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This wide-ranging set of papers deals with crucial questions in economic theory, economic policy and economic history. The papers help explain why economic performance deteriorated dramatically in the West over the past three decades as the "Golden Age" of capitalism after World War II was replaced by global neoliberal capitalism. They show that theoretical frameworks rooted in the radical and heterodox traditions can explain this evolution and the current global economic and financial crisis, something mainstream theories cannot do. Topics include but are not limited to: * methodology: a critique of "positivism" is used to explain why mainstream reliance on fairy-tale assumptions should be replaced by realistic assumption sets as argued by Marx and Keynes * Marx, Keynes and Minsky on financial market instability versus mainstream theories of "efficient" financial markets * how Keynes's assumption that the future is unknowable revolutionized not only macro theory but the micro theory of agent choice as well * structural causes of the current global financial crisis * how innovative theories of competition, globalization, capital investment and financialization inspired by Marx, Keynes and Schumpeter can be used to explain the crisis tendencies of neoliberal capitalism * the influence of class conflict on economic policy, including in the current "austerity" regimes. The papers in this book should be of interest to most economists and can be used in both graduate and upper level undergraduate courses. Many of these papers are accessible to anyone who reads the business press.
This three-volume collection offers a comprehensive overview and discussion of the seminal contributions by many prominent scholars in the heterodox tradition of post-Keynesian economic thought. The first volume presents various methodological issues, showing the contrast with orthodox thinking on fundamental grounds. The second volume focuses on credit, money and production, which are crucial to understanding the working of our economic systems. The final volume addresses several interrelated macroeconomic issues such as employment, distribution, growth, development, asset bubbles, and financial crises. Together with an original introduction by the editors, this anthology provides a unique opportunity to appraise and appreciate the depth and variety of post-Keynesian economics at both theoretical and policy-oriented level.
This book presents the Clarendon Lectures in Finance by one of the leading exponents of financial booms and crises. Hyun Song Shin's work has shed light on the global financial crisis and he has been a central figure in the policy debates. The paradox of the global financial crisis is that it erupted in an era when risk management was at the core of the management of the most sophisticated financial institutions. This book explains why. The severity of the crisis is explained by financial development that put marketable assets at the heart of the financial system, and the increased sophistication of financial institutions that held and traded the assets. Step by step, the lectures build an analytical framework that take the reader through the economics behind the fluctuations in the price of risk and the boom-bust dynamics that follow. The book examines the role played by market-to-market accounting rules and securitisation in amplifying the crisis, and draws lessons for financial architecture, financial regulation and monetary policy. This book will be of interest to all serious students of economics and finance who want to delve beneath the outward manifestations to grasp the underlying dynamics of the boom-bust cycle in a modern financial system - a system where banking and capital market developments have become inseparable.
From the New York Times bestselling author of This Time Is Different, "a fascinating and important book" (Ben Bernanke) about phasing out most paper money to fight crime and tax evasion--and to battle financial crises by tapping the power of negative interest rates The world is drowning in cash--and it's making us poorer and less safe. In The Curse of Cash, Kenneth Rogoff, one of the world's leading economists, makes a persuasive and fascinating case for an idea that until recently would have seemed outlandish: getting rid of most paper money. Even as people in advanced economies are using less paper money, there is more cash in circulation--a record $1.4 trillion in U.S. dollars alone, or $4,200 for every American, mostly in $100 bills. And the United States is hardly exceptional. So what is all that cash being used for? The answer is simple: a large part is feeding tax evasion, corruption, terrorism, the drug trade, human trafficking, and the rest of a massive global underground economy. As Rogoff shows, paper money can also cripple monetary policy. In the aftermath of the recent financial crisis, central banks have been unable to stimulate growth and inflation by cutting interest rates significantly below zero for fear that it would drive investors to abandon treasury bills and stockpile cash. This constraint has paralyzed monetary policy in virtually every advanced economy, and is likely to be a recurring problem in the future. The Curse of Cash offers a plan for phasing out most paper money--while leaving small-denomination bills and coins in circulation indefinitely--and addresses the issues the transition will pose, ranging from fears about privacy and price stability to the need to provide subsidized debit cards for the poor. While phasing out the bulk of paper money will hardly solve the world's problems, it would be a significant step toward addressing a surprising number of very big ones. Provocative, engaging, and backed by compelling original arguments and evidence, The Curse of Cash is certain to spark widespread debate.
