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The recent dramatic wave of terrorist attacks has further focussed worldwide attention on the money laundering phenomena. The objective of this book is to offer the first systematic analysis of the economics of money laundering and its connection with terrorism finance. The authors first present the general principles of money laundering. They go on to illustrate an institutional and empirical framework that is useful in evaluating the causes and effects of money laundering phenomena in the banking and financial markets. They also analyse the design of the national and international policies aimed at combating them. The book focuses on several crucial issues and offers an analysis of each, including: * modelling the behaviour and process of making dirty money appear clean, hiding the originally criminal or illegal source of the economic activity * demonstrating how the financing of terrorism resembles money laundering in some respects and differs from it in others * explaining how the banking and financial industry can play a pivotal role for the development of the criminal sector as a preferential vehicle for money laundering * showing how schemes of international economics and of tax competition can be applied to black finance issues, claiming that competition for criminal money can lead to a race to the bottom * building up indicators of money laundering attractiveness among developed and emerging countries, with a particular attention on the role of the Offshore centres * dealing with anti-money laundering and counter terrorism finance (AML-CTF) enforcement problems, with a focus on Europe and the USA. Black Finance will be a valuable and accessible tool for scholars and academics, principally in economics, though also in politics and law, as well as for regulators and supervisory institutions. All royalties from this book to go to The Collegiate Foundation for Life
This comprehensive two-volume collection presents key papers on the relationship between international trade and trade policy on the one hand, and poverty and inequality on the other. These relationships highlight the connections between the WTO and income distribution. The analytical and policy context of the volumes is laid out by the editor's introduction and by the first two articles of the collection. The selected papers in the first volume cover macroeconomic links, price links, general equilibrium modeling and, in the second volume, factor markets. Prominent in the second volume are readings on the effects of trade on labour markets in developed and developing countries. Some articles develop the theory of trade and income distribution, but most are empirical and quantitative, stressing the need to test theory and measure key effects before one can make useful policy statements. This book will be invaluable for graduate students, policy makers and professional applied economists.
What macroeconomic requirements must Turkey meet in its quest to accede to the European Union? This book, with its distinguished contributors - well-known economists and policymakers - examines and analyses these macroeconomic challenges confronting Turkey. Although the focus is on the specific situation of Turkey, the lessons are informative for other candidate countries and the findings directly relevant to the process of European integration. The book is divided into four parts: * fiscal policies and sustainability of public finances * monetary policy challenges * preconditions for euro adoption * sustainable regimes of capital movements. Each topic is studied in two consecutive papers, concentrating first on the challenges faced by the countries of the EU, and then by Turkey. Several papers review the experiences from the previous round of EU accession and the implications of these for Turkey. Macroeconomic Policies for EU Accession will appeal to policymakers, bureaucrats and academics interested in the macroeconomic problems of EU accession and European integration.
This Handbook aims to provide an overview of regular survey activities, as well as to show how survey results can be used scientifically in the context of business-cycle analysis and forecasting. Examples of various business surveys are described in detail, starting with their objectives, the questions they pose, how they are weighted and extrapolated and the representativeness of their results. A detailed scientific examination of the explanatory value of the data is also made in order to demonstrate their potential usefulness. The Handbook has three parts: firstly, it presents the importance of business surveys for empirical research. Secondly, selected surveys are introduced in detail such as the Ifo Business Survey and the Ifo Investment Survey, and thirdly, a broad spectrum of studies - on the consequence of the survey results - is presented. The significance of the surveys applies equally to business cycle analysis and to forecasting. An array of modern methods of time series analysis and econometric model construction is used in these investigations. This book will be of interest to an audience comprising members of institutions conducting business surveys, scientists using survey results to analyse and forecast business cycles, and students of empirical economic research.
This major Handbook consists of 29 contributions that explore the full range of exciting and interesting work on money and finance currently taking place within heterodox economics. There are many themes and facets of alternative monetary and financial economics but two major ones can be identified. The first concerns the nature of money: money is credit created through the financial system in the process of loan creation. The second theme is that money is endogenous and not exogenous. Contributions to the Handbook cover the origins and nature of money, detailed analyses of endogenous money, surveys of empirical work on endogenous money and the nature of monetary policy when money is endogenous. The second theme focuses on the financial system, and the perception that it is generally subject to volatility, instability and crisis. This Handbook will undoubtedly serve as the ultimate guide to the full spectrum of alternative monetary economics. Philip Arestis and Malcolm Sawyer have performed an invaluable task in compiling a comprehensive Handbook, written by leading specialists, that will be required reading by upper level undergraduate and postgraduate students studying money, finance and macroeconomics as well as heterodox and monetary economists more generally.
