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Taking stock of emerging planet data and analysing policies during the global crisis, Earth Economics provides a comprehensive and accessible introduction to basic macroeconomic concepts, methods and principles, and their application to real world data. Written principally for students seeking an introduction to macroeconomics, this book offers a completely new angle to policy, with a focus on the truly global level. Underpinned by empirical orientation of state-of-the-art data, it introduces earth economics as the study of the economy of our planet from the perspective of an autarkic system (a `closed economy'), focussing on policymaking that improves global rather than national welfare. Key features include: * A discourse on issues fundamental to the understanding of macroeconomics. * An introduction to economists' tools and concepts. Non-economists will learn how to survive in a discussion with economists: where to ask questions, where to listen, where to skip and where to ignore. * Presentation of extensive and wide-ranging data in a consistent and comprehensive framework. * In-depth treatment of key concepts including: aggregates, autarky, closed economies, current accounts, earth economics, data, macroeconomics, microeconomics, development and global public goods. * Provision of a thorough, working understanding of the subject matter via exercises set throughout the book, including: questions on the text, calculations, formulating arguments and preparation, analysis and interpretation of data and figures. See the companion website - www.eartheconomics.info for updates and additional information.
Government interventions in market failures can encounter objections from those who doubt their efficacy. Acocella, a leading expert on economic policy, counters these unfounded criticisms, making the convincing case for the foundation, coordination and reach of government action through economic policy. Arguing for the governmental potential to devise democratic, fair and effective institutions and policies, this book also demonstrates the validity of the principles outlined by Frisch and Tinbergen, amongst others, for controlling the economy, in a strategic context, equivalent to the rational expectations assumption. Demonstrating how unconventional monetary policies (such as macro-prudential regulation, new fiscal rules, and new forms of international policy coordination) can offer an effective response to the multiplicity of current economic issues, the recent financial crisis arguably indicates that economic policy must once again take centre stage as the applied complement to mainstream economic theory.
Defining `social entrepreneurship' has in the past proved problematic, and debate continues concerning what it does and does not entail and encompass. This unique book frames the debates surrounding the phenomenon and argues that many of the difficulties relating to the study of social entrepreneurship are rooted in methodological issues. Highlighting these issues, the book sets out ideas and implications for researchers using alternative methodologies. Contributors expertly present practical guides for researchers, setting out appropriate strategies and methods that can be adopted to explore and understand social entrepreneurship. Chapters deal with research strategies such as storytelling, action research and the case study, as well as the methods appropriate for understanding discourse, large data sets, and networks. The book also explores some challenges for researchers, and will be of particular interest to early career researchers or researchers first approaching the field.
The first edition of this unique Handbook was praised for its substantial and invaluable summary discussions of work by anthropologists on economic processes and issues, on the relationship between economic and non-economic areas of life and on the conceptual orientations that are important among economic anthropologists. This thoroughly revised edition brings those discussions up to date, and includes an important new section exploring ways that leading anthropologists have approached the current economic crisis. Its scope and accessibility make it useful both to those who are interested in a particular topic and to those who want to see the breadth and fruitfulness of an anthropological study of economy. This comprehensive Handbook will strongly appeal to undergraduate and post-graduate students in anthropology, economists interested in social and cultural dimensions of economic life, and alternative approaches to economic life, political economists, political scientists and historians.
This book celebrates the immense contributions of Mark Blaug to every aspect of economics, a discipline in which his influence and relevance still resonate today, particularly in the field of the economics of education. This collection of eminent contributions discuss the ideas and works of Mark Blaug, who has made important and often pioneering contributions to economic history, economic methodology, the economics of education, development economics, cultural economics, economic theory and the history of economic thought. Besides these assessments of Blaug's influence and impact in these fields, this volume also contains a small number of personal portraits which depict him as a colleague, a friend and an opponent. Blaug was also a voracious reader and prolific writer, which is clearly evidenced by the comprehensive bibliography. A thought-provoking and stimulating collection of essays and dedications to Mark Blaug, this book will appeal to anyone interested in the history, culture and philosophy of economics.