If you think Bitcoin is just an alternative currency for geeks, it's time to think again. Grokking Bitcoin opens up this powerful distributed ledger system, exploring the technology that enables applications both for Bitcoin-based financial transactions and using the blockchain for registering physical property ownership.
With this fully illustrated, easy-to-read guide, you'll finally understand how Bitcoin works, how you can use it, and why you can trust the blockchain.
Grokking Bitcoin explains why Bitcoin’s supporters trust it so deeply, and why you can too. This approachable book will introduce you to Bitcoin’s groundbreaking technology, which is the key to this world-changing system. This illustrated, easy-to-read guide prepares you for a new way of thinking with easy-to-follow diagrams and exercises. You’ll discover how Bitcoin mining works, how to accept Bitcoin, how to participate in the Bitcoin network, and how to set up a digital wallet.
This book provides a comprehensive but concise treatment of the subject of derivatives. It focuses on making essential concepts accessible to a wider audience. The book eschews complicated mathematics and high school level mathematics is sufficient to understand it. It describes and explains various derivative instruments, their use and pricing, and the functioning of derivative markets. It uses a large number of examples to elucidate concepts and illustrate their real-life application. A distinguishing feature of the book is that it goes beyond the narrow perspective of derivative traders and investors and takes a broader approach which enhances its appeal to a range of readers. This book will be useful for students in the fields of economics, econometrics, derivatives, and finance and financial professionals, bankers and investors.
This expansive collection contains more than one hundred of the very best and most influential scholarly articles on the sovereign debt of central governments around the world. It features discussions of the debt of many emerging nations as well as the largest sovereign debtors in the world. Collectively, these articles provide a thorough understanding of sovereign debt as seen by the best economists from around the world. The extensive and in-depth introductory chapter also discusses each of the articles individually. This collection is an essential tool to libraries, academic institutions, economic scholars and students alike.
Born out of crisis a century ago, the Federal Reserve has become the most powerful macroeconomic policymaker and financial regulator in the world. The Myth of Independence traces the Fed's transformation from a weak, secretive, and decentralized institution in 1913 to a remarkably transparent central bank a century later. Offering a unique account of Congress's role in steering this evolution, Sarah Binder and Mark Spindel explore the Fed's past, present, and future and challenge the myth of its independence. Binder and Spindel argue that recurring cycles of crisis, blame, and reform propelled lawmakers to create and revamp the powers and governance of the Fed at critical junctures, including the Panic of 1907, the Great Depression, the postwar Treasury-Fed Accord, the inflationary episode of the 1970s, and the recent financial crisis. Marshaling archival sources, interviews, and statistical analyses, the authors pinpoint political and economic dynamics that shaped interactions between the legislature and the Fed, and that have generated a far stronger central bank than anticipated at its founding. The Fed today retains its unique federal style, diluting the ability of lawmakers and the president to completely centralize control of monetary policy. In the long wake of the financial crisis, with economic prospects decidedly subpar, partisan rivals in Congress seem poised to continue battling over the Fed's statutory mandates and the powers given to achieve them. Examining the interdependent relationship between America's Congress and its central bank, The Myth of Independence presents critical insights about the future of monetary and fiscal policies that drive the nation's economy.