In his `New Guide' to The General Theory, Mark G. Hayes presents Keynes's illustrious work as a sophisticated Marshallian theory of the competitive equilibrium of the economy as a whole. This unique book takes full account of the nature of time and money and illustrates that The General Theory remains highly relevant to the teacher and advanced student of modern macroeconomics. The Economics of Keynes introduces several interpretative innovations to resolve many puzzles presented in the literature of the last 70 years. It is designed to be read in parallel with The General Theory and will allow modern readers to find their bearings before plunging into an in-depth analysis of major themes contained in The General Theory. The key areas in which this `New Guide' differs from the familiar exposition of current macroeconomics textbooks are also explicitly identified. The author reaches positive and hopeful conclusions for the development of economic theory and policy. Promoting a thorough understanding of the legitimate domain of equilibrium analysis and a renewed commitment to the possibility of genuinely full employment, this book will provide an illuminating and fascinating read for anyone wishing to appreciate fully the value of The General Theory. More specifically, academics and advanced students of macroeconomics across the board - classical, orthodox, Post Keynesian and heterodox - interested in a fresh attempt to connect The General Theory with modern macroeconomics will find this book to be the ideal tool.
The financial integration of Europe is both welcomed as an economic driving force and watched with concern as a source of potential stability. After all, changing financial, regulatory and corporate ownership structures are fuelling competition, capital mobility and financial intermediation, but at the same time creating new systemic risks. With a special focus on Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe, the contributors to this book explore a wide spectrum of underlying issues, including the finance-growth nexus, credit boom patterns, the implications of foreign bank entry modes, lessons learned from old EU member states and commercial bank strategies. Authoritative views from central bank officials and policymakers are complemented with a special focus on empirical and econometric evidence from academia as well as practical insights from key financial market players. This unique collection will be of great interest to economists and experts in the fields of financial markets and European integration from central, commercial and investment banks, governments, international organizations, universities and research institutes.
Mario Amendola and Jean-Luc Gaffard argue that all too often, markets and technology are treated as two magic words that will open the door to a wealth of riches. An increasing number of governments appear to be aiming for a pure market economy in order to reap the benefits of a benevolent technology that promises the most spectacular advances. Both markets and technology can certainly be considered essential economic factors, but which market and what technology? Is the current prevailing view of competition without restraints and privatisation at all costs actually the essence of the market? This book maintains that the dominant view mistakes the relationship between growth and technical change and, as a consequence, the role of the market in this context. The authors argue that once the issue is analysed in the proper light, the usual ingredients of the dominant policy recipe - zero inflation, balanced budgets, privatisations, deregulation of all markets, extreme flexibility - may not actually be the appropriate ones. The Market Way to Riches will appeal to academics from many branches of economics including heterodox, evolutionary and macroeconomics and those with an interest in economic growth generally. Policy makers influencing economic growth will also find much to engage them.
During a distinguished career, Basil Moore has made numerous important contributions to macroeconomics and monetary economics, and is renowned as the progenitor of the `horizontalist' analysis of endogenous money. More recently, he has embraced complexity theory as part of an ongoing effort to understand macroeconomics as an evolving, path-dependent process. This book celebrates and explores Basil Moore's interests in and contributions to monetary and macroeconomic theory. Complexity, Endogenous Money and Macroeconomic Theory features original essays by internationally acclaimed and expert authors. It comprises a selection of papers on five distinct but interrelated themes: economic concepts, tools and methodology; complexity, uncertainty and path dependence; the macroeconomics of endogenous money; the macroeconomics of exogenous interest rates; and unemployment, inflation and the determination of aggregate income. These papers combine to provide a comprehensive methodological and theoretical discussion of the macroeconomics of a monetary-production economy. The book will be of interest to professionals and research students in the fields of macroeconomics and monetary economics - especially those with an interest in the Post Keynesian approach to analyzing these fields, including the wide audience that has been reached by the contributions of Basil Moore himself.
