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Reflecting the rapid progress in the field, the book presents the current understanding of molecular mechanisms of post-transcriptional gene regulation thereby focusing on RNA processing mechanisms in eucaryotic cells. With chapters on mechanisms as RNA splicing, RNA interference, MicroRNAs, RNA editing and others, the book also discusses the critical role of RNA processing for the pathogenesis of a wide range of human diseases. The interdisciplinary importance of the topic makes the title a useful resource for a wide reader group in science, clinics as well as pharmaceutical industry.
This book introduces experimental design and data analysis / interpretation as well as field monitoring skills for both plants and animals. Clearly structured throughout and written in a student-friendly manner, the main emphasis of the book concentrates on the techniques required to design a field based ecological survey and shows how to execute an appropriate sampling regime. The book evaluates appropriate methods, including the problems associated with various techniques and their inherent flaws (e.g. low sample sizes, large amount of field or laboratory work, high cost etc). This provides a resource base outlining details from the planning stage, into the field, guiding through sampling and finally through organism identification in the laboratory and computer based data analysis and interpretation.
The text is divided into six distinct chapters. The first chapter covers planning, including health and safety together with information on a variety of statistical techniques for examining and analysing data. Following a chapter dealing with site characterisation and general aspects of species identification, subsequent chapters describe the techniques used to survey and census particular groups of organisms. The final chapter covers interpreting and presenting data and writing up the research. The emphasis here is on appropriate wording of interpretation and structure and content of the report.
This novel, interdisciplinary text achieves an integration of empirical data and theory with the aid of mathematical models and statistical methods. The emphasis throughout is on spatial ecology and evolution, especially on the interplay between environmental heterogeneity and biological processes. The book provides a coherent theme by interlinking the modelling approaches used for different subfields of spatial ecology: movement ecology, population ecology, community ecology, and genetics and evolutionary ecology (each being represented by a separate chapter). Each chapter starts by describing the concept of each modelling approach in its biological context, goes on to present the relevant mathematical models and statistical methods, and ends with a discussion of the benefits and limitations of each approach. The concepts and techniques discussed throughout the book are illustrated throughout with the help of empirical examples. This is an advanced text suitable for any biologist interested in the integration of empirical data and theory in spatial ecology/evolution through the use of quantitative/statistical methods and mathematical models. The book will also be of relevance and use as a textbook for graduate-level courses in spatial ecology, ecological modelling, theoretical ecology, and statistical ecology.
This novel text provides a concise synthesis of how the interactions between mitochondrial and nuclear genes have played a major role in shaping the ecology and evolution of eukaryotes. The foundation for this new focus on mitonuclear interactions originated from research in biochemistry and cell biology laboratories, although the broader ecological and evolutionary implications have yet to be fully explored. The imperative for mitonuclear coadaptation is proposed to be a major selective force in the evolution of sexual reproduction and two mating types in eukaryotes, in the formation of species, in the evolution of ornaments and sexual selection, in the process of adaptation, and in the evolution of senescence. The book highlights the importance of mitonuclear coadaptation to the evolution of complex life and champions mitonuclear ecology as an important subdiscipline in ecology and evolution.
The monograph offers a comprehensive discussion of the role of evaporites in hydrocarbon generation and trapping, and new information on low temperature and high temperature ores. It also provides a wealth of information on exploitable salts, in a comprehensive volume has been assembled and organized to provide quick access to relevant information on all matters related to evaporites and associated brines. In addition, there are summaries of evaporite karst hazards, exploitative methods and problems that can arise in dealing with evaporites in conventional and solution mining. This second edition has been revised and extended, with three new chapters focusing on ore minerals in different temperature settings and a chapter on meta-evaporites. Written by a field specialist in research and exploration, the book presents a comprehensive overview of the realms of low- and high-temperature evaporite evolution. It is aimed at earth science professionals, sedimentologists, oil and gas explorers, mining geologists as well as environmental geologists.
What are the genomic signatures of adaptations in DNA? How often does natural selection dictate changes to DNA? How does the ebb and flow in the abundance of individuals over time get marked onto chromosomes to record genetic history? Molecular population genetics seeks to answer such questions by explaining genetic variation and molecular evolution from micro-evolutionary principles. It provides a way to learn about how evolution works and how it shapes species by incorporating molecular details of DNA as the heritable material. It enables us to understand the logic of how mutations originate, change in abundance in populations, and become fixed as DNA sequence divergence between species. With the revolutionary advances in genomic data acquisition, understanding molecular population genetics is now a fundamental requirement for today's life scientists. These concepts apply in analysis of personal genomics, genome-wide association studies, landscape and conservation genetics, forensics, molecular anthropology, and selection scans. This book introduces, in an accessible way, the bare essentials of the theory and practice of molecular population genetics.