A history of major financial crises-and how taxpayers have been left with the bill In the 1930s, battered and humbled by the Great Depression, the U.S. financial sector struck a grand bargain with the federal government. Bankers gained a safety net in exchange for certain curbs on their freedom: transparency rules, record-keeping and antifraud measures, and fiduciary responsibilities. Despite subsequent periodic changes in these regulations, the underlying bargain played a major role in preserving the stability of the financial markets as well as the larger economy. By the free-market era of the 1980s and 90s, however, Wall Street argued that rules embodied in New Deal-era regulations to protect consumers and ultimately taxpayers were no longer needed-and government agreed. This engaging history documents the country's financial crises, focusing on those of the 1920s, the 1980s, and the 2000s, and reveals how the two more recent crises arose from the neglect of this fundamental bargain, and how taxpayers have been left with the bill.
The economies of the eurozone countries are plagued by multiple crises, which cast major doubts over the future of the euro. In this engaging new book, leading economist Malcolm Sawyer argues that the entire policy framework of the eurozone was fundamentally flawed from its foundation. He shows how these `design faults' intensified the crisis and are now locking in perpetual self-defeating austerity. Sawyer proposes a bold alternative agenda for reviving the continent's economic prosperity and saving the euro. He argues, however, that the required solutions are certain to encounter huge obstacles. He therefore concludes that Europe faces a bleak economic future, blighted by low growth, high unemployment and social division. This major contribution to one of the key economic debates of our time will be essential reading for everyone interested in Europe's future.
This book provides an assessment of the megatrends that are reshaping the emerging markets landscape. With developing countries already accounting for 40% of world GDP, emerging markets consumption growth will be an increasingly important growth engine for the world economy over the next two decades. However, emerging markets in many parts of Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America are still facing tremendous economic challenges such as poverty, inequality, weak governance and inadequate infrastructure. The developed nations are no longer insulated from the economic shockwaves impacting developing countries, as globalisation and economic integration have also amplified the transmission effects to the West through immigration flows, cross-border crime and the proliferation of international terrorism. Emerging Markets Megatrends is an essential read for government policymakers, corporate executives, international investors and analysts wishing to understand more about the economic drivers and long-term outlook for emerging markets.
In the global financial crisis, competitiveness gaps between euro area countries caused additional strain. This book discusses the various dimensions of competitiveness, with a special focus on emerging Central, Eastern and Southeastern European countries. For Europe to proceed with convergence and to resist global competitive pressures, it argues that policies to boost productivity and innovation are vital. With products becoming ever more technically sophisticated and global interconnectedness on a relentless rise, it also demonstrates that quality, customer orientation and participation in global production networks and global value chains are at least as important as relative costs and prices. This book delves into the literature and dissects the complexity of competitiveness, aiming to offer tangible policy advice focused on how well the European economy is performing and how it could improve. The key findings of the book, from a mix of academics and policymakers, constitute a state-of-the-art assessment of competitiveness that may challenge traditional perceptions of how economies can return to a path of sustainable growth. Comprehensive and forward-looking, this enlightening book will appeal to academics, researchers and policymakers with a particular interest in European economies and economic integration.
The Demise of Finance-dominated Capitalism goes well beyond the dominant interpretation that the recent financial and economic crises are rooted in malfunctioning and poorly regulated financial markets. The book provides an overview of different theoretical, historical and empirical perspectives on the long-run transition towards finance-dominated capitalism, on the implications for macroeconomic and financial stability, and ultimately on the recent global financial and economic crises. In the first part of the book the macroeconomics of finance-dominated capitalism, the theories of financial crisis and important past crises are reviewed. The second part deals with the 2007-09 financial and economic crises in particular, and discusses five explanations of the crises in more detail. The special focus of the book is the long-run problems and inconsistencies of finance-dominated capitalism that played a key role in the crisis and its severity. The comprehensive literature reviews on the issues of financialization and economic crises will be a valuable aid to students. Policy makers will find the broader views on the causes of the recent financial and economic crises and the contradictions of finance-dominated capitalism of great interest. Alternative views on the long-run developments towards financialization, as well as on the relationships of these developments with the recent financial crises, will appeal to researchers in this field.
