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"Landscape Bionomics, or Bio-integrated Landscape Ecology, radically transforms the main principles of traditional Landscape Ecology by recognizing the landscape as a living entity rather than merely the spatial distribution of species and communities on the territory, often analysed in separate themes (water, species, pollution, etc.). To be more exact, the landscape is identified as the "life organization integrating a set of plants, animals and human communities and its system of natural, semi-natural, and human cultural ecosystems in a certain spatial configuration." This new perspective inevitably leads to significant changes in how to assess and manage the environment.
This book represents the culmination of an endeavor begun by the author, with the support of Richard Forman and Zev Naveh, more than a dozen years ago. It builds on the author s previous successful publication, "Landscape Ecology, A Widening Foundation," by addressing a range of additional topics and discussing the new theoretical and methodological concepts that have emerged during the past decade of research. Particular attention is paid to the fact that interventions in the landscape can be made with the best intentions yet cause serious damage Against this background, the author explains the need to study "landscape units" by applying methods comparable to those used in clinical diagnosis hence ecologists can be viewed as the physicians of ecological systems."
This concise version of INTERVENTION AND REFLECTION, International Edition offers the same clear and accurate accounts of complex scientific findings with case presentations which have made Ronald Munson's INTERVENTION AND REFLECTION, International Edition the best-selling textbook for this course area. Nationally acclaimed bioethicist and novelist Ronald Munson masterfully weds clear and accurate accounts of complex scientific findings with case presentations whose vivid narrative helps students connect science with the human emotion behind important and controversial biomedical decisions. These engaging cases and briefings conclude with succinct summaries of basic ethical theories and are followed by up-to-date and influential articles addressing the most pressing issues in bioethics today. You will quickly learn why INTERVENTION AND REFLECTION, Concise International Edition continues to be the most widely used bioethics textbook on the market: Students are often surprised to find that this unusual text is hard to put down.
The question of how and why organisms age has teased scientists for centuries. There are myriad competing theories, from the idea that aging is a simple wear and tear process, like the rusting of a car, to the belief that aging and death are genetically programmed and controlled. In fact, there is no clearly defined limit to life, and no single, predictable program playing itself out: different things are happening within and between tissues, and each system or organ accumulates damage at its own pace, according to the kind of insults imposed on it by daily living. Sometime before 2020, the number of people over sixty-five worldwide will, for the first time, be greater than the number of 0-4 year olds; and by 2050 there are likely to be 2.5 times as many older people in the world as toddlers. Sue Armstrong tells the story of society's quest to understand aging through the eyes of the scientists themselves, as well as through the "ordinary" people who exemplify the mysteries of ageing--from those who suffer from the premature aging condition, Hutchinson-Gilford syndrome, to people still running marathons in their 80s. Borrowed Time will investigate such mind-boggling experiments as transfusing young blood into old rodents, and research into transplanting the first human head, among many others. It will explore where science is taking us and what issues are being raised from a psychological, philosophical and ethical perspective, through interviews with, and profiles of, key scientists in the field and the people who represent interesting and important aspects of aging.
In "Neuroscience and Philosophy" three prominent philosophers and a leading neuroscientist clash over the conceptual presuppositions of cognitive neuroscience. The book begins with an excerpt from Maxwell Bennett and Peter Hacker's "Philosophical Foundations of Neuroscience" (Blackwell, 2003), which questions the conceptual commitments of cognitive neuroscientists. Their position is then criticized by Daniel Dennett and John Searle, two philosophers who have written extensively on the subject, and Bennett and Hacker in turn respond.
Their impassioned debate encompasses a wide range of central themes: the nature of consciousness, the bearer and location of psychological attributes, the intelligibility of so-called brain maps and representations, the notion of qualia, the coherence of the notion of an intentional stance, and the relationships between mind, brain, and body. Clearly argued and thoroughly engaging, the authors present fundamentally different conceptions of philosophical method, cognitive-neuroscientific explanation, and human nature, and their exchange will appeal to anyone interested in the relation of mind to brain, of psychology to neuroscience, of causal to rational explanation, and of consciousness to self-consciousness.
In his conclusion Daniel Robinson (member of the philosophy faculty at Oxford University and Distinguished Professor Emeritus at Georgetown University) explains why this confrontation is so crucial to the understanding of neuroscientific research. The project of cognitive neuroscience, he asserts, depends on the incorporation of human nature into the framework of science itself. In Robinson's estimation, Dennett and Searle fail to support this undertaking; Bennett and Hacker suggest that the project itself might be based on a conceptual mistake. Exciting and challenging, "Neuroscience and Philosophy" is an exceptional introduction to the philosophical problems raised by cognitive neuroscience.