Has the economic and financial crisis changed the way we conduct monetary policy? Is quantitative easing consistent with the endogeneity of money? These are but two of the questions this new book explores. The various contributors offer interesting and new perspectives on the conduct of monetary policy during the crisis, and provide sharp criticism of central bank policies in the US and Europe. Divided into two parts, this book presents a detailed, multi-faceted analysis of banking and monetary policy. The first part examines the role of central banks within an endogenous money framework. These chapters address post-Keynesian interest rate policy, monetary mercantilism, financial market organization and developing economies. In the second part of the book, the focus switches to the analysis of the financial crisis that began in 2007. The chapters in this section discuss the role of central banks in times of crisis. Monetary Policy and Central Banking is a must read for all those interested in the critical analysis of monetary policy. Students and scholars of post-Keynesian economics, banking, and financial crises will find this book of particular relevance.
This comprehensive two-volume collection includes seminal and classic articles that are key in the development of economic analysis of the distribution of wealth. Volume I discusses measurement of the distribution of wealth and analyses the time trends in wealth concentration and the importance of the role of inheritance. Theoretical approaches, including both stochastic and behavioural models are also explored. Volume II continues with articles on the determinants of saving and bequests whilst analysing life cycle and permanent income studies, as well as the role of entrepreneurship and taxation. It also includes key contributions to the controversy over the relative importance of inherited vs. self-made wealth. Along with a new and original introduction by the editor, these volumes are an indispensable tool for scholars and practitioners alike.
A History of Money looks at how money as we know it developed through time. Starting with the barter system, the basic function of exchanging goods evolved into a monetary system based on coins made up of precious metals and, from the 1500s onwards, financial systems were established through which money became intertwined with commerce and trade, to settle by the mid-1800s into a stable system based upon Gold. This book presents its closing argument that, since the collapse of the Gold Standard, the global monetary system has undergone constant crisis and evolution continuing into the present day.
The microeconomic foundation of the theory of money has long represented a puzzle to economic theory. Why is there Money? derives the foundations of monetary theory from advanced price theory in a mathematically precise family of trading post models. It has long been recognized that the fundamental theoretical analysis of a market economy is embodied in the Arrow-Debreu-Walras mathematical general equilibrium model, with one great deficiency: the analysis cannot accommodate money and financial institutions. In this groundbreaking book, Ross M. Starr addresses this problem directly, by expanding the Arrow-Debreu model to include a multiplicity of trading opportunities, with the resultant endogenous derivation of money as the carrier of value among them. This fundamental breakthrough is achieved while maintaining the Walrasian general equilibrium price-theoretic structure, augmented primarily by the introduction of separate bid and ask prices reflecting transaction costs. The result is foundations of monetary theory consistent with and derived from modern price theory. This fascinating book will provide a stimulating and thought-provoking read for academics and postgraduate students focusing on economics, macroeconomics, macroeconomic policy and finance, money and banking. Central bankers will also find much to interest them within this book.
In this timely and thought-provoking book, Eckhard Hein illustrates that the Great Recession, which hit the world economy in 2008/09, is rooted in the contradictions of finance-dominated capitalism. The author provides an in-depth exploration of the macroeconomics of finance-dominated capitalism, its problems and its crisis, and presents economic policy lessons and alternatives. In particular, he shows that since the early 1980s, finance-dominated capitalism has affected long-run economic developments via three distinct channels: * the re-distribution of income at the expense of low labour incomes, * the dampening of investment in real capital stock, * and an increasing potential for wealth-based and debt-financed consumption. The author concludes that against the background of these basic macroeconomic tendencies, increasing instability potentials at the national economy levels and rising current account imbalances at both global and European levels have developed and have contributed to the severity of the Great Recession. This systematic study of finance-dominated capitalism presented from a macroeconomic perspective will prove a thought-provoking read for academics, researchers, graduate students and economic policy consultants with an interest in macroeconomics, financial economics, economic policies, and distribution and growth.
