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Ecological Economics for the Anthropocene provides an urgently needed alternative to the long-dominant neoclassical economic paradigm of the free market, which has focused myopically-even fatally-on the boundless production and consumption of goods and services without heed to environmental consequences. The emerging paradigm for ecological economics championed in this new book recenters the field of economics on the fact of the Earth's limitations, requiring a total reconfiguration of the goals of the economy, how we understand the fundamentals of human prosperity, and, ultimately, how we assess humanity's place in the community of beings. Each essay in this volume contributes to an emerging, revolutionary agenda based on the tenets of ecological economics and advances new conceptions of justice, liberty, and the meaning of an ethical life in the era of the Anthropocene. Essays highlight the need to create alternative signals to balance one-dimensional market-price measurements in judging the relationships between the economy and the Earth's life-support systems. In a lively exchange, the authors question whether such ideas as "ecosystem health" and the environmental data that support them are robust enough to inform policy. Essays explain what a taking-it-slow or no-growth approach to economics looks like and explore how to generate the cultural and political will to implement this agenda. This collection represents one of the most sophisticated and realistic strategies for neutralizing the threat of our current economic order, envisioning an Earth-embedded society committed to the commonwealth of life and the security and true prosperity of human society.
Developed by internationally renowned neurosurgeons, this unique book is designed for students of psychology and the biological sciences, and medical, dental, and nursing students.
What altered states of consciousness-the dissolution of feelings of time and self-can tell us about the mystery of consciousness. During extraordinary moments of consciousness-shock, meditative states and sudden mystical revelations, out-of-body experiences, or drug intoxication-our senses of time and self are altered; we may even feel time and self dissolving. These experiences have long been ignored by mainstream science, or considered crazy fantasies. Recent research, however, has located the neural underpinnings of these altered states of mind. In this book, neuropsychologist Marc Wittmann shows how experiences that disturb or widen our everyday understanding of the self can help solve the mystery of consciousness. Wittmann explains that the relationship between consciousness of time and consciousness of self is close; in extreme circumstances, the experiences of space and self intensify and weaken together. He considers the emergence of the self in waking life and dreams; how our sense of time is distorted by extreme situations ranging from terror to mystical enlightenment; the experience of the moment; and the loss of time and self in such disorders as depression, schizophrenia, and epilepsy. Dostoyevsky reported godly bliss during epileptic seizures; neurologists are now investigating the phenomenon of the epileptic aura. Wittmann describes new studies of psychedelics that show how the brain builds consciousness of self and time, and discusses pilot programs that use hallucinogens to treat severe depression, anxiety, and addiction. If we want to understand our consciousness, our subjectivity, Wittmann argues, we must not be afraid to break new ground. Studying altered states of consciousness leads us directly to the heart of the matter: time and self, the foundations of consciousness.
Our closest living relatives are the chimpanzee and bonobo. We share many characteristics with them, but our lineages diverged millions of years ago. Who in fact was our last common ancestor? Bringing together ecology, evolution, genetics, anatomy and geology, this book provides a new perspective on human evolution. What can fossil apes tell us about the origins of human evolution? Did the last common ancestor of apes and humans live in trees or on the ground? What did it eat, and how did it survive in a world full of large predators? Did it look anything like living apes? Andrews addresses these questions and more to reconstruct the common ancestor and its habitat. Synthesising thirty-five years of work on both ancient environments and fossil and modern ape anatomy, this book provides unique new insights into the evolutionary processes that led to the origins of the human lineage.
Tracing the leading role of emotions in the evolution of the mind, a philosopher and a psychologist pair up to reveal how thought and culture owe less to our faculty for reason than to our capacity to feel. Many accounts of the human mind concentrate on the brain's computational power. Yet, in evolutionary terms, rational cognition emerged only the day before yesterday. For nearly 200 million years before humans developed a capacity to reason, the emotional centers of the brain were hard at work. If we want to properly understand the evolution of the mind, we must explore this more primal capability that we share with other animals: the power to feel. Emotions saturate every thought and perception with the weight of feelings. The Emotional Mind reveals that many of the distinctive behaviors and social structures of our species are best discerned through the lens of emotions. Even the roots of so much that makes us uniquely human-art, mythology, religion-can be traced to feelings of caring, longing, fear, loneliness, awe, rage, lust, playfulness, and more. From prehistoric cave art to the songs of Hank Williams, Stephen T. Asma and Rami Gabriel explore how the evolution of the emotional mind stimulated our species' cultural expression in all its rich variety. Bringing together insights and data from philosophy, biology, anthropology, neuroscience, and psychology, The Emotional Mind offers a new paradigm for understanding what it is that makes us so unique.