This book exposes, and fills, a notable void in the educational content generally covered in modern schools of medicine. It provides an introduction to the field at large in terms of content that is relevant for each of the specialties and subspecialties of medicine; and to this end, it addresses the modern counterpart of the Hippocratic philosophy that was at the root of the genesis of modern medicine. The much-needed but still-missing introductory content for the interdisciplinary 'medical common,' provided in this book, addresses mainly the most elementary concepts and principles of medicine. Those concepts flow, hierarchically, from the essence of (health and) ill-health/illness for one and that of medicine for another, both of these critically formulated; and those principles are dictates of logic and ethics, both specific to medicine. While a modern physician is expected to be competent as a scholar in his/her particular discipline of medicine, study of this book is essential for the development of that competence -- for learning, for example, to make a tenable distinction between scientific medicine and medical science, and between knowledge-based medicine (scientific and other) and its opinion-based substitutes ('evidence-based' and other). "To me it is astonishing and to medicine actually shameful that it has taken up to year 2015 before there is a work in which the essence of medicine is described and discussed." -- J. Steurer, University of Zurich "[In this book], Miettinen beautifully elucidates the concepts and principles of knowledge-based diagnosis, and prognosis, within medicine. Now, after six decades of keen observation and study, and critical reflection on medicine and medical research, Miettinen, in this book, shares the fundamental understandings he has reached; ..." -- T. J. VanderWeele, Harvard University "The aim of this book ... is admirable. The composition of the book -- from the key concepts to logical and ethical principles -- is very clear and systematic. I am convinced that this kind of book is needed." -- I. Niiniluoto, University of Helsinki
Over the past thirty years, a new systemic conception of life has emerged at the forefront of science. New emphasis has been given to complexity, networks, and patterns of organisation, leading to a novel kind of 'systemic' thinking. This volume integrates the ideas, models, and theories underlying the systems view of life into a single coherent framework. Taking a broad sweep through history and across scientific disciplines, the authors examine the appearance of key concepts such as autopoiesis, dissipative structures, social networks, and a systemic understanding of evolution. The implications of the systems view of life for health care, management, and our global ecological and economic crises are also discussed. Written primarily for undergraduates, it is also essential reading for graduate students and researchers interested in understanding the new systemic conception of life and its implications for a broad range of professions - from economics and politics to medicine, psychology and law.
Mitochondria are tiny structures located inside our cells that carry out the essential task of producing energy for the cell. They are found in all complex living things, and in that sense, they are fundamental for driving complex life on the planet. But there is much more to them than that. Mitochondria have their own DNA, with their own small collection of genes, separate from those in the cell nucleus. It is thought that they were once bacteria living independent lives. Their enslavement within the larger cell was a turning point in the evolution of life, enabling the development of complex organisms and, closely related, the origin of two sexes. Unlike the DNA in the nucleus, mitochondrial DNA is passed down exclusively (or almost exclusively) via the female line. That's why it has been used by some researchers to trace human ancestry daughter-to-mother, to 'Mitochondrial Eve'. Mitochondria give us important information about our evolutionary history. And that's not all. Mitochondrial genes mutate much faster than those in the nucleus because of the free radicals produced in their energy-generating role. This high mutation rate lies behind our ageing and certain congenital diseases. The latest research suggests that mitochondria play a key role in degenerative diseases such as cancer, through their involvement in precipitating cell suicide. Mitochondria, then, are pivotal in power, sex, and suicide. In this fascinating and thought-provoking book, Nick Lane brings together the latest research findings in this exciting field to show how our growing understanding of mitochondria is shedding light on how complex life evolved, why sex arose (why don't we just bud?), and why we age and die. This understanding is of fundamental importance, both in understanding how we and all other complex life came to be, but also in order to be able to control our own illnesses, and delay our degeneration and death. Oxford Landmark Science books are 'must-read' classics of modern science writing which have crystallized big ideas, and shaped the way we think.
Darwin takes a look at the life of this incredible man, from his birth, his ground-breaking publications and far-flung travels, Darwinism and his theories on evolution, all the way to his final days. Over 160 stunning images and illustrations are included within Darwin, ranging from personal diary entries (such as those he made when deciding whether to marry or not), letters and handwritten notes, as well as sketches from Darwin's famous works. Revealing the famous scientist's life in compelling detail, Darwin covers not only his scientific career and On the Origin of Species but his personal struggles also, allowing us to see what truly made the man.
