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Swearing, it turns out, is an incredibly useful part of our linguistic repertoire. Not only has some form of swearing existed since the earliest humans began to communicate, but it has been shown to reduce physical pain, help stroke victims recover their language, and encourage people to work together as a team. Swearing Is Good For You is a spirited and hilarious defence of our most cherished dirty words, backed by historical case studies and cutting-edge research. From chimpanzees creating their own curse words, to a man who lost half his brain in a mining accident experiencing a new-found compulsion to swear - Dr Emma Byrne outlines the fascinating science behind swearing; how it affects us both physically and emotionally, and how it is more natural and beneficial than we are led to believe.
This book will take an evidence-based approach to current knowledge about biomolecules and their place in our lives, inviting readers to explore how we know what we know, and how current gaps in knowledge may influence the way we approach the information. Biomolecular science is increasingly important in our everyday life, influencing the choices we make about our diet, our health, and our wellness. Often, however, information about biomolecular science is presented as a list of immutable facts, discouraging critical thought. The book will introduce the basic tools of structural biology, supply real-life examples, and encourage critical thought about aspects of biology that are still not fully understood.
Why do giraffes have such long necks? Why are zebras striped? Why are buffalo herds broadly democratic while elephants prefer dictatorships? What explains the architectural brilliance of the termite mound or the complications of the hyena's sex life? And why have honey-badgers evolved to be one of nature's most efficient agents of mass destruction?
Deploying the latest scientific research and his own extensive observations on the African savannah, Léo Grasset offers some answers to these and many other intriguing questions. Having shown that natural phenomena are rarely simple and that often they get more complex the more you look at them, he brings to bear a mix of evolutionary biology and lateral thinking to explain the mysteries of animal behaviour in terms that are simple but never simplifying. He ends by considering how our origins in the savannah and evolution as the hybrid of several species can shapes our habits.
Léo Grasset is one of France's brightest young natural scientists. Prepare to be fascinated, delighted, surprised, shocked and, above all, entertained by his brilliantly original Darwinian Just So stories.
Recent technological advances have enabled comprehensive determination of the molecular composition of living cells. The chemical interactions between many of these molecules are known, giving rise to genome-scale reconstructed biochemical reaction networks underlying cellular functions. Mathematical descriptions of the totality of these chemical interactions lead to genome-scale models that allow the computation of physiological functions. Reflecting these recent developments, this textbook explains how such quantitative and computable genotype-phenotype relationships are built using a genome-wide basis of information about the gene portfolio of a target organism. It describes how biological knowledge is assembled to reconstruct biochemical reaction networks, the formulation of computational models of biological functions, and how these models can be used to address key biological questions and enable predictive biology. Developed through extensive classroom use, the book is designed to provide students with a solid conceptual framework and an invaluable set of modeling tools and computational approaches.
If you're working on or studying the effects of drug metabolisms, then this reference is for you "Order today and benefit from the special introductory price - full details below."
"Handbook of Metabolic Pathways of Xenobiotics" is an essential new reference which presents the metabolic fate of xenobiotics in animals and plants, and shows the metabolic pathways in the environment.
Presenting a comprehensive guide to understanding the metabolisms of xenobiotics, the "Handbook of Metabolic Pathways of Xenobiotics" spans five volumes: Volumes 1-2 are Review Articles and Volumes 3-5 are Compound Articles. Review Articles present detailed reviews on the techniques and methods used to establish in vitro and in vivo metabolic pathways. Compound Articles are carefully selected lists of key chemicals representing agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, animal health products and industrial chemicals.
An essential addition to every library, this introduction, guide and catalogue presents:
Current topics in the metabolism of xenobioticsTopics of both scientific and regulatory importance are covered, including in vitro high throughput metabolism screens, computer-aided metabolism predictions, and advances in bioanalytical techniques.
Techniques and methods used in metabolic pathways29 chapters provide an introduction to the understanding of drug metabolism and detail how to establish in vitro and in vivo metabolic pathways.
