respected authorities in the field of genomics -- the study of the genetic "software" inside plants, animals, and us -- McGee takes us on an eye-opening journey behind the headlines and into the heart of this formidable cutting-edge science. Probing the far-ranging ethical and legal implications of genomic research, McGee tackles its most controversial and hotly debated aspects -- from patenting your DNA to genetic engineering at the supermarket -- and explodes unnecessary fears about this wondrous new knowledge.
We live in a brave new world. Beyond Genetics provides us with the knowledge we need to take the right steps forward into tomorrow ... and beyond.
This book combines cutting-edge findings in neuroscience with examples from history and the headlines to introduce the new science of cultural biology, born of advances in brain imaging, computer modeling, and genetics. Doctors Quartz and Sejnowski show how both our noblest and darkest traits are rooted in brain systems so ancient that we share them with insects. They then demystify the dynamic engagement between brain and world that makes us something far beyond the sum of our parts.
The authors show how our humanity unfolds in precise stages as brain and world engage on increasingly complex levels. Their discussion embraces shaping forces as ancient as climate change over millennia and events as recent as the terrorism and heroism of September 11, and offers intriguing answers to some of our most enduring questions, including why we live together, love, kill -- and sometimes lay down our lives for others.
This second edition of the renowned Cambridge Handbook of Creativity expands on the first edition with over two thirds new material reaching across psychology, business, entrepreneurship, education, and neuroscience. It introduces creativity scholarship by summarising its history, major theories and assessments, how creativity develops across the lifespan, and suggestions for improving creativity. It also illustrates cutting-edge work on genetics and the neuroscience of creativity, alongside creativity's potential for both benevolence and malevolence. The chapters cover the related areas of imagination, genius, play, and aesthetics and tackle questions about how cultural differences, one's physical environment, mood, and self-belief can impact creativity. The book then examines the impacts on creativity of behaviour by teachers, managers, and leaders in particular.
'One of the best books on evolutionary biology for a broad readership ever written' Edward O. Wilson A dazzling tour of evolution in action that sheds light on one of the greatest debates in science The natural world is full of fascinating instances of convergence: phenomena like eyes and wings and tree-climbing lizards that have evolved independently, multiple times. Convergence suggests that evolution is predictable, and if we could replay the tape of life, we would get the same outcome. But there are also many examples of contingency, cases where the tiniest change - a random mutation or an ancient butterfly sneeze - caused evolution to take a completely different course. In Improbable Destinies, renowned researcher Jonathan Losos reveals what the latest breakthroughs in evolutionary biology tell us about one of the greatest ongoing debates in science. Evolution can occur far more rapidly than Darwin expected, which has opened the door to something that was previously thought impossible: experimental studies of evolution in nature. Drawing on his own work with anole lizards on the Caribbean islands, as well as studies of guppies, foxes, field mice and others being conducted around the world, Losos reveals just how rapid and predictable evolution can be. By charting the discoveries of the scientists who are rewriting our understanding of evolutionary biology, Improbable Destinies will change the way we think and talk about evolution.
This new third edition updates a best-selling encyclopedia. It includes about 56% more words than the 1,392-page second edition of 2003. The number of illustrations increased to almost 2,000 and their quality has improved by design and four colors. In addition, cross-references among entries are expanded and the statements are supported by references: more than 14,000 journal papers and more than 3,000 books are listed. The book includes approximately 1,800 current databases and web servers. Retractions and corrigenda are pointed out.This encyclopedia covers the basics and the latest in genomics, proteomics, genetic engineering, small RNAs, transcription factories, chromosome territories, stem cells, genetic networks, epigenetics, prions, hereditary diseases, and patents. Similar integrated information is not available in textbooks or on the Internet.
An ideal text for the natural product scientist looking for new techniques in research, this volume comprises the latest information on natural/plant resources.The comprehensive chapters cover the chemistry and pharmacology of a range of natural products - from Chinese herbal medicine to tea extracts, microbes to marine sponges, and the latest technologies to enhance the synthesis, isolation and purification of bioactive herbal compounds from these products. Adding additional value to the book are chapters on new tools in information technology that can greatly facilitate the research of natural product scientists, and the technologies available for evaluating medicinal herbal products for purity.
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