The Encyclopedia of Estuaries, part of Springer's Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series, provides a single, state-of-the-art, comprehensive reference volume on estuaries for research scientists, educators, students, and others. Consisting of almost 270 subject entries in an easy-to-use format, this volume covers the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of estuaries. In total more than 225 authors from around the world have contributed to the encyclopedia on such diverse subjects as biotic communities, essential habitats, food webs, fisheries, hydrology, pollution, conservation, and many more. The Encyclopedia of Estuaries will meet the needs of professionals worldwide by supplying detailed information from world-class estuarine and marine scientists as well as experts from other fields of study.
In the compelling popular science tradition of Sapiens and Guns, Germs, and Steel, a groundbreaking and eye-opening exploration that applies evolutionary science to provide a new perspective on human psychology, revealing how major challenges from our past have shaped some of the most fundamental aspects of our being. The most fundamental aspects of our lives-from leadership and innovation to aggression and happiness-were permanently altered by the "social leap" our ancestors made from the rainforest to the savannah. Their struggle to survive on the open grasslands required a shift from individualism to a new form of collectivism, which forever altered the way our mind works. It changed the way we fight and our proclivity to make peace, it changed the way we lead and the way we follow, it made us innovative but not inventive, it created a new kind of social intelligence, and it led to new sources of life satisfaction. In The Social Leap, William von Hippel lays out this revolutionary hypothesis, tracing human development through three critical evolutionary inflection points to explain how events in our distant past shape our lives today. From the mundane, such as why we exaggerate, to the surprising, such as why we believe our own lies and why fame and fortune are as likely to bring misery as happiness, the implications are far reaching and extraordinary. Blending anthropology, biology, history, and psychology with evolutionary science, The Social Leap is a fresh and provocative look at our species that provides new clues about who we are, what makes us happy, and how to use this knowledge to improve our lives.
Explores how the explosion of neuroscience-based evidence in recent years has led to a fundamental change in how forensic psychology can inform working with criminal populations. This book communicates knowledge and research findings in the neurobiological field to those who work with offenders and those who design policy for offender rehabilitation and criminal justice systems, so that practice and policy can be neurobiologically informed, and research can be enhanced. Starting with an introduction to the subject of neuroscience and forensic settings, The Wiley Blackwell Handbook of Forensic Neuroscience then offers in-depth and enlightening coverage of the neurobiology of sex and sexual attraction, aggressive behavior, and emotion regulation; the neurobiological bases to risk factors for offending such as genetics, developmental, alcohol and drugs, and mental disorders; and the neurobiology of offending, including psychopathy, antisocial personality disorders, and violent and sexual offending. The book also covers rehabilitation techniques such as brain scanning, brain-based therapy for adolescents, and compassion-focused therapy. The book itself: Covers a wide array of neuroscience research Chapters by renowned neuroscientists and criminal justice experts Topics covered include the neurobiology of aggressive behavior, the neuroscience of deception, genetic contributions to psychopathy, and neuroimaging-guided treatment Offers conclusions for practitioners and future directions for the field. The Handbook of Forensic Neuroscience is a welcome book for all researchers, practitioners, and postgraduate students involved with forensic psychology, neuroscience, law, and criminology.
How complex systems theory sheds new light on the adaptive dynamics of viral populations Viruses are everywhere, infecting all sorts of living organisms, from the tiniest bacteria to the largest mammals. Many are harmful parasites, but viruses also play a major role as drivers of our evolution as a species and are essential regulators of the composition and complexity of ecosystems on a global scale. This concise book draws on complex systems theory to provide a fresh look at viral origins, populations, and evolution, and the coevolutionary dynamics of viruses and their hosts. New viruses continue to emerge that threaten people, crops, and farm animals. Viruses constantly evade our immune systems, and antiviral therapies and vaccination campaigns can be powerless against them. These unique characteristics of virus biology are a consequence of their tremendous evolutionary potential, which enables viruses to quickly adapt to any environmental challenge. Ricard Sol and Santiago Elena present a unified framework for understanding viruses as complex adaptive systems. They show how the application of complex systems theory to viral dynamics has provided new insights into the development of AIDS in patients infected with HIV-1, the emergence of new antigenic variants of the influenza A virus, and other cutting-edge advances. Essential reading for biologists, physicists, and mathematicians interested in complexity, Viruses as Complex Adaptive Systems also extends the analogy of viruses to the evolution of other replicators such as computer viruses, cancer, and languages.