Biotransformation pathwaysPresented as a catalogue of short articles covering major pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, animal health products and industrial chemicals. Each article summarizes the chemical properties and uses, and presents a detailed review of the chemical and metabolic pathways in soil, plants and animals.
Over 450 examples of xenobiotics and their fate in animals and plantsEach compound includes systematic information about the metabolic pathway of drugs for human and veterinary medicine, agrochemicals and major industrial chemicals.
Chemical and biological fate dataThe Handbook summarises data from scientific literature, patent literature, industrial resources and regulatory agencies, such as the EPA, FDA, EU, WHO and FAO, in a single reference for the first time.
An essential reference for everyone working and studying pharmacokinetics and drug metabolismCoverage of the chemical and biological reactivity of molecules and primary sub-structures makes this an ideal reference for students and research scientists. The broad and diverse coverage of chemical and biological fate under different exposure and biological compartments make this a useful resource for regulatory and developmental scientists.
Experience the scope of content offered in the "Handbook of Metabolic Pathways of Xenobiotics "for yourself, download these articles today: Review Article: Fundamentals of organic chemistry as applicable to the biotransformation of foreign compoundsReview Article: Metabolic stability screen in drug discovery Review Article: Unusual metabolic reactions and pathwaysCompound Article: Ganoderic acid DCompound Article: MilnacipranCompound Article: TenofovirOrder your copy today and take advantage of this special introductory price: 795.00 / 1030.00 / $1275.00"HURRY This price is only valid until the 30th April 2014." Prices will revert back to 950.00 / 1220.00 / $1495.00 thereafter.
Online Edition Coming Soon Featuring the same great content as the five volume print set, the "Handbook of Metabolic Pathways for Xenobiotics" will be available on Wiley Online Library in summer 2014. The online reference will benefit from the enhanced functionality powered by "The Smart Article" - learn more about "The Smart Article "at wileyonlinelibrary.com/thesmartarticle. Free trials will be available when the Online Edition goes live, bookmark this page or sign-up for regular product alerts at www.wiley.com/email to stay informed.
We are in the midst of a biological revolution. Molecular tools are now providing new means of critically testing hypotheses and models of microevolution in populations of wild, cultivated, weedy and feral plants. They are also offering the opportunity for significant progress in the investigation of long-term evolution of flowering plants, as part of molecular phylogenetic studies of the Tree of Life. This long-awaited fourth edition, fully revised by David Briggs, reflects new insights provided by molecular investigations and advances in computer science. Briggs considers the implications of these for our understanding of the evolution of flowering plants, as well as the potential for future advances. Numerous new sections on important topics such as the evolutionary impact of human activities, taxonomic challenges, gene flow and distribution, hybridisation, speciation and extinction, conservation and the molecular genetic basis of breeding systems will ensure that this remains a classic text for both undergraduate and graduate students in the field.
Origins of Biodiversity is a unique introduction to the fields of macroevolution and macroecology, which explores the evolution and distribution of biodiversity across time, space and lineages. Using an enquiry-led framework to encourage active learning and critical thinking, each chapter is based around a case-study to explore concepts and research methods from contemporary macroevolution and macroecology. The book focuses on the process of science as much as the biology itself, to help students acquire the research skills and intellectual tools they need to understand and investigate the biological world around them. In particular, the emphasis on hypothesis testing encourages students to develop and test their own ideas. This text builds upon the foundations offered in most general introductory evolutionary biology courses to introduce an exciting range of ideas and research tools for investigating patterns of biodiversity.
As scientific inquiry and public interest in the adolescent brain grows, so too does the need for an accessible textbook that communicates the growing research on this topic. The Neuroscience of Adolescence is a comprehensive educational tool for developmental cognitive neuroscience students at all levels as it details the varying elements that shape the adolescent brain. Historical notions of adolescence have focused on the significant hormonal changes that occur as one transitions from childhood to adolescence, but new research has revealed a more nuanced picture that helps inform our understanding of how the brain functions across the lifespan. By emphasizing the biological and neurobiological changes that occur during adolescence, this book gives students a holistic understanding of this developmental window and uniquely discusses the policy implications of neuroscience research on the lives of young people today.