This comprehensive Handbook presents the current state of art in the theory and methodology of macroeconomic data analysis. It is intended as a reference for graduate students and researchers interested in exploring new methodologies, but can also be employed as a graduate text. The Handbook concentrates on the most important issues, models and techniques for research in macroeconomics, and highlights the core methodologies and their empirical application in an accessible manner. Each chapter is largely self-contained, whilst the comprehensive introduction provides an overview of the key statistical concepts and methods. All of the chapters include the essential references for each topic and provide a sound guide for further reading. Topics covered include unit roots, non-linearities and structural breaks, time aggregation, forecasting, the Kalman filter, generalised method of moments, maximum likelihood and Bayesian estimation, vector autoregressive, dynamic stochastic general equilibrium and dynamic panel models. Presenting the most important models and techniques for empirical research, this Handbook will appeal to students, researchers and academics working in empirical macroeconomics and econometrics.
This thoroughly revised and updated second edition of a highly acclaimed and authoritative reference work introduces the major concepts in the field of Keynesian economics. The comprehensive Encyclopedia features accessible, informative and provocative contributions by leading international scholars working in the tradition of Keynes. It brings together widely dispersed yet theoretically congruent ideas, presents concise biographies of economists who have contributed to the debate on Keynes and the Keynesian Revolution, and outlines the basic principles, models and tools used to discuss the economic consequences of The General Theory. Longer entries on specific topics associated with Keynes and the Keynesian Revolution analyse the principal factors that contributed to The General Theory, the economics of Keynes and the rise and apparent decline of Keynesian economics in greater detail. The second edition will ensure that An Encyclopedia of Keynesian Economics will remain the best single reference source on Keynesian economics and will continue to be welcomed by academics, students and teachers of economics as well as by scholars in related social sciences and government policymakers.
In the wake of the financial crisis of 2008, there has been increasing debate over the appropriate role of central banks in mitigating economic disaster. This timely volume combines detailed historical and econometric analyses to explore the profound changes that occurred within the US financial system from the 1980s to the present, and shows how these changes have affected the US economy. Hasan Coemert demonstrates how dramatic shifts in the financial system undermined the ability of the US Federal Reserve to control the price and quantity of credit. He identifies several key factors that facilitated this loss of control, including deregulation, rapid financial innovations, increased financial integration and a number of policy decisions implemented within the Federal Reserve itself. Through a combination of several methods, including historical and institutional analyses, descriptive statistics, simulation and econometric techniques, the author provides a well-rounded and vitally important picture of the US financial system and offers insightful policy recommendations for the future. Students, professors and policymakers with an interest in economics, finance, banking and monetary policy will no doubt find this book a fascinating and invaluable resource.
The Selected Letters of John Kenneth Galbraith invites readers to join in conversations with presidents and first ladies, diplomats and schoolchildren, the McCarthy 'loyalty board', foreign heads of state and fellow economists, and a host of other correspondents. In his long and cosmopolitan life, Galbraith wrote thousands of letters, and Richard P. F. Holt has selected the most important of these from his archival research, now available in print for the first time. The letters provide an intimate account of the three main political goals to which Galbraith devoted his professional life: ending war, fighting poverty, and improving quality of life by achieving a balance between private and public goods in an affluent capitalist society. Showing his thoughtful insights and charming wit, this collection confirms Galbraith as a man of broad learning, superb literary skills, and deeply held progressive ideals.
In the aftermath of the financial crisis, new financial market regulation is being implemented, and increasing numbers of countries are establishing new legislation for macroprudential oversight. Against this backdrop, this thought provoking book provides a platform for the leading international experts to discuss and encourage future debate on financial stability. The breadth and scope of the issues addressed reflect the challenge of developing and consistently implementing a coherent set of financial reforms to promote financial stability. The book advocates the development of financial reforms that are effective in striking the optimal balance between realizing the enormous benefits of efficient financial intermediation, capital allocation and risk management on the one hand, and controlling systemic risks and maintaining financial stability on the other. Making an important contribution to deepening our understanding of the many facets of financial stability, this book will prove a challenging read for policy makers, regulators and central bankers as well as for researchers and scholars in the fields of economics, money, finance and banking.