This volume provides an overview of (1) the physical and chemical foundations of dating methods and (2) the applications of dating methods in the geological sciences, biology, and archaeology, in almost 200 articles from over 200 international authors. It will serve as the most comprehensive treatise on widely accepted dating methods in the earth sciences and related fields. No other volume has a similar scope, in terms of methods and applications and particularly time range. Dating methods are used to determine the timing and rate of various processes, such as sedimentation (terrestrial and marine), tectonics, volcanism, geomorphological change, cooling rates, crystallization, fluid flow, glaciation, climate change and evolution. The volume includes applications in terrestrial and extraterrestrial settings, the burgeoning field of molecular-clock dating and topics in the intersection of earth sciences with forensics. The content covers a broad range of techniques and applications. All major accepted dating techniques are included, as well as all major datable materials.
For quite some time textbooks have steered the teaching of genetics down a fairly narrow path - transmissions genetics first, followed by molecular genetics. In Genetics: The Continuity of Life, Fairbanks and Andersen modernize the study of genetics for students. With a clear, robust style, the authors approach genetics at its most fundamental molecular level, building on students' previous exposure from other courses. Once the molecular concepts are in place, transmission genetics is more easily understood. The result is a textbook that reflects the way geneticists think about solving genetics problems in a completely integrative manner. Students relate to the organization and are able to grasp the larger concepts and their applications.
How long should a leaf live? When should blueberries ripen? And what should a clever moose eat? Questions like these may seem simple or downright strange, yet they form the backbone of natural history, a discipline that fostered some of our most important scientific theories, from natural selection to glaciation. Through careful, patient observations of the organisms that live in an area, their distributions, and how they interact with other species, we gain a more complete picture of the world around us, and our place in it. In What Should a Clever Moose Eat?, John Pastor explores the natural history of the North Woods, an immense and complex forest that stretches from the western shore of Lake Superior to the far coast of Newfoundland. The North Woods is one of the most ecologically and geologically interesting places on the planet, with a host of natural history questions arising from each spruce or sugar maple. From the geological history of the region to the shapes of leaves and the relationship between aspens, caterpillars, and predators, Pastor delves into a captivating range of topics as diverse as the North Woods themselves. Through his meticulous observations of the natural world, scientists and non-scientists alike learn to ask natural history questions and form their own theories, gaining a greater understanding of and love for the North Woods, and other natural places precious to them. In the tradition of Charles Darwin and Henry David Thoreau, John Pastor is a joyful observer of nature who makes sharp connections and moves deftly from observation to theory. Take a walk in John Pastor's North Woods, you'll come away with a new appreciation for details, for the game trails, beaver ponds, and patterns of growth around you, and won't look at the natural world in the same way again.
Our Human Story is a guide to our fossil relatives, from what may be the earliest hominins such as Sahelanthropus, dating back six to seven million years, through to our own species, Homo sapiens. Over the past 25 years there has been an explosion of species' names in the story of human evolution, due both to new discoveries and to a growing understanding of the diversity that existed in the past. Drawing on this new information, as well as their own considerable expertise and practical experience, Louise Humphrey and Chris Stringer explain in clear and accessible terms what each of the key species represents and how it contributes to our knowledge of human evolution.
If we've done our job well and, let's be honest, if we're lucky you'll read to the end of this description. Most likely, however, you won't. Somewhere in the middle of the next paragraph, your mind will wander off. Minds wander. That's just how it is. That may be bad news for me, but is it bad news for people in general? Does the fact that as much as fifty percent of our waking hours find us failing to focus on the task at hand represent a problem? Michael Corballis doesn't think so, and with The Wandering Mind, he shows us why, rehabilitating woolgathering and revealing its incredibly useful effects. Drawing on the latest research from cognitive science and evolutionary biology, Corballis shows us how mind-wandering not only frees us from moment-to-moment drudgery, but also from the limitations of our immediate selves. Mind-wandering strengthens our imagination, fueling the flights of invention, storytelling, and empathy that underlie our shared humanity; furthermore, he explains, our tendency to wander back and forth through the timeline of our lives is fundamental to our very sense of ourselves as coherent, continuing personalities. Full of unusual examples and surprising discoveries, The Wandering Mind mounts a vigorous defense of inattention even as it never fails to hold the reader's.
Race, while drawn from the visual cues of human diversity, is an idea with a measurable past, an identifiable present, and an uncertain future. The concept of race has been at the center of both triumphs and tragedies in American history and has had a profound effect on the human experience. Race Unmasked revisits the origins of commonly held beliefs about the scientific nature of racial differences, examines the roots of the modern idea of race, and explains why race continues to generate controversy as a tool of classification even in our genomic age. Surveying the work of some of the twentieth century's most notable scientists, Race Unmasked reveals how genetics and related biological disciplines formed and preserved ideas of race and, at times, racism. A gripping history of science and scientists, Race Unmasked elucidates the limitations of a racial worldview and throws the contours of our current and evolving understanding of human diversity into sharp relief.