Our relentless drive to create makes us unique among living creatures. What is special about the human brain that enables us to innovate? Why don't cows choreograph dances? Why don't squirrels build elevators to their treetops? Why don't alligators invent speedboats? Weaving together the arts and sciences, neuroscientist David Eagleman and composer Anthony Brandt explore the need for novelty, the simulation of possible futures, and the social components that drive the inventiveness of our species. Taking us on a tour of human creativity from Picasso to concept cars to umbrellas to lunar travel, Brandt and Eagleman explore the cognitive software that generates new ideas, and illuminate the key facets of a creative mentality. Through understanding our ability to innovate - our most profound, mysterious, and deeply human capacity - we can meet the challenge of remaking our constantly shifting world.
An essential book for all those who conduct animal-based research or are involved in education and training, as well as regulators, supporters, and opponents alike. This fully updated third edition includes discussion of genetically altered animals and associated welfare and ethical issues that surround the breeding programmes in animal based research. The book discusses the origins of vivisection, the advances in human and non-human welfare made possible by animal experimentation, moral objections, and alternatives to the use of animals in research. It also examines the regulatory umbrella under which experiments are conducted in Europe, USA and Australasia. The author highlights the future responsibilities of researchers who will be working with animals, and offers practical advice on experimental design, literature search, consultation with colleagues, and the importance of the ongoing search for alternatives.
A renowned philosopher of the mind, also known for his groundbreaking work on Buddhism and cognitive science, Evan Thompson combines the latest neuroscience research on sleep, dreaming, and meditation with Indian and Western philosophy of mind, casting new light on the self and its relation to the brain. Thompson shows how the self is a changing process, not a static thing. When we are awake we identify with our body, but if we let our mind wander or daydream, we project a mentally imagined self into the remembered past or anticipated future. As we fall asleep, the impression of being a bounded self distinct from the world dissolves, but the self reappears in the dream state. If we have a lucid dream, we no longer identify only with the self within the dream. Our sense of self now includes our dreaming self, the "I" as dreamer. Finally, as we meditate-either in the waking state or in a lucid dream-we can observe whatever images or thoughts arise and how we tend to identify with them as "me." We can also experience sheer awareness itself, distinct from the changing contents that make up our image of the self. Contemplative traditions say that we can learn to let go of the self, so that when we die we can witness its dissolution with equanimity. Thompson weaves together neuroscience, philosophy, and personal narrative to depict these transformations, adding uncommon depth to life's profound questions. Contemplative experience comes to illuminate scientific findings, and scientific evidence enriches the vast knowledge acquired by contemplatives.
This novel text provides a concise synthesis of how the interactions between mitochondrial and nuclear genes have played a major role in shaping the ecology and evolution of eukaryotes. The foundation for this new focus on mitonuclear interactions originated from research in biochemistry and cell biology laboratories, although the broader ecological and evolutionary implications have yet to be fully explored. The imperative for mitonuclear coadaptation is proposed to be a major selective force in the evolution of sexual reproduction and two mating types in eukaryotes, in the formation of species, in the evolution of ornaments and sexual selection, in the process of adaptation, and in the evolution of senescence. The book highlights the importance of mitonuclear coadaptation to the evolution of complex life and champions mitonuclear ecology as an important subdiscipline in ecology and evolution.