Harmony is an integral part of our auditory environment. Resonances characterised by harmonic frequency relationships are found throughout the natural world and harmonic sounds are essential elements of speech, communication and, of course, music. Providing neurophysiological data and theories that are suitable to explain the neural code of pitch and harmony, the author demonstrates that musical pitch is a temporal phenomenon and musical harmony is a mathematical necessity based on neuronal mechanisms. Moreover, he offers new evidence for the role of an auditory time constant for speech and music perception as well as for similar neuronal processing mechanisms of auditory and brain waves. Successfully relating current neurophysiological results to the ancient ideas of Pythagoras, this unique title will appeal to specialists in the fields of neurophysiology, neuroacoustics, linguistics, behavioural biology and musicology as well as to a broader audience interested in the neural basis of music perception.
Signs, artwork, stories, and photographs from the March for Science Movement and community. In January 2017, an idea on social media launched the global March for Science movement. In a few short months, more than 600 cities, 250 partners, and countless volunteers banded together to organize a historical event that drew people of all backgrounds, interests, and political leanings. On April 22, 2017, more than one million marchers worldwide took to the streets to stand up for the importance of science in society and their own lives-and each of them has a story to tell. Through signs, artwork, stories, and photographs, Science Not Silence shares some of the voices from the March for Science movement. From Antarctica to the North Pole, from under the sea to the tops of mountains, whether alone or alongside thousands, people marched for science. A citizen scientist with advanced ALS spent countless hours creating an avatar using technology that tracks his eye movements so that he could give a speech. Couples carrying babies born using in vitro fertilization dressed them in shirts that said "Made By Science." The former U.S. Chief Data Scientist spoke about what really makes America great. Activists championed the ways science should serve marginalized communities. Artists created stunning signs, patients marched with the doctors who saved them, and scientists marched with the community that supports them. Every story is a call to action. The march was just the beginning. Now the real work begins. Science Not Silence celebrates the success of the movement, amplifies the passion and creativity of its supporters, and reminds everyone how important it is to keep marching.
The epic story and ultimate big history of how human society evolved from intimate chimp communities into the sprawling civilizations of a world-dominating species If a chimpanzee ventures into the territory of a different group, it will almost certainly be killed. But a New Yorker can fly to Los Angeles--or Borneo--with very little fear. Psychologists have done little to explain this: for years, they have held that our biology puts a hard upper limit--about 150 people--on the size of our social groups. But human societies are in fact vastly larger. How do we manage--by and large--to get along with each other? In this paradigm-shattering book, biologist Mark W. Moffett draws on findings in psychology, sociology and anthropology to explain the social adaptations that bind societies. He explores how the tension between identity and anonymity defines how societies develop, function, and fail. Surpassing Guns, Germs, and Steel and Sapiens, The Human Swarm reveals how mankind created sprawling civilizations of unrivaled complexity--and what it will take to sustain them.
This book provides comprehensive coverage of small fiber neuropathy (SFN), from diagnosis to therapy. It focuses on nerve degeneration and neuropathic pain, and their underlying pathology, physiology, psychophysics, genetics and imaging. In particular, this book describes and discusses the major advances in diagnostic techniques for assessing SFN. These include skin biopsy, evoked potentials, quantitative sensory testing and functional studies, as biomarkers of SFN. SFN is a common peripheral nerve disorder, but was often overlooked due to a lack of objective and specific diagnostic tests for the assessment of small nerve fibers. These fibers mediate thermal sensation, pain detection (nociception), and autonomic regulation. Major symptoms of SFN include neuropathic pain, impaired sensation and autonomic dysfunction. Neuropathic pain poses a diagnostic challenge to clinicians, an essential step for selecting appropriate treatment to relieve suffering. SFN frequently develops in systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, following chemotherapy, infections etc., or presents as a major feature of various genetic neuropathies (e.g. channelopathy and familial amyloidosis). In addition to describing these conditions which lead to SFN, this book also describes related syndromes of neurodegeneration and pain, including fibromyalgia, visceral pain and hypersensitivity. This definitive book covers both clinical aspects and research progress, which provides in-depth and up-to-date information on SFN. It would be immensely useful for clinicians, neurologists, neuroscientists, diabetologists, and pain specialists. Dr. Sung-Tsang Hsieh is a professor at Department of Neurology and Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taiwan. He is also the associate dean of College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taiwan. Dr. Praveen Anand is a professor at Department of Clinical Neurology and head of Centre for Clinical Translation, Hammersmith Hospital, UK. Dr. Christopher Gibbons is an associate professor of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, USA. Dr. Claudia Sommer is a professor of Neurology at the Department of Neurology, Wurzburg University Hospital, Germany.