First published in 1961, Kenneth K. Kurihara 's National Income and Economic Growth makes a pioneering effort to integrate national income accounting, income-employment theory and growth analysis as a unified whole. In his belief that growth economics is taught most effectively as a dynamic implication of basic national income theory, Professor Kurihara offers a much fuller treatment of economic growth than most other texts of this genre. The author addresses the complex and pivotal problem of achieving the highest possible rate of growth of real national income while maintaining full employment without inflation, yet the book is confined to the clarification of the technical aspects of the problem. Professor Kurihara endeavours to make allusion to practical application and broad determinants of determinants throughout in the varying context of a modern mixed open economy with its dynamic interaction of the private, the public and the foreign trade sectors. The book is intended for intermediate students of macro-economic theory.
Economics Confronts the Economy is a challenging and unorthodox look at contemporary economic analysis. Philip Klein presents a highly reasoned and yet personal view of the state of economics today. While his views may be contentious to some, it is an accessible book that will provoke discussion and debate to a wide readership. Professor Klein begins with the assumption that the basic function of economic theory is to provide a sound guide for public policy in assisting society in defining what it means by `economic progress'. In the words of Thorstein Veblen it involves economic activity as explicit steps to be taken at any given time to enable the economy to play its most effective role in `enhancing human life'. The book argues that modern mainstream economics is failing in this task in terms of what it teaches young economists, what it contributes to public policy debates and what it has done to the field of economics. This book will have a wide audience throughout the many and varied fields of economics including heterodox economics, micro- and macroeconomics, history of economic thought and economic policy.
This book is a critical review of current fiscal and monetary policy in Europe and presents results of both empirical research and a discussion of the theoretical framework behind the policy of the European Central Bank and the Stability and Growth Pact. Macroeconomic policy is often hotly debated within the EU. However, the majority of policy discussions have started from a shared view of how the economy works. This shared neo-classical view is also known as the `Brussels-Frankfurt consensus'. According to that consensus, European labour markets are too rigid in comparison to the US labour market. Hence, the prevalent view is that the European unemployment problem can be solved by increasing incentives; improving the returns on schooling and redefining the role and the necessity of labour market institutions. In this volume the authors argue that it is not at all clear which institutions cause labour market rigidities and to what extent. They note that the problem of unemployment requires a much broader set of solutions, including active labour market policies, policies concerning schooling and the development of skills. Growth and Cohesion in the European Union also highlights that these microeconomic policies will not in themselves provide the solution to what is essentially a macroeconomic problem. First and foremost the role of aggregate demand in the determination of unemployment has to be placed at the forefront of the debate. The extensive discussion of a broad variety of topics in the field of macroeconomic policy will ensure this book finds a welcome readership amongst researchers and academics of European studies and macroeconomics. Policy advisors will also find much to engage them as the book provides a critical view on the Brussels-Frankfurt consensus, currently so dominant amongst European policymakers.
Macroeconomic policies have come under justifiable scrutiny because of their powerful and pervasive impacts throughout the economy. This book examines the sustainability of growth-oriented macroeconomic strategies, starting from early ideas linking macroeconomic policies, growth and sustainability. A comprehensive and up-to-date literature review and theoretical framework are presented, including both macroeconomic and microeconomic analyses of the linkages between the economy and the environment. Brazil and Chile are used as case studies to illuminate and analyse the impacts and effects of differing macroeconomic policies. A variety of analytical models are used to assess these two very different countries. One important conclusion reached is that the combination of growth and economic imperfections that lead to unsustainable outcomes is characterized by not only economic, but also environmental and >social problems. A variety of policy remedies are discussed to make development more sustainable by reshaping the structure of growth. Macroeconomists, environmental and development economists as well as policy analysts and project managers in the international development community will find much to engage them within this book. Development agencies, NGOs and graduate students interested in both the theory and applications of economic growth and sustainable development issues will also find the book of great interest.
Honoring Keith Griffin's more than 40 years of fundamental contributions to the discipline of economics, the papers in this volume reflect his deep commitment to advancing the well-being of the world's poor majority and his unflinching willingness to question conventional wisdom as to how this should be done. Four overarching themes recur in Keith Griffin's work and this book: the need to both eradicate poverty and redress inequalities in the distribution of wealth within and among nations; the impact of growth on inequality, and conversely inequality's impact on growth; the political economy of policy-making; and the need for openness to heterogeneity in both analytic tools and in policy recommendations. The volume begins with an introduction by the editors followed by a paper by Keith Griffin. In succeeding chapters the contributors explore strategies for reducing poverty and inequality, and provide perspectives on issues such as human development, the rural/urban divide in China, and biodiversity and sustainability. Students, researchers, policymakers and NGO analysts exploring issues in development economics, development studies, alternative economic systems, globalization, environmental sustainability, inequality and well-being will find this book of great interest.