Demystifying consciousness: how subjective experience can be explained by natural brain and evolutionary processes. Consciousness is often considered a mystery. How can the seemingly immaterial experience of consciousness be explained by the material neurons of the brain? There seems to be an unbridgeable gap between understanding the brain as an objectively observed biological organ and accounting for the subjective experiences that come from the brain (and life processes). In this book, Todd Feinberg and Jon Mallatt attempt to demystify consciousness-to naturalize it, by explaining that the subjective, experiencing aspects of consciousness are created by natural brain processes that evolved in natural ways. Although subjective experience is unique in nature, they argue, it is not necessarily mysterious. We need not invoke the unknown or unknowable to explain its creation. Feinberg and Mallatt flesh out their theory of neurobiological naturalism (after John Searle's biological naturalism) that recognizes the many features that brains share with other living things, lists the neural features unique to conscious brains, and explains the subjective-objective barrier naturally. They investigate common neural features among the diverse groups of animals that have primary consciousness-the type of consciousness that experiences both sensations received from the world and affects such as emotions. They map the evolutionary development of consciousness and find an uninterrupted progression over time, without inserting any mysterious forces or exotic physics. Finally, bridging the previously unbridgeable, they show how subjective experience, although different from objective observation, can be naturally explained.
This book primarily focuses on the study of various neurological disorders, including Parkinson's (PD), Huntington (HD), Epilepsy, Alzheimer's and Motor Neuron Diseases (MND) from a new perspective by analyzing the physiological signals associated with them using non-linear dynamics. The development of nonlinear methods has significantly helped to study complex nonlinear systems in detail by providing accurate and reliable information. The book provides a brief introduction to the central nervous system and its various disorders, their effects on health and quality of life, and their respective courses of treatment, followed by different bioelectrical signals like those detected by Electroencephalography (EEG), Electrocardiography (ECG), and Electromyography (EMG). In turn, the book discusses a range of nonlinear techniques, fractals, multifractals, and Higuchi's Fractal Dimension (HFD), with mathematical examples and procedures. A review of studies conducted to date on neurological disorders like epilepsy, dementia, Parkinson's, Huntington, Alzheimer's, and Motor Neuron Diseases, which incorporate linear and nonlinear techniques, is also provided. The book subsequently presents new findings on neurological disorders of the central nervous system, namely Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease, by analyzing their gait characteristics using a nonlinear fractal based technique: Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MFDFA). In closing, the book elaborates on several parameters that can be obtained from cross-correlation studies of ECG and blood pressure, and can be used as markers for neurological disorders.
How our ability to learn from each other has been the essential ingredient to our remarkable success as a species Human beings are a very different kind of animal. We have evolved to become the most dominant species on Earth. We have a larger geographical range and process more energy than any other creature alive. This astonishing transformation is usually explained in terms of cognitive ability--people are just smarter than all the rest. But in this compelling book, Robert Boyd argues that culture--our ability to learn from each other--has been the essential ingredient of our remarkable success. A Different Kind of Animal demonstrates that while people are smart, we are not nearly smart enough to have solved the vast array of problems that confronted our species as it spread across the globe. Over the past two million years, culture has evolved to enable human populations to accumulate superb local adaptations that no individual could ever have invented on their own. It has also made possible the evolution of social norms that allow humans to make common cause with large groups of unrelated individuals, a kind of society not seen anywhere else in nature. This unique combination of cultural adaptation and large-scale cooperation has transformed our species and assured our survival--making us the different kind of animal we are today. Based on the Tanner Lectures delivered at Princeton University, A Different Kind of Animal features challenging responses by biologist Allen Orr, philosopher Kim Sterelny, economist Paul Seabright, and evolutionary anthropologist Ruth Mace, as well as an introduction by Stephen Macedo.
"How Do You Feel?" brings together startling evidence from neuroscience, psychology, and psychiatry to present revolutionary new insights into how our brains enable us to experience the range of sensations and mental states known as feelings. Drawing on his own cutting-edge research, neurobiologist Bud Craig has identified an area deep inside the mammalian brain--the insular cortex--as the place where interoception, or the processing of bodily stimuli, generates feelings. He shows how this crucial pathway for interoceptive awareness gives rise in humans to the feeling of being alive, vivid perceptual feelings, and a subjective image of the sentient self across time. Craig explains how feelings represent activity patterns in our brains that signify emotions, intentions, and thoughts, and how integration of these patterns is driven by the unique energy needs of the hominid brain. He describes the essential role of feelings and the insular cortex in such diverse realms as music, fluid intelligence, and bivalent emotions, and relates these ideas to the philosophy of William James and even to feelings in dogs.