CCTV for Wildlife Monitoring is a handbook on the use of CCTV in nature watching, conservation and ecological research. CCTV offers a unique ability to monitor wildlife in real time, stream video to the web, capture imagery of fast-moving species or cold animals such as wet otters or fish and maintain monitoring over long periods of time in a diverse array of habitats. Wildlife watchers can take advantage of a huge range of CCTV cameras, recording devices and accessories developed for use in non-wildlife applications. CCTV allows intimate study of animal behaviour not possible with other technologies. With expert experience in engineering, photography and wildlife, Susan Young describes CCTV equipment and techniques, giving readers the confidence to tackle what initially may seem technically challenging. The book enables the reader to navigate the technical aspects of recording: basic analogue, high definition HD-TVI and IP cameras, portable CCTV, digital video recorders (DVR) and video processing by focusing on practical applications. No prior knowledge of CCTV is required - step-by-step information is provided to get anyone started recording wildlife. In-depth methods for recording foxes, badger, deer, otters, small mammals and fish are also included, and the book makes comparisons with trail cameras where appropriate. Examples of recorded footage illustrate the book along with detailed diagrams on camera set-ups and links to accompanying videos on YouTube. Case-studies show real projects, both the equipment used and the results. This book will be of interest to amateur naturalists wishing to have a window into the private world of wildlife, ecological consultants monitoring protected species and research scientists studying animal behaviour.
Epigenetics is emerging as an important factor in risk of diseases of global importance including obesity, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Unlike gene polymorphisms which have been the focus of understanding the role of inherited disease susceptibility for some time, epigenetic can be modified by environmental factors, in particular nutrition. Thus research into the role of epigenetics in disease has substantial potential for explaining the impact of the environmental factors such as diet on disease risk. Since epigenetic processes can be modified by nutrition, it may be possible to modify inappropriate epigenetic marks by nutritional interventions to reduce disease risk. This book will explore current understanding of the interaction between nutrition, epigenetics and disease risk, will place this knowledge in the context of global health and discuss the ethical implications of this research.
A music researcher's quest to discover other musical species. Even those of us who can't play a musical instrument or lack a sense of rhythm can perceive and enjoy music. Research shows that all humans possess the trait of musicality. We are a musical species-but are we the only musical species? Is our musical predisposition unique, like our linguistic ability? In The Evolving Animal Orchestra, Henkjan Honing embarks upon a quest to discover if humans share the trait of musicality with other animals. Charles Darwin believed that musicality was a capacity of all animals, human and nonhuman, with a clear biological basis. Taking this as his starting point, Honing-a music cognition researcher-visits a series of biological research centers to observe the ways that animals respond to music. He has studied scientists' accounts of Snowball, the cockatoo who could dance to a musical beat, and of Ronan, the sea lion, who was trained to move her head to a beat. Now Honing will be able to make his own observations. Honing tests a rhesus monkey for beat perception via an EEG; performs a listening experiment with zebra finches; considers why birds sing, and if they intend their songs to be musical; explains why many animals have perfect pitch; and watches marine mammals respond to sounds. He reports on the unforeseen twists and turns, doubts, and oversights that are a part of any scientific research-and which point to as many questions as answers. But, as he shows us, science is closing in on the biological and evolutionary source of our musicality.
A new framework for the neuroscientific study of emotions in humans and animals The Neuroscience of Emotion presents a new framework for the neuroscientific study of emotion across species. Written by Ralph Adolphs and David J. Anderson, two leading authorities on the study of emotion, this accessible and original book recasts the discipline and demonstrates that in order to understand emotion, we need to examine its biological roots in humans and animals. Only through a comparative approach that encompasses work at the molecular, cellular, systems, and cognitive levels will we be able to comprehend what emotions do, how they evolved, how the brain shapes their development, and even how we might engineer them into robots in the future. Showing that emotions are ubiquitous across species and implemented in specific brain circuits, Adolphs and Anderson offer a broad foundation for thinking about emotions as evolved, functionally defined biological states. The authors discuss the techniques and findings from modern neuroscientific investigations of emotion and conclude with a survey of theories and future research directions. Featuring color illustrations throughout, The Neuroscience of Emotion synthesizes the latest in neuroscientific work to provide deeper insights into how emotions function in all of us.
Forthcoming from the MIT Press.
This book was written for graduate and medical students, as well as
clinicians and postdoctoral researchers. It describes the theory of
alternative pre-mRNA splicing in
This volume presents peer-reviewed versions of papers presented at the 14th Neural Computation and Psychology Workshop (NCPW14), which took place in July 2014 at Lancaster University, UK. The workshop draws international attendees from the cutting edge of interdisciplinary research in psychology, computational modeling, artificial intelligence and psychology, and aims to drive forward our understanding of the mechanisms underlying a range of cognitive processes.