First published in 1987, Evolutionary Macroeconomics offers an evolutionary approach to macroeconomics as an alternative to contemporary new classical and Keynesian macroeconomics. In order to develop such an approach, an alternative view of the micro-foundations of macroeconomics is presented.
The book begins with a commentary on the state of macroeconomics and an evaluation of attempts to redevelop its underlying vision of economic behaviour. Particular attention is paid to the treatment of expectations and anticipations. The second part of the book presents a behavioural framework which is compatible with an evolutionary perspective on economic behaviour. The third part of the book discusses the implications of adopting an evolutionary approach to macroeconomic theory, empirical methods and policy design, culminating in a specific policy proposal to cure stagflation.
The Theory of Money and Finance, by the same author, provided an introduction to the basic theory and concluded by introducing the idea of monetary disequilibrium, with the money supply process operating through bank credit creation. First published in 1981, this book develops that theme and provides empirical evidence in support of such an approach.
The main purpose of Lectures on Macroeconomics is to characterize and explain fluctuations in output, unemployment and movement in prices. Lectures on Macroeconomics provides the first comprehensive description and evaluation of macroeconomic theory in many years. While the authors' perspective is broad, they clearly state their assessment of what is important and what is not as they present the essence of macroeconomic theory today.The main purpose of Lectures on Macroeconomics is to characterize and explain fluctuations in output, unemployment and movement in prices. The most important fact of modern economic history is persistent long term growth, but as the book makes clear, this growth is far from steady. The authors analyze and explore these fluctuations. Topics include consumption and investment; the Overlapping Generations Model; money; multiple equilibria, bubbles, and stability; the role of nominal rigidities; competitive equilibrium business cycles, nominal rigidities and economic fluctuations, goods, labor and credit markets; and monetary and fiscal policy issues. Each of chapters 2 through 9 discusses models appropriate to the topic. Chapter 10 then draws on the previous chapters, asks which models are the workhorses of macroeconomics, and sets the models out in convenient form. A concluding chapter analyzes the goals of economic policy, monetary policy, fiscal policy, and dynamic inconsistency. Written as a text for graduate students with some background in macroeconomics, statistics, and econometrics, Lectures on Macroeconomics also presents topics in a self contained way that makes it a suitable reference for professional economists.
There is much confusion in the economics literature on wage determination and the employment-inflation trade-off. Few model builders pay as much careful attention to the definition and meaning of long-run concepts as did Albert Ando. Expanding on years of painstaking work by Ando, the contributors elaborate on the main issues of economic analysis and policies that concerned him. Some of the issues discussed include long-run properties of dynamic econometric models, demographic issues of modern times, stabilization policies - especially for Japan - and interaction between monetary and real economy issues, as well as life-cycle behavior patterns, and the appropriate role of the Phillips Curve and the determination of prices. Paying close attention to the concepts and properties of models, Long-run Growth and Short Run Stabilization is for those interested in the macroeconomics of the US, Italy, and Japan. Scholars of aggregative dynamic models based on realistic reasoning will benefit from the information imparted, as will policymakers who want to understand the functioning of the modern economy.
In recent years the field of dynamic stochastic general equilibrium models has emerged as the central field of macroeconomics. These models give a unified treatment of growth and fluctuations in a general equilibrium framework where all agents behave rationally. A particularly successful part of this field introduces imperfect competition and nonclearing markets into this framework, which also leads to the study of problems like unemployment. This timely volume gives a full account of the field, starting with the various general equilibrium traditions that ultimately led to this research area, and then describing the evolution of the models, with special emphasis on how they succeeded in representing features of dynamics that other models failed to reproduce. This collection will be an invaluable source of reference for professors and graduate students specializing in macroeconomics. It should also be of interest to students of the history of economic thought, as it shows how apparently antagonistic subfields ended up merging to produce a better synthetic theory.
In The New Case for Gold, James Rickards explains why gold is one of the safest assets for investors in times of political instability and market volatility, and how every investor should look to add gold to his or her portfolio. Drawing on historical case studies, monetary theory and his personal experience as an investor, Rickards argues that gold should be a part of any prudent investor's portfolio.