For centuries, botanists have been drawn to the rarest species, sometimes with dire consequences for the species' survival. In this book, Great Britain's rarest flowering plants are discussed in turn, including the stories behind their discovery, the reasons for their rarity, and the work being done to save them from dying out. It is hoped that it will help to throw light on some of the species that normally gain little attention, and foster an appreciation of our most threatened plants. This guide describes 66 native species of plants that have the most narrowly restricted ranges in Great Britain. These range from continental, warmth-loving species in the south of England to those found only on the highest Scottish mountains. Each species is shown together with its habitat to allow the reader to better understand the ecological context. Other scarce plants in the same area are indicated.
This concise introduction offers students and researchers an overview of the discipline that connects genetics and evolution. Addressing the theories behind population genetics and relevant empirical evidence, John Gillespie discusses genetic drift, natural selection, nonrandom mating, quantitative genetics, and the evolutionary advantage of sex. First published to wide acclaim in 1998, this brilliant primer has been updated to include new sections on molecular evolution, genetic drift, genetic load, the stationary distribution, and two-locus dynamics. This book is indispensable for students working in a laboratory setting or studying free-ranging populations.
In which a scientist searches for an empirical explanation for phenomenal experience, spurred by his instinctual belief that life is meaningful. What links conscious experience of pain, joy, color, and smell to bioelectrical activity in the brain? How can anything physical give rise to nonphysical, subjective, conscious states? Christof Koch has devoted much of his career to bridging the seemingly unbridgeable gap between the physics of the brain and phenomenal experience. This engaging book-part scientific overview, part memoir, part futurist speculation-describes Koch's search for an empirical explanation for consciousness. Koch recounts not only the birth of the modern science of consciousness but also the subterranean motivation for his quest-his instinctual (if "romantic") belief that life is meaningful. Koch describes his own groundbreaking work with Francis Crick in the 1990s and 2000s and the gradual emergence of consciousness (once considered a "fringy" subject) as a legitimate topic for scientific investigation. Present at this paradigm shift were Koch and a handful of colleagues, including Ned Block, David Chalmers, Stanislas Dehaene, Giulio Tononi, Wolf Singer, and others. Aiding and abetting it were new techniques to listen in on the activity of individual nerve cells, clinical studies, and brain-imaging technologies that allowed safe and noninvasive study of the human brain in action. Koch gives us stories from the front lines of modern research into the neurobiology of consciousness as well as his own reflections on a variety of topics, including the distinction between attention and awareness, the unconscious, how neurons respond to Homer Simpson, the physics and biology of free will, dogs, Der Ring des Nibelungen, sentient machines, the loss of his belief in a personal God, and sadness. All of them are signposts in the pursuit of his life's work-to uncover the roots of consciousness.
Since modeling multiscale phenomena in systems biology and neuroscience is a highly interdisciplinary task, the editor of the book invited experts in bio-engineering, chemistry, cardiology, neuroscience, computer science, and applied mathematics, to provide their perspectives. Each chapter is a window into the current state of the art in the areas of research discussed and the book is intended for advanced researchers interested in recent developments in these fields. While multiscale analysis is the major integrating theme of the book, its subtitle does not call for bridging the scales from genes to behavior, but rather stresses the unifying perspective offered by the concepts referred to in the title. It is believed that the interdisciplinary approach adopted here will be beneficial for all the above mentioned fields.
Is it possible for the economy to grow without the environment being destroyed? Will our lifestyles impoverish the planet for our children and grandchildren? Is the world sick? Can it be healed? Less than a lifetime ago, these questions would have made no sense. This was not because our ancestors had no impact on nature-nor because they were unaware of the serious damage they had done. What people lacked was an idea: a way of imagining the web of interconnection and consequence of which the natural world is made. Without this notion, we didn't have a way to describe the scale and scope of human impact upon nature. This idea was "the environment." In this fascinating book, Paul Warde, Libby Robin, and Sverker Soerlin trace the emergence of the concept of the environment following World War II, a period characterized by both hope for a new global order and fear of humans' capacity for almost limitless destruction. It was at this moment that a new idea and a new narrative about the planet-wide impact of people's behavior emerged, closely allied to anxieties for the future. Now we had a vocabulary for talking about how we were changing nature: resource exhaustion and energy, biodiversity, pollution, and-eventually-climate change. With the rise of "the environment," the authors argue, came new expertise, making certain kinds of knowledge crucial to understanding the future of our planet. The untold history of how people came to conceive, to manage, and to dispute environmental crisis, The Environment is essential reading for anyone who wants to help protect the environment from the numerous threats it faces today.