Our relentless drive to create makes us unique among living creatures. What is special about the human brain that enables us to innovate? Why don't cows choreograph dances? Why don't squirrels build elevators to their treetops? Why don't alligators invent speedboats? Weaving together the arts and sciences, neuroscientist David Eagleman and composer Anthony Brandt explore the need for novelty, the simulation of possible futures, and the social components that drive the inventiveness of our species. Taking us on a tour of human creativity from Picasso to concept cars to umbrellas to lunar travel, Brandt and Eagleman explore the cognitive software that generates new ideas, and illuminate the key facets of a creative mentality. Through understanding our ability to innovate - our most profound, mysterious, and deeply human capacity - we can meet the challenge of remaking our constantly shifting world.
Tropical East Asia is home to over one billion people and faces massive human impacts from its rising population and rapid economic growth. It has already lost more than half of its forest cover to agriculture and urbanization, and has the highest rates of deforestation and logging in the tropics. Habitat loss, coupled with hunting and the relentless trade in wildlife products, threatens all its large and many of its smaller vertebrates. Despite these problems, the region still supports an estimated 15-25% of global terrestrial biodiversity and a growing environmental awareness means that it is no longer assumed that economic development justifies environmental damage, and no longer accepted that this trade-off is inevitable. Effective conservation action now depends on integrating a clear understanding of the ecological patterns and processes in the region with the varied needs of its human population. This third edition continues to provide an overview of the terrestrial ecology of Tropical East Asia: from southern China to Indonesia, and from Bhutan and Bangladesh to the Ryukyu Islands of Japan. It retains the balance between compactness and comprehensiveness of the previous editions, and the even-handed geographical treatment of the whole region, but it updates both the contents and the perspective. Approximately one third of the text is new or greatly modified, reflecting the explosion of new research in the region in the last few years and the increasing use of new tools, particularly from genomics and remote sensing. The change in perspective largely reflects the growing realization that we are in a new epoch, the Anthropocene, in which human activities have at least as large an influence as natural processes, and that stopping or reversing ecological change is no longer an option. This does not mean that biodiversity conservation is no longer possible or worthwhile, but that the biodiverse future we strive for will inevitably be very different from the past. The Ecology of Tropical East Asia is an advanced textbook suitable for senior undergraduate and graduate level students taking courses on the terrestrial ecology of the East Asian tropics, as well as an authoritative regional reference for professional ecologists, conservationists, and interested amateurs worldwide.
This book offers an exciting new perspective on the origins of language. Language is conceptualized as a collective invention, on the model of writing or the wheel, and the book places social and cultural dynamics at the centre of its evolution: language emerged and further developed in human communities already suffused with meaning and communication, mimesis, ritual, song and dance, alloparenting, new divisions of labour and revolutionary changes in social relations. The book thus challenges assumptions about the causal relations between genes, capacities, social communication and innovation: the biological capacities are taken to evolve incrementally on the basis of cognitive plasticity, in a process that recruits previous adaptations and fine-tunes them to serve novel communicative ends. Topics include the ability brought about by language to tell lies, that must have confronted our ancestors with new problems of public trust; the dynamics of social-cognitive co-evolution; the role of gesture and mimesis in linguistic communication; studies of how monkeys and apes express their feelings or thoughts; play, laughter, dance, song, ritual and other social displays among extant hunter-gatherers; the social nature of language acquisition and innovation; normativity and the emergence of linguistic norms; the interaction of language and emotions; and novel perspectives on the time-frame for language evolution. The contributors are leading international scholars from linguistics, anthropology, palaeontology, primatology, psychology, evolutionary biology, artificial intelligence, archaeology, and cognitive science.
From the Sunday Times bestselling author of The Man Who Couldn't Stop. 'Witty, sharp and enlightening . . . This book will make you smarter' Adam Rutherford. What if you have more intelligence than you realize? What if there is a genius inside you, just waiting to be released? And what if the route to better brain power is not hard work or thousands of hours of practice but to simply swallow a pill? In The Genius Within, bestselling author David Adam explores the ground-breaking neuroscience of cognitive enhancement that is changing the way the brain and the mind works - to make it better, sharper, more focused and, yes, more intelligent. Sharing his own experiments with revolutionary smart drugs and electrical brain stimulation, he delves into the sinister history of intelligence tests, meets savants and brain hackers and reveals how he boosted his own IQ to cheat his way into Mensa. Going to the heart of how we consider, measure and judge mental ability, The Genius Within asks difficult questions about the science that could rank and define us, and inevitably shape our future.