"How Do You Feel?" is also a compelling insider's account of scientific discovery, one that takes readers behind the scenes as the astonishing answer to this neurological puzzle is pursued and pieced together from seemingly unrelated fields of scientific inquiry. This book will fundamentally alter the way that neuroscientists and psychologists categorize sensations and understand the origins and significance of human feelings.
While we joke that men are from Mars and women are from Venus, our gender differences can't compare to those of other animals. For instance: the male garden spider spontaneously dies after mating with a female more than fifty times his size. Female cichlids must guard their eggs and larvae--even from the hungry appetites of their own partners. And male blanket octopuses employ a copulatory arm longer than their own bodies to mate with females that outweigh them by four orders of magnitude. Why do these gender gulfs exist? Introducing readers to important discoveries in animal behavior and evolution, "Odd Couples" explores some of the most extraordinary sexual differences in the animal world. From the fields of Spain to the deep oceans, evolutionary biologist Daphne Fairbairn uncovers the unique and bizarre characteristics--in size, behavior, ecology, and life history--that exist in these remarkable species and the special strategies they use to maximize reproductive success. Fairbairn describes how male great bustards aggressively compete to display their gorgeous plumage and large physiques to watching, choosey females. She investigates why female elephant seals voluntarily live in harems where they are harassed constantly by eager males. And she reveals why dwarf male giant seadevils parasitically fuse to their giant female partners for life. Fairbairn also considers humans and explains that although we are keenly aware of our own sexual differences, they are unexceptional within the vast animal world.
Looking at some of the most amazing creatures on the planet, "Odd Couples" sheds astonishing light on what it means to be male or female in the animal kingdom.
The scientific study of networks - computer, social, and biological - has received an enormous amount of interest in recent years. However, the network approach has been applied to the field of animal behaviour relatively late compared to many other biological disciplines. Understanding social network structure is of great importance for biologists since the structural characteristics of any network will affect its constituent members and influence a range of diverse behaviours. These include finding and choosing a sexual partner, developing and maintaining cooperative relationships, and engaging in foraging and anti-predator behavior. This novel text provides an overview of the insights that network analysis has provided into major biological processes, and how it has enhanced our understanding of the social organisation of several important taxonomic groups. It brings together researchers from a wide range of disciplines with the aim of providing both an overview of the power of the network approach for understanding patterns and process in animal populations, as well as outlining how current methodological constraints and challenges can be overcome. Animal Social Networks is principally aimed at graduate level students and researchers in the fields of ecology, zoology, animal behaviour, and evolutionary biology but will also be of interest to social scientists.
Introduction to Bioethics provides a comprehensive and yet concise coverage of the broad field of bioethics, dealing with the scientific, medical, social, religious and, where appropriate, political and international concerns. The book introduces the various modes of ethical thinking and then helps the reader to apply that thinking to issues relating to the environment, to plants and animals and to humans. Written in an accessible manner, Introduction to Bioethics focuses on key issues directly relevant to those studying courses ranging from medicine through to biology and agriculture. Ethical analysis is threaded throughout each chapter and supplementary examples are included to stimulate further thought. In addition there are numerous mini-case studies to aid understanding, together with key references and further reading.