Turn to Fundamental Neuroscience for a thorough, clinically relevant understanding of this complicated subject! Integrated coverage of neuroanatomy, physiology, and pharmacology, with a particular emphasis on systems neurobiology, effectively prepares you for your courses, exams, and beyond. Easily comprehend and retain complex material thanks to the expert instruction of Professor Duane Haines, recipient of the Henry Gray/Elsevier Distinguished Teacher Award from the American Association of Anatomists and the Distinguished Teacher Award from the Association of American Colleges. Access the complete contents online at www.studentconsult.com, plus 150 USMLE-style review questions, sectional images correlated with the anatomical diagrams within the text, and more. Grasp important anatomical concepts and their clinical applications thanks to correlated state-of-the-art imaging examples, anatomical diagrams, and histology photos. Retain key information and efficiently study for your exams with clinical highlights integrated and emphasized within the text.
Tag-based approaches were originally designed to increase the throughput of capillary sequencing, where concatemers of short sequences were first used in expression profiling. New Next Generation Sequencing methods largely extended the use of tag-based approaches as the tag lengths perfectly match with the short read length of highly parallel sequencing reactions. Tag-based approaches will maintain their important role in life and biomedical science, because longer read lengths are often not required to obtain meaningful data for many applications. Whereas genome re-sequencing and de novo sequencing will benefit from ever more powerful sequencing methods, analytical applications can be performed by tag-based approaches, where the focus shifts from 'sequencing power' to better means of data analysis and visualization for common users. Today Next Generation Sequence data require powerful bioinformatics expertise that has to be converted into easy-to-use data analysis tools. The book's intention is to give an overview on recently developed tag-based approaches along with means of their data analysis together with introductions to Next-Generation Sequencing Methods, protocols and user guides to be an entry for scientists to tag-based approaches for Next Generation Sequencing.
Rated as one of the top 15 breakthroughs in medicine over the last 150 years, evidence-based medicine (EBM) has become highly influential in medicine. Put simply, EBM promotes a seemingly irrefutable, principle: that decision-making in medical practice should be based, as much as possible, on the most up-to-date research findings. EBM has been particularly popular within psychiatry, a field that is haunted by a legacy of controversial interventions. For advocates, anchoring psychiatric practice in research data makes psychiatry more scientific valid and ethically legitimate. Few, however, have questioned whether EBM, a concept pioneered by those working in other areas of medicine, can be applied to psychiatric disorders. In this groundbreaking book, the Canadian psychiatrist and ethicist Mona Gupta analyzes the basic assumptions of EBM, and critically examines their applicability to psychiatry. By highlighting the basic ethical tensions between psychiatry and EBM, the author addresses the fundamental and controversial question - should psychiatrists practice evidence-based medicine at all?
The species problem (the two questions, do species exist and, if yes, according to what criteria do two individuals belong to the same species) is one of the oldest questions in biology. Darwin's Origin of the Species' was - and still is - one of the most comprehensive answers to this problem. However, even Darwin's work cannot satisfactorily explain many of the speciation questions. Over the years, many concurrent taxonomic systems have evolved each of them particularly well suited for the speciation of certain groups of organisms but all of them fail to provide a universal answer to all questions relating to speciation. "Do Species Exist?" is a readily comprehensible guide for a wide audience of biologists, field taxonomists and philosophers, giving an excellent overview of the species problem without delving into the many feuds between the different schools of taxonomy. Written by a geneticist with extensive experience in field taxonomy, this practical book provides the sound scientific background to the problems arising with classifying organisms according to species. It covers the main current theories of specification and gives a number of examples that cannot be explained by any single theory alone.