This book is designed to be an easy-to-use guide to understanding the ethical and biosecurity implications of life science research. It provides a framework that will enable scientists, lab managers, researchers, students and teachers to anticipate how research may be used to cause harm, and to identify the steps that can be taken to minimise this risk.Life science research is covered by two international weapons treaties and the tools presented in this book will help scientists and researchers to meet their responsibilities under these conventions. This book will help you: If you've never been sure of how ethics relates to your work this toolkit will help you understand the challenges you do indeed face. Real-world case studies of biosecurity risks and failures will help scientists and all those who work to support science at all levels come to a new understanding of the widespread potential for misuse of research in the life sciences. By asking the questions set out in this book, scientists will be better able to recognise and reduce these risks. This framework is designed to be useful for senior scientists as well as students, and all researchers in between.
Synesthesia is a fascinating phenomenon which has captured the imagination of scientists and artists alike. This inherited condition gives rise to a kind of 'merging of the senses', and so for those who experience it, everyday activities like reading or listening to music trigger extraordinary impressions of colours, tastes, smells, shapes and other sensations. Synesthesia research also informs us about normal sensation because all people experience cross-sensory mappings to an implicit degree. Synesthesia has a considerably broad appeal, and in recent decades the field has experienced a resurgence of interest. These advances have painted a detailed story about the development, genetics, psychology, history, aesthetics and neuroscience of synesthesia, and provide a contemporary source of study for a new generation of scholars. The Oxford Handbook of Synesthesia brings together this broad body of knowledge into one definitive state-of-the-art handbook. It includes a large number of concisely written chapters, under broader headings, which tackle questions about the origins of synesthesia, its neurological basis, its links with language and numbers, attention and perception, and with 'normal' sensory and linguistic processing. It asks questions about synesthesia's role in language evolution, and presents both contemporary and historical overviews of the field. It shows synaesthesia's costs and benefits (e.g., in creativity, memory, imagery) and describes how synaesthesia can provide inspiration for artists and designers. The book ends with a series of perspectives on synesthesia, including a first-hand account, and philosophical viewpoints which show how synaesthesia poses unique questions about sensation, consciousness and the nature of reality.
Computational Models of Cognitive Processes collects refereed versions of papers presented at the 13th Neural Computation and Psychology Workshop (NCPW13) that took place July 2012, in San Sebastian (Spain). This workshop series is a well-established and unique forum that brings together researchers from such diverse disciplines as artificial intelligence, cognitive science, computer science, neurobiology, philosophy and psychology to discuss their latest work on models of cognitive processes.
"The facts of variability, of the struggle for existence, of adaptation to conditions, were notorious enough; but none of us had suspected that the road to the heart of the species problem lay through them, until Darwin and Wallace dispelled the darkness."T H Huxley (1887)Darwin is one of the most famous scientists in history. But he was not alone. Comparatively forgotten, Wallace independently discovered evolution by natural selection in Southeast Asia. This book is based on the most thorough research ever conducted on Wallace's voyage. Closely connected, but worlds apart, Darwin and Wallace's stories hold many surprises. Did Darwin really keep his theory a secret for twenty years? Did he plagiarise Wallace? Were their theories really the same? How did Wallace hit on the solution, and on which island? This book reveals for the first time the true story of Darwin, Wallace and the discovery that would change our understanding of life on Earth forever.
The three greatest scientific mysteries, which remain poorly understood, are the origin of the universe, the origin of life and the development of consciousness. This book describes the processes preceding the Big Bang, the creation of matter, the concentration of that matter into stars and planets, the development of simple life forms and the theory of evolution that has given higher life forms, including mankind.There are many popular and excellent science books that present various aspects of science. However, this book follows a narrow scientific pathway from the Big Bang to mankind, and depicts the causal relationship between each step and the next. The science covered will be enough to satisfy most readers. Many important areas of science are dealt with, and these include cosmology, particle physics, atomic physics, galaxy and star formation, planet formation and aspects of evolution. The necessary science is described in a narrative form that general-interest readers should understand, without the use of equations or formulae.This 2nd edition includes several updates on the subjects that form the pillars of this book. They are: cosmology and astronomy, the features and formation of the solar system, the origin of life, and genetics and evolution. This book will appeal to readers with an interest in biology and those curious about the origins of the universe.
Computational neuroanatomy is an emerging field that utilizes various non-invasive brain imaging modalities, such as MRI and DTI, in quantifying the spatiotemporal dynamics of the human brain structures in both normal and clinical populations. This discipline emerged about twenty years ago and has made substantial progress in the past decade. The main goals of this book are to provide an overview of various mathematical, statistical and computational methodologies used in the field to a wide range of researchers and students, and to address important yet technically challenging topics in further detail.
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