Recent events, such as capital flow reversals and banking sector crises, have shaken faith in the widely held belief in the benefits of greater financial integration and financial deepening, which are typical in advanced economies. This book shows that emerging economies have occasionally weathered the storm best, despite the supposed burden of `weak institutions'. Written by leading scholars and practitioners, the authors demonstrate that a better policy framework requires reliable indicators of vulnerability to financial instability. Using empirical evidence and case studies, the twelve chapters stress the necessity of improved policy tools and automatic stabilizers that anticipate and limit the vulnerabilities to financial crises. Cross-border capital flows, international reserves and foreign exchange markets are covered in depth. This timely book offers an insightful overview and policy solutions to the issues surrounding macroprudential regulation of economies in a globalized world. It is required reading for students and scholars of international finance and regulation.
When the Federal Reserve, European Central Bank and Bank of England purchased bank and state debt during the 2007-2008 crisis, it became apparent that, when technically divorced from fiscal policy, monetary policy cannot revive but only prevent economic activity deteriorating further. Pixley explains how conflicting social forces shape the diverse, complex relations of central banks to the money production of democracies and the immense money creation by capitalist banking. Central banks are never politically neutral and, despite unfair demands, are unable to prevent collapses to debt deflation or credit/asset inflation. They can produce debilitating depressions but not the recoveries desired in democracies and unwanted by capitalist banks or war finance logics. Drawing on economic sociology and economic histories, this book will appeal to informed readers interested in studying democracies, banks and central banking's ambivalent positions, via comparative and distributive perspectives.
This book elaborates upon the dynamic changes to Korean firms and the economy from the perspective of catch-up theory. The central premise of the book is that a latecomer's sustained catch-up is not possible by simply following the path of the forerunners but by creating a new path or `leapfrogging'. In this sense, the idea of catch-up distinguishes itself from traditional views that focus on the role of the market or the state in development. The author provides a comprehensive account of the micro and macro level changes, deals with both firm- and country-level capabilities, and explores the issue of macroeconomic stability to overcome financial crisis. The book demonstrates that at the firm level the focus is on innovation capabilities, diversification, internationalization and job creation. It goes on to examine the rise and upgrading of big businesses, such as Samsung, as well as the global success of SMEs. Comprehensive and illuminating, this is an ideal book for students, academics and researchers interested in the economics of development and technological innovation. It will also be a valuable source book for policy makers in international development agencies, governments and the public sector.
The new edition of a comprehensive treatment of monetary economics, including the first extensive coverage of the effective lower bound on nominal interest rates. This textbook presents a comprehensive treatment of the most important topics in monetary economics, focusing on the primary models monetary economists have employed to address topics in theory and policy. Striking a balance of insight, accessibility, and rigor, the book covers the basic theoretical approaches, shows how to do simulation work with the models, and discusses the full range of frictions that economists have studied to understand the impacts of monetary policy. For the fourth edition, every chapter has been revised to improve the exposition and to reflect recent research. The new edition offers an entirely new chapter on the effective lower bound on nominal interest rates, forward guidance policies, and quantitative and credit easing policies. Material on the basic new Keynesian model has been reorganized into a single chapter to provide a comprehensive analysis of the model and its policy implications. In addition, the chapter on the open economy now reflects the dominance of the new Keynesian approach. Other new material includes discussions of price adjustment, labor market frictions and unemployment, and moral hazard frictions among financial intermediaries. References and end-of-chapter problems allow readers to extend their knowledge of the topics covered. Monetary Theory and Policy continues to be the most comprehensive and up-to-date treatment of monetary economics, not only the leading text in the field but also the standard reference for academics and central bank researchers.