The real story of how our brains and nervous systems change throughout our lifetimes-with or without "brain training." Fifty years ago, neuroscientists thought that a mature brain was fixed like a fly in amber, unable to change. Today, we know that our brains and nervous systems change throughout our lifetimes. This concept of neuroplasticity has captured the imagination of a public eager for self-improvement-and has inspired countless Internet entrepreneurs who peddle dubious "brain training" games and apps. In this book, Moheb Costandi offers a concise and engaging overview of neuroplasticity for the general reader, describing how our brains change continuously in response to our actions and experiences. Costandi discusses key experimental findings, and describes how our thinking about the brain has evolved over time. He explains how the brain changes during development, and the "synaptic pruning" that takes place before brain maturity. He shows that adult brains can grow new cells (citing, among many other studies, research showing that sexually mature male canaries learn a new song every year). He describes the kind of brain training that can bring about improvement in brain function. It's not gadgets and games that promise to "rewire your brain" but such sustained cognitive tasks as learning a musical instrument or a new language. (Costandi also notes that London cabbies increase their gray matter after rigorous training in their city's complicated streets.) He tells how brains compensate after stroke or injury; describes addiction and pain as maladaptive forms of neuroplasticity; and considers brain changes that accompany childhood, adolescence, parenthood, and aging. Each of our brains is custom-built. Neuroplasticity is at the heart of what makes us human.
A neuroscientist reveals unique aspects of decision making and the best strategies for protecting and enhancing the brain's ability to navigate life's uncertainties Contingency calculations-the ability to predict the outcomes of decisions and actions-are critical for survival and success. Our amazing brains continually process past and current experiences to enable us to make the most adaptive choices. But when the brain's information systems are compromised-by such varying conditions as drug addiction, poverty, mental illness, or even privilege-we can lose the ability to arrive at informed decisions. In this engaging book, behavioral neuroscientist Kelly Lambert explores a variety of the modern factors that can lead to warped neural processing, or distorted realities she terms "brain bubbles." Individuals who define success in terms of creature comforts and immediate gratification, for instance, may interact less with the physical and social world and thereby dull their ability to imagine varied contingency scenarios. The author underscores how continuous, meaningful, and well-grounded experiences are required if we are to make the best decisions throughout our lives.
Throughout history, some books have changed the world. They have transformed the way we see ourselves - and each other. They have inspired debate, dissent, war and revolution. They have enlightened, outraged, provoked and comforted. They have enriched lives - and destroyed them. Now Penguin brings you the works of the great thinkers, pioneers, radicals and visionaries whose ideas shook civilization, and helped make us who we are.
What are the models used in phylogenetic analysis and what exactly is involved in Bayesian evolutionary analysis using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods? How can you choose and apply these models, which parameterisations and priors make sense, and how can you diagnose Bayesian MCMC when things go wrong? These are just a few of the questions answered in this comprehensive overview of Bayesian approaches to phylogenetics. This practical guide: * Addresses the theoretical aspects of the field * Advises on how to prepare and perform phylogenetic analysis * Helps with interpreting analyses and visualisation of phylogenies * Describes the software architecture * Helps developing BEAST 2.2 extensions to allow these models to be extended further. With an accompanying website providing example files and tutorials (http://beast2.org/), this one-stop reference to applying the latest phylogenetic models in BEAST 2 will provide essential guidance for all users - from those using phylogenetic tools, to computational biologists and Bayesian statisticians.
A specialist on social insects writes about the origins and implications of our own vast social organisation, and the ways in which our ethnic and national distinctions mirror those of other animals. In this paradigm-shattering book, biologist Mark W. Moffett draws on findings in psychology, sociology and anthropology to explain the social adaptations that bind societies. He explores how the tension between identity and anonymity defines how societies develop, function, and fail. In the vein of Guns, Germs, and Steel and Sapiens, The Human Swarm reveals how mankind created sprawling civilizations of unrivalled complexity - and what it will take to sustain them.
This is a concise, comprehensive, and accessible introduction to the philosophy of biology written by a leading authority on the subject. Geared to philosophers, biologists, and students of both, the book provides sophisticated and innovative coverage of the central topics and many of the latest developments in the field. Emphasizing connections between biological theories and other areas of philosophy, and carefully explaining both philosophical and biological terms, Peter Godfrey-Smith discusses the relation between philosophy and science; examines the role of laws, mechanistic explanation, and idealized models in biological theories; describes evolution by natural selection; and assesses attempts to extend Darwin's mechanism to explain changes in ideas, culture, and other phenomena. Further topics include functions and teleology, individuality and organisms, species, the tree of life, and human nature. The book closes with detailed, cutting-edge treatments of the evolution of cooperation, of information in biology, and of the role of communication in living systems at all scales. Authoritative and up-to-date, this is an essential guide for anyone interested in the important philosophical issues raised by the biological sciences.
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