Develop an understanding of neuroscience as it relates to your future career as a clinician, researcher, or instructor with this revised best-seller. The 5th Edition provides an easy-to-understand, meaningful overview of the basics of essential neuroscience concepts enhanced by case studies that connect neuroscience to the disorders you'll see in practice. Features eBook available. Fast, smart, and convenient, today's eBooks can transform learning. These interactive, fully searchable tools offer 24/7 access on multiple devices, the ability to highlight and share notes, and much more. NEW! The complexity of neuroscience has been simplified in every chapter, making it easier for you to master key neurological concepts. NEW! Expanded Clinical Correlates sections include more treatment examples and mental function cases, as well as applied Clinical Relevance boxes. NEW! Additional chapter-ending, problem-solving case studies deepen your understanding and help you hone your critical thinking skills. A consistent, step-by-step structure beginning in Chapter 4 supports learning through learning objectives, chapter introductions, anatomy and terminology by structure, clinical concerns with neurologic concepts including pathology, and a clinical application . Charts, graphs, diagrams, illustrations, brain mapping pictures, and MR and CT images (both normal and with pathologies) help you prepare for you-r future role as an SLP therapist or audiologist. Chapter-ending learning aids include summaries and review questions (with answers at the end of the book). An end-of-book glossary helps you master the vocabulary of neuroscience. Interactive, online study tools, including animations, video clips, labeling exercises, a digital Student Workbook, and more, help you master the content you need to succeed in your course and future career.
In contrast with the fundamental ecological expectation that similarity induces competition and loss of species, temporal dynamics allows similar species to co-occur. In fact, the coexistence of similar species contributes significantly to species diversity and could affect ecosystem response to climate change. However, because temporal processes take place over time, they have often been a challenge to document or even to identify. Temporal Dynamics and Ecological Process brings together studies that have met this challenge and present two specific aspects of temporal processes: reproductive scheduling and the stable coexistence of similar species. By using plants to extract general principles, these studies uncover deep ties between temporal niche dynamics and the above central ecological issues, thereby providing a better understanding of what drives temporal processes in nature. Written by leading scientists in the field, this title will be a valuable source of reference to research ecologists and those interested in temporal ecology.
We are at a pivotal moment in understanding our remote ancestry and its implications for how we live today. The barriers to what we can know about our distant relatives have been falling as a result of scientific advance, such as decoding the genomes of humans and Neanderthals, and bringing together different perspectives to answer common questions. These collaborations have brought new knowledge and suggested fresh concepts to examine. The results have shaken the old certainties. The results are profound; not just for the study of the past but for appreciating why we conduct our social lives in ways, and at scales, that are familiar to all of us. But such basic familiarity raises a dilemma. When surrounded by the myriad technical and cultural innovations that support our global, urbanized lifestyles we can lose sight of the small social worlds we actually inhabit and that can be traced deep into our ancestry. So why do we need art, religion, music, kinship, myths, and all the other facets of our over-active imaginations if the reality of our effective social worlds is set by a limit of some one hundred and fifty partners (Dunbar s number) made of family, friends, and useful acquaintances? How could such a social community lead to a city the size of London or a country as large as China? Do we really carry our hominin past into our human present? It is these small worlds, and the link they allow to the study of the past that forms the central point in this book."
The evolution of psychotherapy in the 21st Century demands integration. Instead of choosing from the blizzard of modalities and schools of the past, therapists must move towards finding common denominators amongst them. Similarly, today's psychotherapy necessitates the integration of the mind and body, not the past practice of compartmentalisation of mental health and physical health. This book contributes to the sea change in how we conceptualise mental health problems and their solutions. Mind-Brain-Gene describes the feedback loops between the multiple systems contributing to the emergence of the mind and the experience of the self. It explains how our mental operating networks "self"-organise, drawing from and modifying our memory systems to establish and maintain mental health. Synthesising research in psychoneuroimmunology and epigenetics with interpersonal neurobiology and research on integrated psychotherapeutic approaches, John Arden explores how insecure attachment, deprivation, child abuse and trauma contribute to anxiety disorders and depression to produce epigenetic affects. To help people suffering from anxiety and depression, it is necessary to make sense of the multidirectional feedback loops between the stress systems and the dysregulation of the immune system that lead to those conditions. Successful psychotherapy modifies the feedback loops among the self-maintenance systems. Through the orchestration of the mental operating networks, psychotherapy promotes the re-regulation of immune system functions, stress systems, nutrition, microbiome (gut bacteria), sleep, physical inactivity, affect regulation and cognition. This book makes a strong case for healthcare and psychotherapy to be combined-together they can revolutionise the way we conceive of, and attain, optimal health in the 21st Century.
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