This concise yet insightful sequel to the highly acclaimed The Nature of Economic Growth provides a comprehensive critique of both old and new growth theory, highlighting the importance of economic growth for reducing poverty. A.P. Thirlwall illustrates that orthodox growth theory continues to work with 'one-good' models and to treat factor supplies as exogenously given, independent of demand. Orthodox trade theory still ignores the balance of payments consequences of different patterns of trade specialisation when assessing the welfare effects of trade. The author goes on to present theory underpinned by up-to-date empirical evidence that factors of production and productivity growth are endogenous to demand, and that the structure of production and trade matter for the long-run growth performance of countries because of their impact on the balance of payments. He concludes that trade liberalisation has proved disappointing in improving the trade-off between growth and the balance of payments. This book will provide a challenging read for students and academics in the fields of economics, heterodox economics, and development. Policymakers focussing on the relationship between growth, trade and the balance of payments will also find the book to be of great interest.
This timely book rethinks economic theory and policy by addressing the problem of economic instability and the need to secure broadly shared prosperity. It stresses that advancing economics in the wake of the Great Recession requires an evolutionary standpoint, greater attention to uncertainty and expectations, and the integration of finance into macroeconomics. The result is a broader array of policy options - and challenges - than conventional economics presents. Building on the pioneering work of Thorstein Veblen, John R. Commons and John Maynard Keynes, the authors synthesize key insights from Institutional and Post Keynesian economics into Post-Keynesian Institutionalism. Then they use that framework to explore an array of economic problems confronting the United States and the world. Inspired by the work of Hyman Minsky, the authors place financial relations at the center of their analysis of how economies operate and change over time. Students and scholars of macroeconomics and public policy will find this book of interest, as will a wider audience of financial analysts, policymakers and citizens interested in understanding economic booms and downturns.
Though scientists and environmentalists have long expressed concern over the rapid deterioration of the global environment, economists have largely failed to recognize the issue's relevance to their field. Salah El Serafy argues for an increased focus on the economic aspects of environmental degradation, calling for a fundamental shift in how economists measure and discuss national income. Through a combination of new material reflecting recent developments in the field and previously published essays that provide a history of green accounting, the author emphasizes the importance of considering natural resources as part of a nation's economic capital. Setting forth what has become known as the `El Serafy Method', this fascinating and complex volume presents both the justification and the methodology for giving the environment a place in the global economic conversation. Students, professors, researchers and policymakers in the field of environmental and ecological economics will no doubt find much to appreciate in this thoughtful and comprehensive analysis of the intersection between economics and the environment.
Global crises are very rare events. After the Great Depression and the Great Stagflation, new macroeconomic paradigms associated with a new policy regime emerged. This book addresses how some macroeconomic ideas have failed, and examines which theories researchers should preserve and develop. It questions how the field of economics - still reeling from the global financial crisis initiated in the summer of 2007 - will respond. The contributors, nine highly-renowned macroeconomists, highlight the virtues of eclectic macroeconomics over an authoritarian normative approach, and illustrate that macroeconomic reasoning can still be a useful tool for carrying out practical policy analysis. As for emerging research programmes, their wide-ranging chapters remind us that there are positive approaches to and reasons to believe in old-fashioned macroeconomics. This challenging and thought-provoking book will prove a stimulating read for researchers, academics and students of economics, as well as for professional economists.
In the midst of the current world economic crisis, many claim there is a necessity to return to the Marxian and Keynesian traditions in order to better understand the dynamics of market economies. This book is an important step in that direction. It presents a critical examination of the foundations of macroeconomics as developed in the traditions of Marx, Keynes and Kalecki, which are contrasted with the current mainstream. Particular attention is given to the problem of market forms and their relevance for macroeconomics. Professional economists and postgraduate students in economics, in particular those concerned with macroeconomics and the history of economic thought in the 20th century, will find this insightful resource invaluable. This book should be required reading for a large proportion of the economics profession who are dissatisfied with the mainstream.