Foreign Exchange Markets presents a selection of classic finance and economics articles on key topics in the behavior of exchange rates and the analysis of foreign exchange markets. The editor has written an authoritative introduction to the literature. The volume comprises five sections which cover a range of topics. The first section deals with fundamental analysis and the second with statistical models of exchange rate behavior. The third section discusses technical analysis and the fourth covers central bank intervention. The fifth section looks at the micro structure of foreign exchange markets. Many of the papers deal with analysis of daily or intra-day data. The papers are chosen to blend theory and empirics.
East Asian countries - currently the most dynamic region of the global economy - have recently pursued trade liberalization through the adoption of various forms of bilateral and plurilateral Free Trade Agreements (FTAs). The book explores the key issues and possible outcomes arising from this departure from the region's traditional multilateral approach to trade liberalization. Implications of this new approach for the region as a whole, and key participating individual economies and blocs of economies, are emphasized. New East Asian Regionalism includes up-to-date analysis of the most recent developments in FTAs between countries in East Asia, as well as those involving countries from outside the region. Furthermore, the book includes invaluable projections on economic and welfare outcomes of regional trade agreements, using the very latest empirical techniques, and data. The book also considers the implications arising from closer financial integration in the region. This book will be warmly welcomed by scholars of regional science, international economics and business, as well as Asian studies. Policymakers at both the national government and international organization level will also find this book of great interest.
First published in 1983, this is the second of two volumes on the causes and cure of stagflation ? that combination of mass unemployment and rapid inflation that is currently afflicting the mixed economies of the industrially developed world. The authors deplore the unemployment due to the failure of governments to adopt Keynesian measures for the expansion of economic activity, but recognise that in present conditions such measures would lead to an unacceptable and explosive inflation of money wages and prices. They therefore advocate a dual strategy of financial policies for a steady expansion of total money incomes combined with individual wage rates set at levels to promote employment.
The book is of importance for all those concerned with macroeconomic theory and policy. The description of the meaning of a New Keynesian policy and of the arguments for it have been written in a way which should be intelligible to policy-makers and students, and not only to economists with technical training. Professional macroeconomists will be interested not only in these sections but also in the fully specified macroeconomic model used to analyse New Keynesian policies in economic terms and to carry out a counterfactual re-running of history. In addition, the unusually detailed exposition of the application of control techniques to a difficult multivariable control problem also makes the book of interest to control engineers who wish to acquaint themselves with recent generalisations of classical frequency response methods.
This reissue, first published in 1982, is the first of two volumes on the causes and cure of Stagflation - the two-headed monster that combines mass unemployment with rapid inflation, which affected contemporary economies across the industrially developped world in the 1970s.
Professor Meade outlines the nature of the problem, contrasting the Great Slump of the 1930s with the Great Stagflation of the 1970s and comparing the Orthodox Keynesian and Monetarist approaches with the New Keynesian strategy. Various proposals for the reform of wage-fixing institutions are discussed, including the limitation of trade-union bargaining powers, an official incomes policy, labour management and ownership in business, and tax or subsidy measures to discourage inflationary rises in wages and prices.
The book will be essential reading for all concerned with both the theory and policy of contemporary macroeconomics, industrial relations, labour economics and labour law. It has been written so that the general argument in the main text is accessible to the general reader as well as of interest to the professional economist.
Innovation, Unemployment and Policy in the Theories of Growth and Distribution increases our understanding about the more relevant economic determinants and policy aspects of the interdependence between economic growth and income distribution. This book integrates the analytical methods and the research themes of the New Growth Theory into the cultural tradition of the Classical and post-Keynesian economists. The contributors examine technological innovations, the diffusion of knowledge, the imperfections and institutional characteristics of the labour market, the evolution of consumption patterns and of educational models and social conflicts as they relate to public spending and taxation policies. It provides a new insight into the processes of the growth of modern economies which highlights the interdependence between distribution and growth. The book shows that political and social stability, security of property rights, efficiency of the capital market, research, education, investment in physical and human capital, public spending and taxation policies are all necessary for the success and stability of a country's development process. This book will appeal to upper level students, scholars and researchers of economics and economic growth as well as those more specifically involved in labour, microeconomics and the history of economic thought.
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