Develop an understanding of neuroscience as it relates to your future career as a clinician, researcher, or instructor with this revised best-seller. The 5th Edition provides an easy-to-understand, meaningful overview of the basics of essential neuroscience concepts enhanced by case studies that connect neuroscience to the disorders you'll see in practice. Features eBook available. Fast, smart, and convenient, today's eBooks can transform learning. These interactive, fully searchable tools offer 24/7 access on multiple devices, the ability to highlight and share notes, and much more. NEW! The complexity of neuroscience has been simplified in every chapter, making it easier for you to master key neurological concepts. NEW! Expanded Clinical Correlates sections include more treatment examples and mental function cases, as well as applied Clinical Relevance boxes. NEW! Additional chapter-ending, problem-solving case studies deepen your understanding and help you hone your critical thinking skills. A consistent, step-by-step structure beginning in Chapter 4 supports learning through learning objectives, chapter introductions, anatomy and terminology by structure, clinical concerns with neurologic concepts including pathology, and a clinical application . Charts, graphs, diagrams, illustrations, brain mapping pictures, and MR and CT images (both normal and with pathologies) help you prepare for you-r future role as an SLP therapist or audiologist. Chapter-ending learning aids include summaries and review questions (with answers at the end of the book). An end-of-book glossary helps you master the vocabulary of neuroscience. Interactive, online study tools, including animations, video clips, labeling exercises, a digital Student Workbook, and more, help you master the content you need to succeed in your course and future career.
"Coyne's knowledge of evolutionary biology is prodigious, his
deployment of it as masterful as his touch is light." -Richard
Before you read this book, you have homework to do. Grab a notebook, go outside, and find a nearby patch of nature. What do you see, hear, feel, and smell? Are there bugs, birds, squirrels, deer, lizards, frogs, or fish, and what are they doing? What plants are in the vicinity, and in what ways are they growing? What shape are the rocks, what texture is the dirt, and what color are the bodies of water? Does the air feel hot or cold, wet or dry, windy or still? Everything you notice, write it all down. We know that the Earth's climate is changing, and that the magnitude of this change is colossal. At the same time, the world outside is still a natural world, and one we can experience on a granular level every day. Ground Truth is a guide to living in this condition of changing nature, to paying attention instead of turning away, and to gathering facts from which a fuller understanding of the natural world can emerge over time. Featuring detailed guidance for keeping records of the plants, invertebrates, amphibians, birds, and mammals in your neighborhood, this book also ponders the value of everyday observations, probes the connections between seasons and climate change, and traces the history of phenology--the study and timing of natural events--and the uses to which it can be put. An expansive yet accessible book, Ground Truth invites readers to help lay the groundwork for a better understanding of the nature of change itself.
A pioneering neuroscientist argues that we are more than our brains To many, the brain is the seat of personal identity and autonomy. But the way we talk about the brain is often rooted more in mystical conceptions of the soul than in scientific fact. This blinds us to the physical realities of mental function. We ignore bodily influences on our psychology, from chemicals in the blood to bacteria in the gut, and overlook the ways that the environment affects our behavior, via factors varying from subconscious sights and sounds to the weather. As a result, we alternately overestimate our capacity for free will or equate brains to inorganic machines like computers. But a brain is neither a soul nor an electrical network: it is a bodily organ, and it cannot be separated from its surroundings. Our selves aren't just inside our heads--they're spread throughout our bodies and beyond. Only once we come to terms with this can we grasp the true nature of our humanity.
Published by Sinauer Associates, an imprint of Oxford University Press. The new fourth edition of Ecology maintains its focus on providing an easy-to-read and well-organized text for instructors and students to explore the basics of ecology. This edition also continues with an increasing emphasis on enhancing student quantitative and problem-solving skills. A new Hone Your Problem-Solving Skills series has been added to the set of review questions at the end of each chapter. The questions expose students to hypothetical situations or existing data sets, and allow them to work through data analysis and interpretation to better understand ecological concepts. New for this edition, additional Analyzing Data exercises have been added to the Companion Website. These exercises enable students to enhance their essential skills sets, such as performing calculations, making graphs, designing experiments, and interpreting results. Recognizing the increasing evidence and effects of climate change on ecological systems, additional Climate Change Connections have been added. These vignettes help students appreciate the many consequences of global climate change on the distributions and functions of organisms as well as the ecosystems they depend on. Finally, the authors also revised and strengthened key pedagogical features of Ecology.
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