Modern economies never come to rest. From institutions to activities of production, trade, and consumption, everything is locked in processes of perpetual transformation - and so are our daily lives. Why and how do such transformations occur? What can economic theory tell us about these changes and where they might lead? Ulrich Witt's book discusses why evolutionary concepts are necessary to answer such questions. While economic evolution is in many respects unique, it nonetheless needs to be seen within the broader context of natural evolution. By exploring this complex relationship, Rethinking Economic Evolution demonstrates the significance of an evolutionary economic theory.
This important new book introduces students to the fundamental ideas of heterodox economics, presented in a clear and accessible way by top heterodox scholars. It offers not only a critique of the dominant approach to economics, but also a positive and constructive alternative. Students interested in an explanation of the real world will find the heterodox approach not only satisfying, but ultimately better able to explain a money-using economy prone to periods of instability and crises. Key features of this textbook include: * A non-conventional understanding of economic analysis on a number of relevant topics * Deep and convincing criticism of orthodox thinking * Discussion of the crucial importance of money, banking and finance today * Analysis of the roots of the 2008 global financial crisis * A presentation of the features of sustainable development. Students of economics at all levels can use this textbook to deepen their understanding of the heterodox approach, the fundamental roots of the 2008 global financial crisis and the need to rethink economics afresh.
The 2008 financial collapse, the expansion of corporate and private wealth, the influence of money in politics-many of Wall Street's contemporary trends can be traced back to the work of fourteen critical figures who wrote, and occasionally broke, the rules of American finance. Edward Morris plots in absorbing detail Wall Street's transformation from a clubby enclave of financiers to a symbol of vast economic power. His book begins with J. Pierpont Morgan, who ruled the American banking system at the turn of the twentieth century, and ends with Sandy Weill, whose collapsing Citigroup required the largest taxpayer bailout in history. In between, Wall Streeters relates the triumphs and missteps of twelve other financial visionaries. From Charles Merrill, who founded Merrill Lynch and introduced the small investor to the American stock market; to Michael Milken, the so-called junk bond king; to Jack Bogle, whose index funds redefined the mutual fund business; to Myron Scholes, who laid the groundwork for derivative securities; and to Benjamin Graham, who wrote the book on securities analysis. Anyone interested in the modern institution of American finance will devour this history of some of its most important players.
Financialisation and the Financial and Economic Crises provides comparative, empirical case studies of a diverse set of eleven countries. In particular, the book helps in understanding the current (mal)performance of Euro area economies by explaining the causes of the shifts in growth regimes during and after the crises. It goes well beyond the dominant interpretation of the recent financial and economic crises as being rooted in malfunctioning and poorly regulated financial markets. The contributions to this book provide detailed accounts of the long-term effects of financialisation and cover the main developments leading up to and during the crisis in 11 selected countries: the US, the UK, Spain, Greece, Portugal, Germany, Sweden, Italy, France, Estonia, and Turkey. The introductory chapter presents the theoretical framework and synthesizes the main findings of the country studies. Furthermore, the macroeconomic effects of financialisation on the EU as a whole are analysed in the final chapter. Offering an illuminating overview and invaluable alternative perspective on the long-run developments leading to the recent crises, this book is essential reading for researchers, students and policymakers and an ideal starting point for further research.
This collection of classic articles and book chapters departs from Solow's 1957 seminal paper on the measurement of technical change. It studies the idea behind the comprehensive development of total factor productivity and the index number innovations. The volume also analyses the measurement of productivity growth and the usefulness of GDP measurement as well as perennial problems in measurement of output of certain sectors and of certain processes in an economy. With an original introduction by the editor, this is a valuable source of reference for students, researchers and practitioners.
Bringing together the most important articles from leading authors in the field, Professor Geoffrey P. Miller's new collection, Economics of Securities Law, is an essential resource for students, policy-makers, and those interested in the history and current status of the subject. The papers included represent fundamental contributions that shaped later thinking, illustrate approaches that have proven durably influential, or represent important challenges to conventional views. The collection also explores new approaches, such as behavioral economics, alongside `Chicago School' papers, comparative analyses, and influential works by people involved in the creation of laws governing modern securities markets.
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