The themes of this important new volume were chosen to mark the 75th anniversary of the publication of The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money. The distinguished authors concentrate on the relevance of this seminal publication for macroeconomic theory, method and the politics of today. This is particularly pertinent as similarities with the 1930s are striking in terms of unemployment, low growth, financial fragility and the European monetary union resembling the gold standard. Illustrating new ways of understanding the importance of uncertainty in macroeconomics, particularly in view of the importance of finance and balance of payments imbalances within a monetary union, this book will prove a stimulating and challenging read for academics, researchers and students of macroeconomics, heterodox economics, and the methodology and history of economic thought.
This important book discusses European integration in a global economic setting, investigating the impact of China and Russia as emerging global players in the catching-up process in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe. The expert contributors focus on global imbalances and accompanying policy challenges, competitiveness and trade, the sustainability of current growth strategies, and banking and financial stability in the light of the global economic and financial crisis. They provide a multi-disciplinary assessment, combining the views of high-ranking central bankers, policymakers, commercial bankers and academics, and demonstrate that a broad view of European economic integration is crucial given that spillovers and contagion were major issues of the recent economic crisis. This book will prove an illuminating read for academics, researchers, students and policymakers with an interest in international economics, money, finance and banking and European studies.
Housing markets are at the centre of the recent global financial turmoil. In this well-researched study, a multidisciplinary group of leading analysts explores the impact of the crisis within, and between, countries. The impacts of the so-called global crisis are, in fact, highly uneven for both households and institutions. This unique book investigates why this is the case as well as emphasizing the consequences. It encompasses the experiences of all the major economies, including: Australia, China, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Japan, New Zealand, South Korea, the UK, the USA and Vietnam, highlighting and comparing a wide range of housing systems and crisis impacts. Housing Markets and the Global Financial Crisis will strongly appeal to academics and postgraduate students in social policy, urban studies, public policy, economics, sociology and human geography. In addition, anyone with a general interest in globalization, neoliberalism and the changing nature of contemporary capitalist societies, as well as those with particular interests in housing markets and housing policy, will find this book enriching and enlightening.
Since the financial crisis began numerous ideas for monetary and financial cooperation in East Asia have been proposed both within and outside the region. Despite this strong level of interest, however, there are few studies that aim to comprehensively address the issue from multiple perspectives. This insightful book redresses the balance and illustrates how East Asian countries plan to take advantage of their rising economic power in rearranging the new international monetary and financial order in the post-crisis era. The authors examine the history, conditions and current efforts towards monetary integration in Asia and explore possible future paths, highlighting the roles and perspectives of East Asian countries in the integration process. They consider how East Asian economies could establish their own zone of monetary stability, and show that this stability cannot be separately addressed from the issues of economic growth and solidarity. Against this backdrop, the book tackles the issues of East Asian monetary integration underpinned by the broad framework of economic growth and solidarity. Scholars of economics, monetary integration, Asian studies and regionalism will find this book to be an illuminating and thought-provoking read.
In this challenging book, John King makes a sustained and comprehensive attack on the dogma that macroeconomic theory must have `rigorous microfoundations'. He draws on both the philosophy of science and the history of economic thought to demonstrate the dangers of foundational metaphors and the defects of micro-reduction as a methodological principle. Strong criticism of the microfoundations dogma is documented in great detail, from some mainstream and many heterodox economists and also from economic methodologists, social theorists and evolutionary biologists. The author argues for the relative autonomy of macroeconomics as a distinct `special science', cooperating with but most definitely not reducible to microeconomics. The Microfoundations Delusion will prove a stimulating and thought-provoking read for scholars, students and researchers in the fields of economics, heterodox economics and history of economic thought.
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